Section 4: Fighting for independence

1,256 views
1,124 views

Published on

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,256
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
363
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Section 4: Fighting for independence

  1. 1. Fighting for IndependenceFighting for Independence
  2. 2. Fighting for IndependenceFighting for Independence  Although the Declaration of Independence wasAlthough the Declaration of Independence was not approved until July 4not approved until July 4thth , 1776, Britain and, 1776, Britain and the American colonists had been fighting sincethe American colonists had been fighting since the battles at Lexington and Concord in Aprilthe battles at Lexington and Concord in April 1775.1775.  King George hadn’t expected a war, much less aKing George hadn’t expected a war, much less a long one…long one…  Yet the fighting continued and intensified.Yet the fighting continued and intensified.
  3. 3. The Siege of BostonThe Siege of Boston  6,000 British troops were stationed in Boston6,000 British troops were stationed in Boston while 20,000 armed Patriots surrounded them.while 20,000 armed Patriots surrounded them.  The Patriots turned their attention to gatheringThe Patriots turned their attention to gathering much needed military equipment.much needed military equipment.  In May 1775, Colonel Ethan Allen and hisIn May 1775, Colonel Ethan Allen and his Vermont militia surprised British troops at FortVermont militia surprised British troops at Fort Ticonderoga in northern NY, capturing the fortTiconderoga in northern NY, capturing the fort which provided the Patriots with cannons andwhich provided the Patriots with cannons and other supplies.other supplies.
  4. 4. The Battle at Bunker HillThe Battle at Bunker Hill  On June 17On June 17thth , 1775 the British army attacked two, 1775 the British army attacked two strategic hilltop locations the Patriots held in Boston –strategic hilltop locations the Patriots held in Boston – Breed’s Hill and Bunker Hill.Breed’s Hill and Bunker Hill.  After 3 attacks, the British took Breed’s Hill.After 3 attacks, the British took Breed’s Hill.  The Patriots used all their ammunition at Breed’s HillThe Patriots used all their ammunition at Breed’s Hill and Bunker Hill was quickly taken by Britain but at aand Bunker Hill was quickly taken by Britain but at a huge cost to the British.huge cost to the British.  Nearly 1,100 of the 2,400 British soldiers were killedNearly 1,100 of the 2,400 British soldiers were killed or wounded – the Patriots only suffered 400 casualties.or wounded – the Patriots only suffered 400 casualties.
  5. 5. The British Leave BostonThe British Leave Boston  July 1775, George Washington arrived in Boston afterJuly 1775, George Washington arrived in Boston after being named the commanding general of Patriotbeing named the commanding general of Patriot forces.forces.  In January 1776, Patriot Colonel Henry Knox arrivedIn January 1776, Patriot Colonel Henry Knox arrived outside of Boston with the military equipment seizedoutside of Boston with the military equipment seized at Fort Ticonderoga.at Fort Ticonderoga.  The cannons were placed on Dorchester Heights andThe cannons were placed on Dorchester Heights and from there they could shell the British forces in thefrom there they could shell the British forces in the city and ships in the harbor.city and ships in the harbor.  Realizing they could not defend their position, theRealizing they could not defend their position, the British left Boston March, 1776, taking with themBritish left Boston March, 1776, taking with them 1,000 Boston Loyalists.1,000 Boston Loyalists.
  6. 6. Strengths and WeaknessesStrengths and Weaknesses  John Adams believed 1/3 of the colonists wereJohn Adams believed 1/3 of the colonists were Patriots, 1/3 Loyalists (Tories), and 1/3 undecided.Patriots, 1/3 Loyalists (Tories), and 1/3 undecided.  The British Strengths:The British Strengths: – well-equipped, disciplined, and trained armywell-equipped, disciplined, and trained army – The British navy was the best in the worldThe British navy was the best in the world – 50,000 Loyalists fought with the British Army –50,000 Loyalists fought with the British Army – slaves in the South were promised freedom;slaves in the South were promised freedom; additional help came from Native Americansadditional help came from Native Americans because of colonial interests to keep movingbecause of colonial interests to keep moving westward and taking Native American lands.westward and taking Native American lands. – The British hired 30,000 mercenaries – GermanThe British hired 30,000 mercenaries – German “Hessians”“Hessians”
  7. 7. Strengths and WeaknessesStrengths and Weaknesses  British Weaknesses:British Weaknesses: – The war was not popular in Great Britain b/c many BritishThe war was not popular in Great Britain b/c many British citizens resented paying taxes to fight this warcitizens resented paying taxes to fight this war – British troops had to fight in hostile territoryBritish troops had to fight in hostile territory – British commanders resisted adapting their tactics toBritish commanders resisted adapting their tactics to conditions in Americaconditions in America  American Strengths:American Strengths: – Patriots were fighting on their own territory and used tacticsPatriots were fighting on their own territory and used tactics that had worked in the French and Indian Warthat had worked in the French and Indian War  American Weaknesses:American Weaknesses: – The Americans lacked a well-supplied, stable, and effectiveThe Americans lacked a well-supplied, stable, and effective fighting force – new recruits were constantly showing upfighting force – new recruits were constantly showing up while veterans, once their time was up, headed home.while veterans, once their time was up, headed home.
