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  • 1. Project Design GuideAs mentioned on the Project Introduction Page, your project has three components: thescenario, the presentation page, and the student pages. The purpose of the Project DesignGuide is to give you a clear idea of what each component entails.As you know, the focus of this course is to create an engaged learning (Plugging In)experience for your students that best utilizes the Internets unique capabilities. LInCOnline provides you with the information you need to create a Web project that is infusedwith the elements of engaged learning and technology.To fulfill the requirements of this course, you must include these three components inyour project.Your scenario is a vision of your project in action! A narrative version of what someonemight see, hear and feel if they were visiting your classroom. It is an opportunity forothers to "see" what your project might look like in practice.The project presentation page is basically an outline format that lists the projectdescription, subject and level, learner description, rationale, goals and objectives,structure of the learning, assessment, and evaluation.The student pages are the pages you have created or linked to in order facilitate thestudents investigations. One component of the student pages often forgotten is creating aproject rubric that you will use to assess students work.For additional information about the three components, click on the links shown below.Things to keep in mind . . .You may not violate copyright laws. Any resources retrieved from the Internet and usedin your project must be accompanied by a reference/citation telling where it wasobtained.
  • 2. Make certain you are familiar with the guidelines for naming an HTML file. Followingthese rules will make linking your pages and images easier.Before you begin writing your pages think about the qualities of a good Web page. Visitour page on Web page design for guidelines.To save time in creating your pages, your facilitator can guide you to templates whichyou should use for your project Web pages. Contact your facilitator for directions on howto obtain these templates when you are ready to begin designing your Web pages.Note: If you will be drafting in a word processor, be sure to keep all of your work inplain text. Formatting text at this time may create problems when you paste your workinto an HTML editor.Click below to see the format you should use when creating your project. These areprovided to help you get started writing your own page. • Presentation Template • Scenario Template • Student Page Template • Rubric Template • Unit Implementation before Link Project Presentation FrameworkOne of the components of your project is to create a project presentation page. This pageserves several purposes. It is a planning tool, an organizational tool, and a tool to presentyour project. Some people enjoy starting this page before they begin the scenario. Thispage is written in outline form for a quick reference of important project information.Included on this page is a brief description of the rationale for the project and who theaudience will be.Title of Project/Unit:Subject:Grade Level:Abstract:Three- or four-sentence description of your project and audience
  • 3. Learner Description/Environment:Characteristics of the learner and description of the class settingTime Frame:Learner Outcomes: What do you want the students to know and be able to do when they complete the project/unit?Structure of the Learning:Content:The content is framed within a student scenario that contains an authentic student task,a challenging problem and requires multidisciplinary inquiry and investigation. The taskwill require collaboration with peers and possibly mentors. The hook you createcaptivates the learner and creates an intrinsic need to know.Process:The process is the way you structure the learning to engage students in the project/unitgoals and objectives. How are they going to accomplish the task? What are the studentsdoing? What is the teacher doing? How are you assessing the process of learning? How isthe student directing the learning?Product:What is the end-product the students will produce? How is technology integrated withinthis product? How will you assess the product?Best Use of Technology:How is technology integrated within this project? How is the technology supporting theengaged learning? How are you using two way communication with mentors or experts?How are you collaborating with other classrooms or students?Assessment:Assessment is not a test at the end of a unit. It is found in all three learning components:the content, the process, and the product. It is performance-based, seamless, generative,and ongoing. Students need multiple opportunities to demonstrate their learning.Project/Unit Evaluation:
  • 4. After facilitating and guiding your students through the project/unit, ask yourself thefollowing questions: What worked well? What wasnt as successful as I had hoped? Whatwould I modify or change before I use the project/unit again?Alignment with Standards:What local, state, and/or national standards have you addressed?There are three templates available to use when creating your project. Click below to seethem. When you view them you will notice that the presentation and scenario pages havebuttons at the top that link to the other components of your project. It is not appropriatefor your student pages to link to the presentation page or scenario page. The pagesinclude a footer that identifies the tag lines describing the funding organizations for thecourse, author of the document, and the date.To save time in creating your pages, we have developed templates for you to use.Contact your facilitator for instructions on how to obtain and begin using thesetemplates.Click below to see the format you should use when creating your project. • Presentation Template • Scenario Template • Student Page TemplateExamples of some of the project presentation pages are listed below. Click on them toview. • We Never Promised you a Greenhouse • All about Water • Lead It Be • Exploring our Past: the Revolutionary WarClick here to view the rubric we will use to assess your presentation page.Presentation RubricProject Name:
  • 5. Project Authors:Evaluator:Author E-mail Addresses (one per line):Evaluator E-mail Addresses (one per line):Purpose: The purpose of this rubric is to assess the participants presentation pagesas well as to help guide them in the development of their presentation page.First Section - each worth one point. "Yes" answers earn one point; "No"answers earn zero points. Criteria Yes NoTitle of Project/UnitLink to Scenario PageLink to Student PagesSubject and Grade LevelTime Frame 2 1 0Criteria Developed Attempted Not PresentIncludes AbstractAbstract Summarizes Project Clearly andConciselyLearner Description/EnvironmentGoals and ObjectivesAlignment with Standards
  • 6. Structure of the Learning:Challenging ContentEngaged Learning EvidentBest Use of Technology EvidentAssessment/RubricProject/Unit EvaluationTotal Points: 25Comments: Your Project Title HereSummary Scenario Student Pages Rubric Index of ProjectsSubject:Grade Level:Abstract:Three- to six-sentence description of your project and audience. A good abstract is veryimportant because your abstract will be listed on the same page as a dozen or more otherproject abstracts. Your abstract needs to be descriptive enough that an educator looking atthis page of abstracts will want to click on your project link to learn more about it.Describe the overall investigation your students will be doing. An abstract that says "Thisis an engaged learning multidisciplinary, authentic, challenging project that effectively
  • 7. uses technology," contains lots of buzzwords, but does not tell the reader anything aboutyour project that will make him/her want to see more.Learner Description/Environment:Characteristics of the learner and description of the class settingTime Frame:Duration of your project, i.e., weeks of study, time needed per weekLearner Outcomes: 1. What do you want the students to know and be able to do when they complete the project/unit? 2. These outcomes need to be consistent with the content/process of your project and the assessment rubric for students. 3. Good learner outcomes are measureable. They will help you assess your students. 4. A few good verbs for learner outcomes are: construct, draw, identify, perform, collect, interpret, analyze, organize, apply, demonstrate understanding by, and compare. 5. Some examples of verbs to avoid are: understand, cover, learn, and know. 6. Create more list items as needed.Structure of the Learning:Content:Describe the authentic student task and hook. The content is framed within a studentscenario that contains an authentic student task, a challenging problem and requiresmultidisciplinary inquiry and investigation. The task will require collaboration with peersand possibly mentors. The hook you create captivates the learner and creates an intrinsicneed to know.Process:Include the opportunities for student direction. The process is the way you structure thelearning to engage students in the project/unit goals and objectives. How are they goingto accomplish the task? What are the students doing? How are groups used? What is theteacher doing? How is the student directing the learning?Product:What is the end product(s) the students will produce? Why is the product(s) original,useful, meaningful, and/or important to the students and to other people?
