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Section 3: Ideas behind the revolution

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  • 1. Ideas Behind the RevolutionIdeas Behind the Revolution Chapter 4 – Section 3Chapter 4 – Section 3
  • 2. The RevolutionThe Revolution On one level, the American Revolution was a struggleOn one level, the American Revolution was a struggle for power between the American colonists and Greatfor power between the American colonists and Great Britain. The winner of this struggle was to be decidedBritain. The winner of this struggle was to be decided on the battle field.on the battle field. On another level, the Revolution was about “ideas”.On another level, the Revolution was about “ideas”. The colonists were rethinking the relationship betweenThe colonists were rethinking the relationship between people and government. It was during the Revolution,people and government. It was during the Revolution, and the years leading up to it, that Americans began toand the years leading up to it, that Americans began to think of themselves as independent citizens ratherthink of themselves as independent citizens rather than subjects of a king.than subjects of a king.
  • 3. Fighting at Lexington and ConcordFighting at Lexington and Concord King George labeled the Americans “rebels” butKing George labeled the Americans “rebels” but the preferred “Patriots”.the preferred “Patriots”. After the Intolerable Acts, MassachusettsAfter the Intolerable Acts, Massachusetts followed the call of the 1followed the call of the 1stst ContinentalContinental Congress and formed militias and began toCongress and formed militias and began to gather guns and ammunition.gather guns and ammunition. A major stockpile of weapons was stored inA major stockpile of weapons was stored in Concord, 20 miles from Boston.Concord, 20 miles from Boston. On April 18On April 18thth , 1775, 800 British troops moved, 1775, 800 British troops moved out of Boston and marched toward Concordout of Boston and marched toward Concord with orders to seize these supplies.with orders to seize these supplies.
  • 4. Fighting at Lexington and ConcordFighting at Lexington and Concord Boston Patriots learned of British plans and sent PaulBoston Patriots learned of British plans and sent Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Dr. Samuel Prescott onRevere, William Dawes, and Dr. Samuel Prescott on horseback through the countryside to alert Patriot leaders.horseback through the countryside to alert Patriot leaders. Revere arrived in Lexington, about five miles fromRevere arrived in Lexington, about five miles from Concord, near midnight.Concord, near midnight. The main British force reached Lexington around dawn onThe main British force reached Lexington around dawn on April 19April 19thth where they encountered 70 armed “minutemen”where they encountered 70 armed “minutemen” on the village green.on the village green. The Patriots were ordered to throw down their weaponsThe Patriots were ordered to throw down their weapons and started to obey but someone fired a shot and theand started to obey but someone fired a shot and the British fired a volley into the militia.British fired a volley into the militia. Within minutes, 8 minutemen were dead and another 10Within minutes, 8 minutemen were dead and another 10 were wounded.were wounded. http://www.schooltube.com/video/eec8702db88e04d47453/http://www.schooltube.com/video/eec8702db88e04d47453/
  • 5. Fighting at Lexington and ConcordFighting at Lexington and Concord The British marched on the Concord where theyThe British marched on the Concord where they destroyeddestroyed somesome of the Patriot supplies – most of theof the Patriot supplies – most of the stockpile was hidden before the British arrived.stockpile was hidden before the British arrived. As the British returned to Boston, 4,000 PatriotsAs the British returned to Boston, 4,000 Patriots gathered and fired at them from behind trees andgathered and fired at them from behind trees and stone walls.stone walls. More than 70 British soldiers were killed and 170More than 70 British soldiers were killed and 170 wounded before they reached Boston.wounded before they reached Boston. 90 Patriots were either killed, wounded, or missing90 Patriots were either killed, wounded, or missing and the Revolutionary War, a war for Americanand the Revolutionary War, a war for American Independence, had begun.Independence, had begun. ““Give me liberty or give me death” – Patrick HenryGive me liberty or give me death” – Patrick Henry
  • 6. Common SenseCommon Sense One important document that expressed both levels ofOne important document that expressed both levels of the Revolution wasthe Revolution was Common Sense,Common Sense, a pamphlet writtena pamphlet written by Thomas Paine.by Thomas Paine. It first appeared in Philadelphia in January 1776.It first appeared in Philadelphia in January 1776. He wrote in a simple and direct style, suggesting thatHe wrote in a simple and direct style, suggesting that anyone could understand the conflict between Greatanyone could understand the conflict between Great Britain and the colonies.Britain and the colonies. The pamphlet persuaded many readers, includingThe pamphlet persuaded many readers, including many who had favored a peaceful settlement ofmany who had favored a peaceful settlement of differences with the British government, to support adifferences with the British government, to support a complete – and likely violent – break with Greatcomplete – and likely violent – break with Great Britain instead.Britain instead.