  8. 8. Fighting in the NorthFighting in the North  By October 1776, the British had captured New York andBy October 1776, the British had captured New York and drove the Continental Army into Pennsylvania and manydrove the Continental Army into Pennsylvania and many troops deserted General Washington.troops deserted General Washington.  By the winter of 1776, the Patriot cause was on the vergeBy the winter of 1776, the Patriot cause was on the verge of collapse and the Continental Congress fled toof collapse and the Continental Congress fled to Philadelphia.Philadelphia.  Lacking adequate financial support, troops, and supplies,Lacking adequate financial support, troops, and supplies, Washington had to be innovative and abandoned theWashington had to be innovative and abandoned the tradition of armies not fighting during winter.tradition of armies not fighting during winter.  Washington and 2,400 troops left Pennsylvania onWashington and 2,400 troops left Pennsylvania on Christmas Night 1776.Christmas Night 1776.  They crossed the ice-choked Delaware River and surprisedThey crossed the ice-choked Delaware River and surprised 1,400 Hessians stationed in Trenton, New Jersey.1,400 Hessians stationed in Trenton, New Jersey.
  9. 9. Fighting in the NorthFighting in the North  Nearly the entire hessian force was captured,Nearly the entire hessian force was captured, while the Patriots only suffered 5 casualties inwhile the Patriots only suffered 5 casualties in the Battle of Trenton.the Battle of Trenton.  A few days later, Washington and 5000 troopsA few days later, Washington and 5000 troops made a similar attack on Princeton andmade a similar attack on Princeton and defeated General Charles Cornwallis.defeated General Charles Cornwallis.  The victories at Trenton and Princeton greatlyThe victories at Trenton and Princeton greatly boosted Patriot morale and convinced moreboosted Patriot morale and convinced more Americans to join the cause.Americans to join the cause.
  10. 10. Victory at SaratogaVictory at Saratoga  The Patriot capital, Philadelphia, was captured inThe Patriot capital, Philadelphia, was captured in September 1776.September 1776.  British Gen. John Burgoyne was on the move with hisBritish Gen. John Burgoyne was on the move with his army in northern NY and his objective was to cut Newarmy in northern NY and his objective was to cut New England off from the rest of the colonies.England off from the rest of the colonies.  He captured Fort Ticonderoga and headed towardHe captured Fort Ticonderoga and headed toward Albany, NY – as the Americans retreated, theyAlbany, NY – as the Americans retreated, they destroyed bridges and felled trees across the road todestroyed bridges and felled trees across the road to slow his advance.slow his advance.  The slow progress caused his army to run low onThe slow progress caused his army to run low on supplies while the colonial force grew and rallied tosupplies while the colonial force grew and rallied to confront them.confront them.
  11. 11. Victory at SaratogaVictory at Saratoga  In mid-September, the Americans, led by Gen.In mid-September, the Americans, led by Gen. Horatio Gates, attacked Burgoyne’s forces.Horatio Gates, attacked Burgoyne’s forces.  This series of American victories, which tookThis series of American victories, which took place around Saratoga, NY, is called the Battleplace around Saratoga, NY, is called the Battle of Saratoga.of Saratoga.  On Oct 17On Oct 17thth , 1777, surrounded by a much, 1777, surrounded by a much larger American army, Burgoyne surrenderedlarger American army, Burgoyne surrendered which was the biggest victory yet for thewhich was the biggest victory yet for the Americans and marked a turning point in theAmericans and marked a turning point in the war.war.
  12. 12. Help From AbroadHelp From Abroad  After the 2After the 2ndnd C.C. declared independence, it sentC.C. declared independence, it sent Benjamin Franklin on a mission to Paris.Benjamin Franklin on a mission to Paris.  France had been secretly aiding the Americans in theFrance had been secretly aiding the Americans in the war against their long-time enemies (British), butwar against their long-time enemies (British), but Franklin pushed for an open alliance.Franklin pushed for an open alliance.  On Feb 6On Feb 6thth , 1778, France and the U.S. signed a treaty, 1778, France and the U.S. signed a treaty of alliance.of alliance.  It meant $, troops, and a navy for the Americans ANDIt meant $, troops, and a navy for the Americans AND Britain had to now defend itself from France inBritain had to now defend itself from France in Europe.Europe.  A year later, Spain joined the war as France’s ally,A year later, Spain joined the war as France’s ally, followed by the Netherlands in 1780.followed by the Netherlands in 1780.
  13. 13. Section 5 – Winning IndependenceSection 5 – Winning Independence  The British lost their colonies in the endThe British lost their colonies in the end because Americans had the determination tobecause Americans had the determination to outlast their rulers.outlast their rulers.  Even though Britain seized New York,Even though Britain seized New York, Philadelphia, and almost every other importantPhiladelphia, and almost every other important colonial city, Washington knew the secret tocolonial city, Washington knew the secret to winning the war…Britain could never win aswinning the war…Britain could never win as long as Americans continued fighting them.long as Americans continued fighting them.