  • 8. Best Use of Technology:What does technology add to this project that would not be possible without thetechnology? What equipment, software, and connection are required in order to do thisproject? How is technology integrated within this project? How is the technologysupporting the engaged learning? How is technology used for intermediate and/or endproduct(s)? How are you using technology to find recent or frequently changinginformation? How and why are you collaborating with other classrooms or students?How and why are you using two-way communication with mentors or experts? How areyou using technology to publish student work to a wider audience?Assessment:Assessment of your students work is not a test at the end of a unit. It is found in all threelearning components: the content, the process, and the product. It is performance-based,seamless, generative, and ongoing. Students need multiple opportunities to demonstratetheir learning. List the opportunities for assessment of student work. What strategies willyou use to assess students prior understandings related to project content and theirprevious skill development? How are you assessing the process of learning? Whatdiscussions, intermediate products, or checkpoints will provide opportunities for studentsto receive or request feedback during the project? How will students be encouraged toreflect on their progress? How will you assess the end product? How will students begraded? How will students have the opportunity to review or provide input on the rubricor other grading procedures? Please provide a link to your rubric for students in thissection.Project Evaluation:How will you evaluate the effectiveness of your project? How will you determine whatworked well? How will you determine what modifications should be made in the projectbefore it is used again?Alignment with Standards: 1. What local, state, and/or national standards have you addressed? 2. When possible, make links to the relevant standards on the Web. 3. Use the LInC Web page with resource links to standards to help you. 4. Create more list items as needed. Your Project Title HereScenario
  • 9. Summary Student Pages Rubric Index of ProjectsNote on using this template: Past participants have found it easier to getstarted on the scenario by thinking of it in terms of what happens at thebeginning, in the middle and at the culmination of the project. So wehave included these headings in this example template. However, youare welcome to use different headings, different number of sections, adifferent organization/layout altogether, graphics, backgrounds, tables,etc., as long as you describe your vision of what is taking place in yourclassroom as students participate in the project. See the "Writing aProject Scenario" page for examples of different scenario formats. Theonly formatting they have in common is the header and footer from thistemplate.Background/ContextYou may wish to include a few introductory sentences to establish the context beforelaunching into the narrative. What subject and grade level is it? What curriculum area(s)and specific topics are being addressed? What is the length of unit? What else wouldanother educator need to know to understand your scenario?The next sections should be a narrative version of what someone might see, hear andfeel if they were visiting your classroom. Use third person, active voice. What wouldthe teacher(s) be seeing, doing and saying? And with what result? What would thestudents be doing or saying? And with what result? Who else is involved besides theteacher(s) and students?Beginning/Getting StartedHow is the project introduced and how does it get started? How is the project "hookedinto the task?" How are prior knowledge and skills assessed? How do students determinethe topic, aspect of the topic, problem or issue about the topic to be investigated? How dostudents come up with questions, concerns, issues, hypotheses, or problem-solvingsuggestions that guide their investigation and overall participation in the project? How doyou turn the problem over to the students so they begin their action plan? How are thestudents grouped?Middle/In ProgressDescribe the typical activities students and teachers are doing. Describe the roles studentsand teacher play during the project. Describe how the teacher is coaching,troubleshooting, and providing feedback. What tools, materials and resources are studentsusing? How is technology being used? What twists or new challenges are introduced to
  • 10. maintain the focus on your goals and continue to keep your students involved? Whatintermediate products are being worked on and how are the students being assessed?End/CulminationWhat is happening at the end/culmination of the project? What are the students producingto reflect their learning? What aspects of the projects are brought to closure? Whataspects are ongoing? How are the students being assessed? How are the products sharedwith the class, local community, or the Internet community? Your Project Title HereNote on using this template: We encourage you to be creative with yourWeb pages for students. They do not need to look just like this template.Organize them as you like and add colors, graphics, backgrounds,tables, etcetera that are inviting to your students and relevant to theproject. See the "student page" links on the "LInC Project Examples"page for examples of many different kinds of Web pages for students.The only things they have in common are: • The project title appears somewhere prominently on the page. • The LInC footer is at the bottom of each Web page.It is considered good design to organize pages with some structure so students can findwhat they need and to include ample whitespace such as indenting blocks of text so thepages do not seem too dense. Have fun with your pages as you try out your design ideas!Your Heading HereYour materials for students to view go here.You may wish to design a page with the look you want and then use that page as atemplate for other Web pages you create for your students.Another HeadingYour Web pages for students need to provide enough information, guidance, andresources so that a student who is not in your class could do the project by using theseWeb pages. Your Web pages should also be sufficient for a teacher who is not in yourbuilding to be able to use this project with his or her students. Web pages for studentsshould be directed at student readers of the selected grade level (as opposed to being
  • 11. directed at a teacher reader). Take care to use good Web design principles whendesigning your pages.Subject: Physical Science, Construction Technology II and IIIGrade Level: Grades 9, 11, and 12Abstract:The Greenhouse Project consists of the design and construction of a working greenhousefor the Plymouth Regional High School science department. The students will be takingcharge of all facets of the project, including needs assessment, greenhouse basics,building design, funding proposal, project proposal presentation, and construction. It willbe a multi-disciplinary project joining freshman physical science students and junior andsenior vocational building trades students.Learner Description/Environment:Plymouth Regional High School is located in central New Hampshire and serves astudent population of about 850 students from seven towns. The attached regionalvocational center accepts students from two other high schools, in addition to our ownstudents.The students in this project will be guided by a physical science teacher, a constructiontechnology teacher, and a library media specialist. Additional assistance, as needed, maybe provided by the computer coordinator, business technology teacher, grant coordinator,library and audiovisual staff, and other students from various classes.In addition to a small number of computers in their classrooms, the students also haveaccess to computers, internet, scanners, LCD panels and video projection, and a varietyof print and non-print resources in the Library Media Center and in the Curriculum Labacross the hall. The Curriculum Lab has 25 networked Internet accessible computers andis accessible by individual students or may be scheduled for use by a whole class.