  • 7. The Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence The Second Continental Congress gathered in MayThe Second Continental Congress gathered in May 1775, less than a month after British troops clashed1775, less than a month after British troops clashed with the Patriots at Lexington and Concord, and itwith the Patriots at Lexington and Concord, and it continued to meet throughout the Revolution.continued to meet throughout the Revolution. Most delegates of the 1Most delegates of the 1stst C.C. returned for the 2C.C. returned for the 2ndnd butbut there were a few important newcomers – Benjaminthere were a few important newcomers – Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, and Thomas Jefferson.Franklin, John Hancock, and Thomas Jefferson. At first the delegates were deeply divided – someAt first the delegates were deeply divided – some favored independence, some favored a compromisefavored independence, some favored a compromise with British government that would increase colonialwith British government that would increase colonial self-rule.self-rule.
  • 8. The Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence In November 1775, King George refused the 2In November 1775, King George refused the 2ndnd C.C.’sC.C.’s Olive Branch Petition – a document that expressedOlive Branch Petition – a document that expressed the colonists’ continued loyalty to the Crown andthe colonists’ continued loyalty to the Crown and begged the king to halt the fighting until a solutionbegged the king to halt the fighting until a solution could be found.could be found. In June 1776, the Congress decided it was time to cutIn June 1776, the Congress decided it was time to cut ties with Britain and appointed a committee to prepareties with Britain and appointed a committee to prepare a statement of the reasons for the separation – aa statement of the reasons for the separation – a Declaration of Independence.Declaration of Independence. The Enlightenment, an 18The Enlightenment, an 18thth -century European-century European movement emphasizing science and reason as keys tomovement emphasizing science and reason as keys to improving society, greatly influenced the drafting.improving society, greatly influenced the drafting.
  • 9. The Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson divided the Declaration into four sections: (1)Thomas Jefferson divided the Declaration into four sections: (1) aa preamble;preamble; (2) a declaration of rights; (3) a list of complaints(2) a declaration of rights; (3) a list of complaints against the king; (4) a resolution of independence.against the king; (4) a resolution of independence. PreamblePreamble “When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for“When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connectedone people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of earth,them with another, and to assume among the Powers of earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature andthe separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinionsof Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes whichof mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.”impel them to the separation.”
  • 10. The Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence Declaration of RightsDeclaration of Rights – In the 2In the 2ndnd section, Jefferson explained the political ideas onsection, Jefferson explained the political ideas on which the document was based and drew heavily on thewhich the document was based and drew heavily on the writings from John Locke.writings from John Locke. – Locke believed people haveLocke believed people have natural rights – rights thatnatural rights – rights that belong to them simply because they are human, notbelong to them simply because they are human, not because kings or governments granted them these rights.because kings or governments granted them these rights. – People form governments to protect their natural rights, butPeople form governments to protect their natural rights, but they do not surrender control over to their government.they do not surrender control over to their government. – If a government fails to act in the best interest of the people,If a government fails to act in the best interest of the people, they have a right to revolt and replace it with a new one.they have a right to revolt and replace it with a new one.
  • 11. The Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence ComplaintsComplaints – This section laid out a long list of wrongs theThis section laid out a long list of wrongs the colonists believed the British king had committed.colonists believed the British king had committed. – Colonists were tired of what they saw as self-Colonists were tired of what they saw as self- interested decisions made by the English king.interested decisions made by the English king. – In a government based onIn a government based on rule of law,rule of law, publicpublic officials must make decisions based on the law, notofficials must make decisions based on the law, not on their own personal wishes.on their own personal wishes.
  • 12. The Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence ResolutionResolution – Jefferson wrote, “these United Colonies are, and of RightJefferson wrote, “these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States…”ought to be Free and Independent States…” On July 4On July 4thth , 1776, delegates voted to approve the, 1776, delegates voted to approve the Declaration of Independence.Declaration of Independence. It defined the basic principles on which AmericanIt defined the basic principles on which American government and society would rest.government and society would rest. The United States would be a nation in whichThe United States would be a nation in which ordinary citizens would have a strong voice in theirordinary citizens would have a strong voice in their own government.own government.

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