  14. 14. Financing the WarFinancing the War  For Washington’s army, a major source ofFor Washington’s army, a major source of hardship was a lack of support from thehardship was a lack of support from the Continental Congress.Continental Congress.  Congress, at the time, had little real power…itCongress, at the time, had little real power…it could ASK the states to provide troops, money,could ASK the states to provide troops, money, and supplies, but did not have the power toand supplies, but did not have the power to TAX the states to support financing.TAX the states to support financing.  Congress issued paper money but it was notCongress issued paper money but it was not backed by gold or silver.backed by gold or silver.
  15. 15. Disruptions of TradeDisruptions of Trade  During the war, the British navyDuring the war, the British navy blockaded, orblockaded, or cut off from outside contactcut off from outside contact, the Atlantic, the Atlantic Coast which disrupted trade and suppliesCoast which disrupted trade and supplies needed by American civilians and troops.needed by American civilians and troops.  Some colonists took advantage of shortages bySome colonists took advantage of shortages by profiteering, or selling scarce items atprofiteering, or selling scarce items at unreasonably high prices.unreasonably high prices.  Inflation, a steady increase in prices over time,Inflation, a steady increase in prices over time, reduced people’s ability to buy goods.reduced people’s ability to buy goods.
  16. 16. Victory at Yorktown, VAVictory at Yorktown, VA  After the French army joined the Continental army inAfter the French army joined the Continental army in New York, Washington saw the opportunity to dealNew York, Washington saw the opportunity to deal the British a fatal blow and moved south.the British a fatal blow and moved south.  The French navy set up a blockade off the VirginiaThe French navy set up a blockade off the Virginia coast.coast.  In early October, 1781, French and American artilleryIn early October, 1781, French and American artillery began to pound Yorktown and Cornwallis.began to pound Yorktown and Cornwallis.  On October 19On October 19thth , Cornwallis surrendered to, Cornwallis surrendered to Washington.Washington.
  17. 17. Treaty of Paris - 1783Treaty of Paris - 1783  Nearly two years passed between the surrender of Cornwallis andNearly two years passed between the surrender of Cornwallis and the signing of the peace treaty that formally ended the war. Thethe signing of the peace treaty that formally ended the war. The treaty contained…treaty contained…  1. Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States1. Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States of America.of America.  2. The northern border b/t the US and Canada was set from New2. The northern border b/t the US and Canada was set from New England to the Mississippi River, primarily along the Great Lakes.England to the Mississippi River, primarily along the Great Lakes.  3. The Mississippi River was established as the boundary b/t the3. The Mississippi River was established as the boundary b/t the new US and Spanish territory to the west. Navigation on the rivernew US and Spanish territory to the west. Navigation on the river was to be forever open to American and British citizens.was to be forever open to American and British citizens.  4. Florida was returned to Spain.4. Florida was returned to Spain.  5. G.B. agreed to withdraw its remaining troops from US territory.5. G.B. agreed to withdraw its remaining troops from US territory.  6. Congress pledged to recommend to the states that the rights6. Congress pledged to recommend to the states that the rights and property of American Loyalists (to the Crown) be restoredand property of American Loyalists (to the Crown) be restored and that no future action be taken against them.and that no future action be taken against them.
  18. 18. Impact of the RevolutionImpact of the Revolution  In 1783, Great Britain accepted American independence.In 1783, Great Britain accepted American independence.  The Revolution helped inspire patriotism, or love of their country.The Revolution helped inspire patriotism, or love of their country.  The Revolution did not produce any immediate gain in politicalThe Revolution did not produce any immediate gain in political or legal power for women, but did challenge some of theor legal power for women, but did challenge some of the traditional ideas.traditional ideas.  For African Americans, the results were mixed – it promoted anti-For African Americans, the results were mixed – it promoted anti- slavery in the North. In the South, it made slavery more restrictive.slavery in the North. In the South, it made slavery more restrictive. To African Americans, the Revolution made them more consciousTo African Americans, the Revolution made them more conscious of the possibilities of freedom.of the possibilities of freedom.  For Native Americans, the war’s outcome was a disaster – movingFor Native Americans, the war’s outcome was a disaster – moving them further west and taking more of their land.them further west and taking more of their land.  Perhaps the greatest effect was to spread the idea of liberty, bothPerhaps the greatest effect was to spread the idea of liberty, both home and abroad.home and abroad.  However, Jefferson, like most of the CC, probably had no thoughtHowever, Jefferson, like most of the CC, probably had no thought of applying the principle of liberty to people other than whiteof applying the principle of liberty to people other than white men.men.

×