  • 12. Time Frame:The stages from needs assessment through project presentation to the school board willtake approximately six to eight weeks in the spring. Actual construction of thegreenhouse will be accomplished by the Construction Technology II and III studentsduring the following school year.Learner Outcomes: 1. Students will conduct a needs assessment and apply knowledge gained to the solution of a real world problem. 2. Students will apply scientific knowledge in a design and manufacturing process. 3. Students will access, critically evaluate and utilize information from a variety of sources (technical journals, curriculum standards, professionals in the science and construction fields). 4. Students will communicate via e-mail, list serve, and chat. 5. Students will use CAD software, spreadsheets and scheduling software to plan the design and construction of the greenhouse. 6. Students will draft a construction plan from concept to completion. 7. Students will locate, pursue, and secure funding. 8. Students will create and present a proposal to an outside agency (school board) for approval. 9. Students will utilize a blueprint to build a structure satisfying architectural specifications.Structure of the Learning:Content:A recently approved bond issue at the high school includes, among other things, a majorrenovation of the science facilities. Early in the process, the science staff recommendedthat a greenhouse be included to address a variety of curriculum goals. However, thegreenhouse was eventually eliminated from the bond proposal. Now the students fromphysical science and construction technology are being given the opportunity to becomeconsultants and contractors for a greenhouse project. By combining their knowledge andskills in science and construction fields, the students will carry the project from needsassessment through to the actual construction of a new facility on their school grounds.Process:The project starts with the science students conducting a needs assessment, to identifywhy a green house is needed. The construction technology students are simultaneouslyinvestigating the basic designs, requirements and location issues of a typical greenhouse.From that point, the successive stages involve a variety of interdisciplinary groups, witheach stage building on the information gathered in the previous stage. Student "experts"from a previous group reform into new group combinations to analyze and build upon the
  • 13. previous research and reach a new set of conclusions for their topic, to be presentedorally (and in writing) to the next group. Each group or series of groups includes adifferent mix of science and construction technology students, with each student havingthe experience of being a group leader. The process of "backward planning" is also to beused within the groups.Although the instructors have planned groups for each of the major sections, the size andnumber of students in these groups are subject to modification. For example, if, as aresult of research into design basics, a fourth style of greenhouse is discovered thatstudents would like to pursue, the project could easily be modified to utilize four teams ofsix, instead of three teams of eight. By the same token, the Needs Assessment,Greenhouse Basics and Funding groups could also be modified per student request.Product:Each group is responsible for compiling the results of its research and presenting thegroups conclusions orally and in writing to the students who will be members of thegroups for the next step. Additionally, the information and conclusions compiled by onegroup become the foundation upon which the next group(s) builds. For example, theBuilding Design groups use information from the Needs Assessment and GreenhouseBasics groups to create a design and determine a site for the greenhouse. The conclusionsof all the groups become the comprehensive proposal which is presented to the SchoolBoard. The culminating, and very visible, product will be the greenhouse itself,constructed by students on school grounds and used by students in support of thecurriculum.Best Use of Technology:Computers and the internet provide access to a great deal of information for this project --from researching state curriculum standards, to contacting other schools withgreenhouses, to contacting greenhouse professionals and suppliers. It also provides themajor means of communication, such as e-mailing a school to determine how theyplanned, built and used their greenhouse; or joining a listserv of greenhouse professionalsto elicit advice on greenhouse features; or contacting suppliers for prices of materials.The construction technology students also use CD-ROM programs to researchgreenhouse designs and CAD software, spreadsheets and scheduling software to plan thedesign and construction of the greenhouse. Intermediate reports by the groups and thefinal presentation to the School Board will involve a variety of technology, from wordprocessing and graphics design for written components, web page design for the schoolwebsite (with FrontPage), presentation software (such as PowerPoint), LCD panel,overhead projector, and/or AverKey.Assessment:Assessment of the students work will involve rubrics designed for each groups set oftasks, i.e., Needs Assessment, Greenhouse Basics, Building Design, Funding, Project
  • 14. Approval, and Leadership. The major components within the rubrics address research,oral presentation and written summary (including effectiveness as a resource forsubsequent components of the project). Students will become acquainted with the rubricsin advance and can use them as checkpoints for themselves as their work progresses. Themajority of the rubrics will be scored by the instructors. However, the oral presentationrubric will combine assessment by the instructors and the students peers.Project Evaluation:As this project has four sequential components, at the completion of each component thethree instructors will meet as a team to discuss what worked well and any necessarymodifications to the plan for the remainder of the project. Data to be accessed for thismeeting would include student feedback as provided on the oral presentation evaluationforms as well as student success/failure as indicated by scores on the rubric for thatparticular component. Modifications in terms of the amount of guidance to be providedcould easily be made at each juncture.In the students eyes, school board approval of the project and completion of theconstruction of the greenhouse will probably be the primary indicator of project sucess.The instructors evaluation however, will focus more on the students development ofskills in the areas of research, presentation, and use of technology.The opportunities to use this particular project at our school again are slim. If we aresuccessful in obtaining approval for and constructing a greenhouse that will meetcurriculum needs, there should be little need for a second greenhouse in the near future.However, with minor modifications, the project could be used to construct other facilitiesfor our school. One idea that comes immediately to mind is a "student lounge" for earnedtime students as currently they have no area in which to gather except the library.Alignment with Standards:Construction Technology StandardsDeveloped by Plymouth Regional High School Building Trades Instructors andCraft CommitteeBuilding Trades I • Score 100% on Safety test • Score 85% on Construction Vocabulary test • Understand and exhibit good work attitudes and work ethic • Identify parts of a house (interior and exterior) • Identify different kinds of wood • Understand lumber dimensions • Identify hand tools, understand their use and develop skill in using them • Develop skill using shop machines • Identify types of fasteners and their use
  • 15. • Understand proper nailing patterns and techniques • Measure accurately to 1/16" • Lay out and build a wall section including both a window and door opening • Correctly make a leader for a 2 x 6 wall • Be able to square to a wall using Pythagorean theorem • Be able to square a deck using diagonals • Set up and level staging on both level and sloped terrain • Set up and use a transit • Be able to solder pipes together • Understand and be able to wire a basic switch and outlet • Understand how to safely use ladders, pump jacks, etc.Building Trades II • Understand and use formulas for estimating materials • Problem solving techniques as they relate to building construction • Develop experience in many of the following areas: o site layout o foundations o framing o masonry/chimneys o roofing o stair construction o electrical (telephone, cable TV, thermostats) o plumbing/heating o insulation o sheet rock o install exterior windows and doors o siding o cabinet installation o interior trim and finish o painting/staining o landscapingBuilding Trades III • Gain further experience in Building Trades II areas • Act as lead carpenter • Understand role of general contractor • Understand and be able to write basic construction specifications • Basic blueprint reading • Be able to develop a timeline for job completionNew Hampshire K-12 Science Curriculum Framework
  • 16. 1a. Students will demonstrate an increasing understanding of how the scientific enterpriseoperates. • Formulate questions and use appropriate concepts to guide scientific investigations and to solve real world problems • Use ratios as a means of comparing very large/very small numbers, e.g., building scale models • Explain how scientific knowledge is applied in the design and manufacture of products or technological processes, e.g., water purification systems, sewage treatment systems, microwave ovens, resistors2c. Students will demonstrate an increasing ability to analyze, synthesize, andcommunicate scientific information using technology. • Compile and display classroom data on a computer • Use technology to share data with classmates or other groups of students • Store data in an appropriate technological device • Manipulate data on a database, e.g., rearranging, sorting, selecting, using a spreadsheet • Analyze data graphically with technological assistance, e.g., graphing calculator • Communicate data through an electronic medium, e.g., camera, tape recorder, computer modem2d. Students will demonstrate an increasing ability to understand how technology is usedto synthesize new products. • Construct simple projects from readily available materials found at home ** • choose appropriate common materials for mechanical construction of simple models ** • Make safe electrical connections with various electrical components ** • Assemble and/or take apart a device to identify how it works, e.g., simple motor, door bell, telephone, ice cream maker ** • Create and/or reassemble technological models and identify how they work **5c. Students will demonstrate an increasing ability to understand the relationships amongdifferent types and forms of energy. • Recognize and give examples of the various forms of energy, e.g., heat, light, sound, electrical, mechanical, magnetic, chemical and nuclear ** • Show by examples how types of energy are used for specific purposes ** • Observe and describe how one form of energy may be transformed into another ** • Build or design a device to demonstrate energy transfer and apply the knowledge gained to how energy transfer impacts on the operation of devices found in the home, e.g., home heating systems, refrigerators **
  • 17. • Collect observations to show that transformations of energy involve the production of heat ** • Experimentally perform the transformation of one energy form to another, e.g., by building a simple electric motor5d. Students will demonstrate an increasing understanding of how electrical and magneticsystems interact with matter and energy. • Plan, conduct, and explain an investigation which demonstrates a complete simple circuit with wires, bulbs, switches, and a power source ** • Describe and practice appropriate safety precautions, particularly in regard to electricity ** • Construct a simple series, parallel or compound circuit • Measure all circuit values in a compound circuit5f. Students will demonstrate an increasing understanding that energy can be transmittedby waves, using light and sound as examples. • Conduct investigations to demonstrate the properties of reflection, refraction and diffraction of light6a. Students will demonstrate an increasing ability to recognize parts of any object orsystem, and understand how the parts interrelate in the operation of that object or system. • Identify and describe the essentials parts of any object or system ** • Relate structure and function of parts of any object in a system to the system as a whole ** • Describe the interrelationships among the parts of an object or system ** • Demonstrate and describe how parts of a system influence each other, including feedback • Demonstrate how systems include processes as well as parts, e.g. human body, telephone system, solar system • Show how one system can be part of another system, and how systems influence each other • Predict how certain changes in the system will/will not affect the operation of the system6c. Students will understand the meaning of models, their appropriate use and limitations,and how models can help them in understanding the natural world • Define and describe various physical models and their uses, e.g., cell model, model card ** • Use graphs, geometric figures, number and time lines, and other devices to represent events and processes in the natural world **
  • 18. • Construct one or more physical models representative of objects or processes in the natural world, and explain how the elements of the model are representative of the real object, e.g., solar system, dinosaurs, telephone ** • Recognize that a model is a representation of an object or process and is not identical to the object or process ** • Distinguish among physical (e.g., DNA), mathematical (e.g., D=RT), and conceptual (e.g., atom) models and give examples of each • Use different models to represent the same object or process • Illustrate how models allow scientists to better understand the natural world6d. Students will increasingly quantify their interactions with phenomena in the naturalworld, use these results to understand differences of scale in objects and systems, anddetermine how changes in scale affect various properties of those objects and systems. • Measure properties of objects, to a reasonable degree of accuracy, using standard scientific instruments such as a ruler, balance, clock, and thermometer ** • Calculate derived measurements of objects, such as area, volume, and density from direct measurements made in the laboratory ** • Determine that increases in linear dimensions (length) have a large effect on area and volume ** • Calculate from direct measurements, many of the derived measurements of objects such as density, velocity, inner and surface areas, volumes, perimeters, and changes in heat content • Calculate averages and ranges of measurement values for certain properties or processes in a system • Correlate the mathematical relationships among length, area, volume, surface area, mass, etc. • Convert data collected from measurements into graphs and derive mathematical relationships from the data and graphs • Determine the degree of error in any measurement given the accuracy of the instruments used • Express relationships among measurements in the form of a ratio, proportion, or percentage when appropriate** All specific proficiency standards apply to 10th grade except those marked with the double asterisk.Those standards are actually proficiency standards at the 6th grade level. They are included here as theywill be addressed as part of this project and are not currently taught within the elementary/middle schoolscience curriculums.These standards are also closely associated with the National Science Education Standards.Information Power: The Nine Literacy Standards for Student Learning(ALA/AASL)Standard 1: The student who is information literate accesses information efficiently andeffectively.
  • 19. Standard 2: The students who is information literate evaluates information critically andcompetently.Standard 3: The student who is information literate uses information accurately andcreatively.Standard 6: The student who is an independent learner is information literate and strivesfor excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation.Standard 8: The student who contributes positively to the learning community and tosociety is information literate and practices ethical behavior in regard to information andinformation technology.Standard 9: The student who contributes positively to the learning community and tosociety is information literate and participates effectively in groups to pursue andgenerate information.SubstrateThe Greenhouse Project consists of the design and construction of a greenhouse forPlymouth Regional High School. The students will be taking charge of all facets of theproject, including needs assessment, building design, fund raising, project presentationand construction. It will be a multi-disciplinary task joining freshmen physical sciencestudents and junior and senior vocational building trades students. The stages up throughproject presentation will take approximately six to eight weeks in the spring. Actualconstruction of the greenhouse will be accomplished by the Construction Technology II& III students during the following school year. The primary teachers are Ina Ahern(Science), Douglas Ross (Construction Technology) and Mardean Badger (Library MediaSpecialist).Planting the SeedThe project will be introduced to each class separately by the respective instructors: "Asyou know, weve been working on getting an addition to our building for the last fewyears. On Saturday, March 20, on our third attempt, the public approved the $6.3 millionbond issue at the school district meeting. One of the primary areas being addressed in thebuilding is the science facility — we will be renovating the current classrooms andadding four new classrooms at the back of the building. In the normal building designprocess from concept to finished plan, many hard decisions and choices are made as to
  • 20. what to include or exclude — and one that affected us was the elimination of agreenhouse early in the process. But we have two groups of students right in this buildingwho can become the consultants and contractors for this project — Ms. Ahern’s PhysicalScience class and Mr. Ross’s Construction Technology III class."Both classes gain an understanding of the overall project (needs assessment, designconsiderations, selection of a design, funding research, public presentation and actualconstruction) and understand their specific role(s) in the project. During the course of theproject, students work on different teams that are responsible for different facets of theprogram. Some of these teams include students from only one class, while others haverepresentatives from both classes. Each team has a leader or, in the case of joint teams,co-leaders.The physical science class is primarily responsible for conducting the needs assessment.Mary asks "What is a needs assessment?" John responds, "Its a kind of survey; we needto find out why we need a greenhouse." "We could ask all the science teachers why theyneed it for what they are teaching — and what should be in the greenhouse, too." "Arethere other schools in the state that have greenhouses?" "Maybe we could get someinformation from businesses that have greenhouses." As the discussion continues andideas begin to gel, the students realize that they may need three or four groups to gatherall the information needed — from science and other teachers; from state curriculumstandards; from other schools that have greenhouses; and from greenhouse professionals.Ms. Ahern schedules the Curriculum Lab upstairs for a few periods and, after Mrs.Badger reviews some basic procedures, the students begin their research. The teachersurvey group starts looking for some tips on how to write surveys (they find the librarianhas put some tips for survey writing on the project website). The students investigatingother schools discover that Webster, the state website, has a listing of schools with linksto their respective web sites — and they begin composing some questions to e-mail to thescience departments (or vocational agricultural programs) in those schools. And afterworking with different combinations of terms, one of the students finds some referencesto school greenhouses in other states by using one of the web search tools. Anotherstudent asks if there are standards for what has to be taught in biology class, and Ms.Ahern shows them how to find New Hampshires science curriculum frameworks on-line.As each group begins their work and accumulates information, they begin to organize theinformation so they can present their findings to the construction technology students forthe next step — and they also realize that this summary will be important later in theprocess, because the administration and school board will want to know why agreenhouse is needed before they approve the final project for construction.While the physical science class works on the needs assessment, the ConstructionTechnology II & III class has been informed that this years project, a greenhouse, will beconstructed in cooperation with science students and they will be designing, estimatingmaterials, pricing materials and, again, building the structure.
  • 21. Mr. Ross opens up the floor for discussion. "What are your thoughts, questions, orconcerns?" Jason asks, "How can we design a greenhouse without knowing what kindthey want? How big do they want it? Where is it going?" Steve wants to know what kindof material we will be constructing the greenhouse out of. Mike asks, "Will we beinstalling the heating and/or ventilation if it is needed?" At this point, Mr. Ross stopsthem to bring up one of the students, Jim, to write down all of the questions. Thequestions continue -- "How long of a project is this going to be?" asks Dave. Mike wantsto know where we can get the information to design the greenhouse. Will there be electricand plumbing considerations? Jessica wants to know if the kind of plants they want togrow will have an effect. And Tim wants to know, "What exactly is our role in thisproject with the science class?""These are all good questions," comments Mr. Ross. "What you first need to know is thatthe science students are conducting a needs assessment at this time, so their exact needsare not yet known. What this means to us is that we will research a number of differentdesigns using a number of different resources. I would like to see all of you first use theInternet. We also have a few designs on CD-ROM. While on the internet, see if you canlocate any architects, builders, listserves, magazines, or businesses that may be of use toyou in this project. Copy down the URL and bring it and the rest of your notes back toclass with you. What exactly is our role, Tim? Well, we will be the consumer with thescience department, the architect drafting the print using CADD, the general contractorputting the materials package and prices together, the builder constructing the greenhouseto the specifications in the print. Note, again, you will be doing this project in cooperationwith the science students, in mixed groups, so you may be only responsible for a few ofthe phases of the whole project.""You must know that each phase involves some form of presentation to another groupthat will lead into the next phase, so keep all of your information clear and concise andlist all of your references. We would like your presentations to be done using PowerPointand an LCD projector. After your research on design is complete, you will get intogroups with the science department, draft a plan using any of the CADD packagesavailable here at school, build a 3D model, and share your designs telling us theadvantages and disadvantages. After all of the groups have made their presentations, thewhole group at large will discuss and choose a design that best meets the needs of thescience department. This may include future needs. Plan for the future! What we havecovered today is definitely enough to take us through a couple of days. What I would likeyou to do for the rest of the class is to break into groups and discuss the questions up onthe board amongst yourselves, choose a recorder and hand in your notes at the end ofclass. Tomorrow we are scheduled for the Curriculum Lab, so bring your Internet cardswith you."About half way through the work on these first two sections of the project, students andteachers come to the realization that it would be helpful to have a joint, "face-to-face"meeting between the groups and with someone who is a professional in this area.Students prepare a list of topics and questions they would like addressed, and these are e-mailed to a professor at a local university who has agreed to come speak to the group
  • 22. about this project. In the joint meeting students have an opportunity to discuss questionsand concerns with their counterparts in the other class, as well as brainstorm ideas andseek guidance from the professional.CultivatingOnce the groups in both classes have organized the results of their research, they presenttheir findings to a joint session of the physical science/construction technology classes.After these presentations, three teams of eight are formed, with each team preparing adetailed design and model for one of the basic styles of greenhouses. Each group consistsof students from both physical science and construction technology, and have onerepresentative (an "expert") from each of the sub-groups which conducted the initialneeds assessment and design work. Part of the time, students work in their eight-personteams, while at other times they work during class-time in four-person groups. Duringthis stage of the project, communication between the physical science and constructiontechnology members of the team is critical. On each design team, a representative fromeach class is selected as team leader and becomes responsible for facilitating the workand communication.Lets listen in on the design team working on the lean-to style plan. During this timeperiod, the eight students are working together to begin looking at the design. Cory,physical science team leader, starts the conversation. "Okay, since were looking at thelean-to design, the siting of the greenhouse in relation to the building is critical. Whatfactors do we need to consider?" "It should be near the science facilities," commentsAndrea. "We need to consider sunlight," suggests Phil. "What direction should it face?""Did we decide how wide it has to be?" asks Harry. "The science teachers stated theywanted to be able to control the amount and type of light. What if we located it on acorner?" "Does someone have the blueprint of the school?" "How do we tell whichdirection is north?" By the end of the period, the students have come up with two possiblesites for the greenhouse and figured the dimensions necessary at each site to meet the sizerequirements of the science department. Each member of the team has specific tasks toresearch and complete prior to the next work session.As the design and model work nears completion, a third set of teams is formed toresearch and secure possible funding sources to enable building the greenhouse. "Do wehave any money in the school budget for this?" Jennifer asks. "No," respond both Ms.Ahern and Mr. Ross. "The budget was already developed for the school year before thisproject was planned, so we need to get creative about funding." Students from bothclasses begin brainstorming some possible funding sources and partnerships. "Maybesome local businesses would be willing to donate some money....," suggests Carolyn. "Ormaybe donate some of the materials that we need," Tim adds. "I could explain our projectto my boss at work -- maybe he would be interested in helping." "Is there any grantmoney we could apply for? I heard Mrs. Dreyer helps with our schools grants," saysJessica. "Can I go see her secretary to set up an appointment to meet with her?" "What ifwe see if some of the greenhouse suppliers have lower prices for schools -- or might bewilling to contribute something." "And maybe Mr. York, our School-to-Work
  • 23. coordinator, would have some ideas or connections." After the brainstorming, thestudents begin to organize their ideas and divide them into three or four groups. And theresearch begins......And the contacts are made.....by phone, by e-mail, by fax, and inperson. The local newspaper has even picked up the story, and the interest grows. Thefinancial package begins to come together, from several sources, and including donationsin money, materials, and time.Reaping What We Have SownThe students are now ready to pull all their team reports and data together into acomprehensive proposal, including goals and justification for the greenhouse, designoptions, site options, financial package, materials lists, time line, etc. The students requestsome extra advice and tips from other teachers and students. Some of the BusinessTechnology students share what they have learned about personal manner and appearancein business situations. Some of the Computer Skills students give assistance in puttingpart of the presentation into PowerPoint. Handouts are prepared, transparencies are made,the computer and LCD panel are set up, and parts are practiced. Presentation day arrivesand the students meet with the Facilities Committee of the Pemi-Baker Regional SchoolBoard. Approval for actual construction is finally obtained for the following school year.Memo to StudentsAs you know, we have been working on getting an addition to our building for the lastfew years. On Saturday, March 20, on our third attempt, the public approved the $6.3million bond issue at the school district meeting. One of the primary areas beingaddressed in the building is the science facility — we will be renovating the currentclassrooms and adding four new classrooms at the back of the building.In the normal process of taking a building from concept to finished plan, many harddecisions and choices are made as to what to include or exclude — and one that affectedus was the elimination of a greenhouse early in the process. Often, however, there areways to accomplish building projects (especially a smaller project) other than throughbond issues.After a careful review of several options, the school has decided to work with an in-houseteam. Therefore, Ms. Aherns Physical Science class and Mr. Rosss ConstructionTechnology II & III class have been appointed as the consultants and contractors for thePlymouth Regional High School Greenhouse Project.As consultants and contractors for the project, you have been assigned the following tasksto complete.
  • 24. Needs Assessment 1. Determine why a greenhouse is necessary to meet curriculum needs. Determine what features are necessary in the greenhouse to meet curriculum 2. needs. Greenhouse Basics 3. Understand the different styles and features common to a greenhouse. 4. Evaluate possible sites for the greenhouse. Building Design 5. Determine the best site for the greenhouse. 6. Create a design for the greenhouse. Funding Research and secure funding for construction of the greenhouse and 7. the implementation of the curriculum Project Approval 8. Prepare a final project proposal. Present the building proposal to the Facilities Committee of the Pemi-Baker 9. Regional School Board for approval. Construction 10. Construct the greenhouse.At some point during the project, you will need to take a leadership role on one of thecommittees. As a leader, you will be responsible for communication with the instructorsand between physical science and construction technology students and for ensuring thatthe project component is completedon schedule.To assist you in this project, we have provided you with some General Resources, alongwith guidelines and resources for each of the tasks above. Also be sure to view therubrics which will be used to evaluate your work.Your grade on this project will be based on a variety of tasks and evaluation will takeplace at various points in the project. The major sections of the project are: Task PointsNeeds Assessment (Physical Science) or Greenhouse Basics (Building 50
  • 25. Trades)Building Design 100Funding 50Approval 100Leadership 50Each of these sections has its own rubric that can be accessed through the hyperlink. It isrecommended that you reference these rubrics as you work on each section of the overallproject. Winter 1999 Course Homework ProjectsThe following projects were created as homework during a Winter 1999 LeadershipInstitute Integrating Internet, Curriculum, and Instruction pilot online course. Elementary School Projects LInC Online Home Page Middle SchoolAdopting an Endangered Species in Our AreaThis project involves groups of students in an investigation of endangered species at theIndiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Students are asked to take a field trip (either virutalor actual) to discover what species are in jeopardy and what resources are in place to savethe population. Students use technology to communicate with experts and research themost current statistics. The ultimate goal of the mission is to adopt an endangered speciesand disseminate relevant information about the species to the neighboring community.The project can be used as a model to investigate any communitys endangered speciesand provide the community with information.Summary Scenario Student Pages and RubricPre-LInC DescriptionAll about WaterThis project encourages students to research the drinking water delivery system in thelocal area, recognize the importance of political action regarding water conservationissues, communicate with a variety of subject matter experts, and collaborate with ninthgrade science students in aggregating collected data and reporting findings. Third gradestudents take water samples and analyze them using test kits. They develop a system tocatalog their samples and submit the results to project collaborators, ninth grade high
  • 26. school science students. This science class is to determine if there are any trends in thedata. They graph the results of their testing and summarize their investigations in a reportto their third grade collaborators. The high school classes locate the source ofcontaminants and the students identify sources of information that will help theminvestigate the problem and devise methods to remove the pollutants from the water. Thefiltration methods are tested, and appropriate officials are contacted if the situationwarrants. Student Pages, 3rd GradeSummary Scenario Rubric and 9th GradePre-LInC Description Rubric Middle School Projects LInC Online Home Page Elementary SchoolKnowing the Western Hemisphere - A Student-GuidedStudy of Countries in the Western HemisphereA class of 6th grade bilingual students will use the Internet and e-mail, as well as moretraditional methods, to research a selected group of countries from Central and SouthAmerica and the Caribbean. Students will contact real people to learn about thegeography, history, culture, current events and other interesting facts about particularcountries. They will prepare reports and share them orally and on a classroom Web site.Information will be appropriate for middle school students including other LEP/Spanishspeaking students who are studying the Western Hemisphere.Summary Scenario Student Pages and RubricPre-LInC DescriptionVideo Game Hall of FameStudents are asked to investigate what makes videogames popular by a videogameconglomerate with poor sales. Students will produce a report for the company with data,conclusions, and suggestions for designing a new videogame. The students will createsurveys and graphs to base their conclusions on. They will use the Internet tocommunicate with students in other schools in the U.S. and to contact majormanufacturers and distributors of videogames.Summary Student Pages and Rubric 1, ScenarioPre-LInC Description Rubric 2 High School Projects LInC Online Home Page TeacherA View with No SlantStudent will compare and contrast how historical events are taught in different cultures.
  • 27. In the process students will communicate with experts and other students of the targetculture using high technology such as e-mail and Internet. The final result of what theyfound will be displayed in the method of their choice such as play performance and Webpage. The display will be presented at the annual Foreign Language Festival in the spring.Summary Scenario Student Pages and RubricPre-LInC DescriptionAll about WaterThis project encourages students to research the drinking water delivery system in thelocal area, recognize the importance of political action regarding water conservationissues, communicate with a variety of subject matter experts, and collaborate with ninthgrade science students in aggregating collected data and reporting findings. Third gradestudents take water samples and analyze them using test kits. They develop a system tocatalog their samples and submit the results to project collaborators, ninth grade highschool science students. This science class is to determine if there are any trends in thedata. They graph the results of their testing and summarize their investigations in a reportto their third grade collaborators. The high school classes locate the source ofcontaminants and the students identify sources of information that will help theminvestigate the problem and devise methods to remove the pollutants from the water. Thefiltration methods are tested, and appropriate officials are contacted if the situationwarrants. Student Pages, 3rd GradeSummary Scenario Rubric and 9th GradePre-LInC Description RubricBudget BonanzaStudents will participate in a unit on financial planning that will feature the use ofelectronic resources, as well as including traditional resources. They will investigate thenecessity of sound financial planning. Students will be randomly assigned families andaccompanying fates which they will then work with to plan their financial futures. Thisproject will teach the skills, vocabulary, and concepts of personal economics in a hands-on authentic manner that is not as intimidating to students as the traditional textbookapproach. Supplemental information and prizes will be provided by professionalcommunity experts. Guest speakers from the field of financial planning will also act asjudges of the final presentations.Summary Student Pages and Rubric ScenarioPre-LInC Description Project Table of ContentsCommunity Heritage ProjectLearning to be a contributing citizen in ones community often means learning to makeconnections. In this project students investigate the idea of connectiveness to their localcommunity. They look at the connections they will make to become contributing
  • 28. members as well as looking at what connections cause people to remain in a communityor move "back home." The project takes the idea of connections one step further inengaging students to create a video and/or promotional brochure about their communityto help connect it to others in the world. The ultimate goal is for students contributions totheir community help their improve their communitys economy.Summary Scenario Student Pages and RubricPre-LInC DescriptionExploring Our Past: The Revolutionary WarHigh school students are challenged to explore and research Revolutionary War soldiersburied within our county. During the project, student groups will research and write fact-based reports and multimedia presentations about the soldiers, the era in which theylived, and the effects of war in general. Their challenge is to create Web sites with imagesand fictionalized stories, letters, journals and accounts of these soldiers based oncollaboration with experts, interviews with local historians, research through on-linemuseums and schools, and interviews with local veterans. These fictionalized stories ofwar and its effects will be posted on the Internet along with photographs and art relatingto their report.Summary Scenario Student Pages and RubricPre-LInC DescriptionLead It BeUrban students are seldom interested in anything that does not effect them directly. Theycan avoid the water in lakes and streams, however, they cannot avoid water which theyconsume. Water quality in Milwaukee is always an issue. Remember cryptosporidium?This unit will be a collaboration between the Chemistry Department and the TechnologyDepartment, as well as, incorporate collaboration between various schools to pool datagathered. Students will be asked to help design and run tests dealing with theconcentration of lead that might be found in drinking water.Summary Scenario 1, Scenario 2 Student Pages and RubricPre-LInC DescriptionRoller Coaster DesignThis is an interdisciplinary project that involves industrial technology classes and physicsclasses in designing, building and critiquing roller coasters and other amusement parkrides. The first semester physics class will research the safety standards and thecomponents of a ride that make it "fun" via Web sites and post these results on this Website. The CAD (computer-assisted drafting) classes will research ride designs on theinternet and then design their own based on the safety and "fun" criteria set up by the firstphysics class. The material processing classes will build the design after researchingstructural properties of materials on the Internet. The second semester physics class will
  • 29. critique these models by comparing them to the standards determined by the first physicsclass. Student Page 1, StudentSummary Scenario Page 2, Student Page 3,Pre-LInC Description Student Page 4 and RubricWe Never Promised You a Greenhouse . . . .The Greenhouse Project consists of the design and construction of a working greenhousefor the Plymouth Regional High School Science Department. The students will be takingcharge of all facets of the project, including needs assessment, greenhouse basics,building design, funding proposal, project proposal presentation, and construction. It willbe a multi-disciplinary project joining freshman physical science students and junior andsenior vocational building trades students.Summary Scenario Student Pages and RubricPre-LInC DescriptionWhat Happened to the Nuclear Promise?This is a unit to last three weeks and intended to be implemented later in the school year.Students will use the Internet and e-mail to communicate with many other scientist,experts, educators, and instititutions around the world. Students will share informationwith each other to help set and guide their projects.Summary Scenario Student Pages and RubricPre-LInC Description Teacher Projects LInC Online Home Page High SchoolEducational MUVESThe Educational MUVE Project introduces educators to a critical yet often overlookedarea of the Internet: Educational Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs). Although alarge number of "EdMUVEs" exist in a wide range of subject matters, many have neverheard of, let alone visited these important online communities. It is the hope of thisproject to facilitate, educate and motivate K-12 educators to utilize this vital tool forbringing education into the next millennium.Summary Scenario Student Pages and RubricPre-LInC Description (NA)G. R. I. D. (Guided Relevant Internet Discovery)K-5 teachers will be active participants in creating lesson plans that interweavetechnology objectives with the teaching of core curricular areas. The participants will
  • 30. design, select, and construct technology-enriched lesson plans. The results will be aninteractive site that contains a grid featuring teacher-selected web sites organized bygrade level and subject. Engaged users will have the opportunity to publish critiques,suggest classroom applications and recommend additional web sites for the grid.Furthermore, learners will be given the opportunity to submit lesson plans to theMichigan Department of Education for publication on the "Best Practices inTechnology:" CD.Summary Scenario Student Pages and RubricPre-LInC DescriptionMultiple Intelligences and TechnologyThis is a workshop that provides professional development in instructional technologyand Multiple Intelligences. Teachers will meet both physically and virtually. Theparticipants will be challenged to work in teams to develop a lesson for their disciplinethat reflects the Michigan Curriculum Framework, contains more than two multipleintelligences and involves than two uses of technology including the Internet. Teacherswill make a home page as the final project that will be posted to a larger database andshared with educators around the world. The projects will also be submitted to the "BestPractice in Teaching" contest sponsored by the Michigan Association of IntermediateSchool Administrators and the REMC Association of Michigan.Summary Scenario Student Pages and RubricPre-LInC Description Staff Development PlansSt. Ignace, MI - Budget BonanzaCarrollton, IL - Exploring Our Past: The Revolutionary WarGreen Bay, WI - A View with No SlantMahtomedi, MN - Roller Coaster DesignMilwaukee, WI - Lead It BePlymouth, NH - We Never Promised You a Greenhouse . . . .Paterson, NJ - Knowing the Western Hemisphere - A Student-Guided Study of Countries inthe Western HemisphereEl Cerrito, CA - Educational MUVESChicago, IL - Adopting an Endangered Species in Our AreaDetroit, MI - Multiple Intelligences and TechnologyFort Benton, MT - Community Heritage ProjectFarmington, MI - G.R.I.D. (Guided Relevant Internet Discovery) Project Design Guide
  • 31. As mentioned on the Project Introduction Page, your project has three components: thescenario, the presentation page, and the student pages. The purpose of the Project DesignGuide is to give you a clear idea of what each component entails.As you know, the focus of this course is to create an engaged learning (Plugging In)experience for your students that best utilizes the Internets unique capabilities. LInCOnline provides you with the information you need to create a Web project that is infusedwith the elements of engaged learning and technology.To fulfill the requirements of this course, you must include these three components inyour project.Your scenario is a vision of your project in action! A narrative version of what someonemight see, hear and feel if they were visiting your classroom. It is an opportunity forothers to "see" what your project might look like in practice.The project presentation page is basically an outline format that lists the projectdescription, subject and level, learner description, rationale, goals and objectives,structure of the learning, assessment, and evaluation.The student pages are the pages you have created or linked to in order facilitate thestudents investigations. One component of the student pages often forgotten is creating aproject rubric that you will use to assess students work.For additional information about the three components, click on the links shown below.Things to keep in mind . . .You may not violate copyright laws. Any resources retrieved from the Internet and usedin your project must be accompanied by a reference/citation telling where it wasobtained.Make certain you are familiar with the guidelines for naming an HTML file. Followingthese rules will make linking your pages and images easier.
  • 32. Before you begin writing your pages think about the qualities of a good Web page. Visitour page on Web page design for guidelines.To save time in creating your pages, your facilitator can guide you to templates whichyou should use for your project Web pages. Contact your facilitator for directions on howto obtain these templates when you are ready to begin designing your Web pages.Note: If you will be drafting in a word processor, be sure to keep all of your work inplain text. Formatting text at this time may create problems when you paste your workinto an HTML editor.Click below to see the format you should use when creating your project. These areprovided to help you get started writing your own page. • Presentation Template • Scenario Template • Student Page Template • Rubric Template • Unit Implementation before Link Your Project Title Here RubricThe rubric for your project goes here.Try using a table with your learner outcomes listed in the left column or top row anddescriptors for different levels of accomplishing each of those outcomes in the rest of thetable. Your Project Title Here Unit Description before LInC Summary Scenario Student Pages Rubric Index of Projects
  • 33. Please fill in this description of how your project was conducted before LInC. Please donot describe your current LInC project. If your project was not used before, describeactivities used to accomplish the same learner outcomes and content as your LInC projector describe a unit or activity used instead of your LInC project. This should be short: one-half to one page in length.Grade Level:Subject:Learner Outcomes: 1. Outcome 1 2. Outcome 2 3. ...Assessment: Explain how you will assessment the learner outcomes.Student Task: Briefly describe the activities/tasks the students were involved in.Teacher Role: Describe the role/activities the teacher had.Grouping: Describe whether students worked individually or in teams. If in teams, whatwas each student responsible for?Hook: Describe the method you used (if any) to create a need for your students to wantto learn this content and complete the project/task.Student-Directed Learning: Describe opportunities (if any) students had to choose orplan their learning in this project/task.Use of Technology: Describe whether and how technology and the Internet were used.Assessment: Describe how students were assessed/graded. (e.g., test, report, journaling,rubric, presentation, . . .)Example: Civil War (Delete this example when you are done.)Grade Level: 6Subject: Social StudiesLearner Outcomes: 1. Students will be able to list important events and causes of the U.S. Civil War.
  • 34. 2. Students will be able to identify key people and their roles in the Civil War. 3. Students will understand how war affects people.Student Task: Students read from their textbook, read short stories and saw a movieabout the Civil War. The short stories were written from opposing points of view. Thenthe students participated in a large group discussion about the causes and effects of theCivil War and slavery. After this, the students wrote a report about causes and effects of apast or current civil war and compared it to the U.S. Civil War. The students were given aresearch plan to follow, which included using specific types of research sources at thelibrary and instructions for creating a HyperStudio presentation for the class at the end ofthe unit.Teacher Role: The teacher gave lectures, made assignments, lead the group discussion,and helped students who had questions getting started with their research.Grouping: Students worked in pairs on their reports and individually otherwise. Nospecific roles were assigned for the reports. Both students were responsible for thecontent.Hook: None.Student-Directed Learning: Students chose which civil war to do their report on.Use of Technology: A movie was used and students used CD-ROMs for their research.The Internet was not used for this project. Students used HyperStudio for theirpresentations and were provided computer lab time to do so.Assessment: Students took a short-answer test on U.S. Civil War on the last day of theproject. They were graded based on their test, report, presentation, and classroomparticipation. Guidelines for Naming HTML Files and FoldersThese tips are intended to save you time as you create and edit your Web pages. 1. HTML file names should end in the suffix ".html" or ".htm". Whichever suffix you decide to use, please talk to your team members and use the same suffix on all your project html pages. Otherwise it is hard to remember which is which and your project will likely have more broken links in it. Example: myhomepage.html
  • 35. In addition, use a consistent and standard suffix on other file formats indicating the format (.jpg, .gif, .wav, . . .).2. The file name should be no more than 32 characters, including the ".html" or ".htm" file suffix. Because your filename will become part of your Web pages URL, it is better to use a slightly longer file name that will have an easier URL to remember than a jumble of unpronounceable letters. For example: Which of these would be easier to remember and give to a friend as a URL: hurricanes.html or hrrcns.html ? More examples: kennedy.html shakespeare.htm3. The first character of the file name should be a letter.4. File names and folder names should contain only letters, digits, and underscores—no spaces, punctuation, or funny characters. We want to really emphasize this because people who do not follow these guidelines end up spending much more time fixing broken links, which can be a source of frustration. This is a "conservative" guideline with the goal that you should not have to spend extra time redoing your links if you move your files from one type of computer to another. This has been an issue for some past LInC participants when moving or copying their LInC project Web pages from the LInC class Web site to their school Web site.5. Whenver possible, make relative links for links from your project Web pages to other Web pages that are in that same project. This will make it possible to move your LInC project Web site to your school Web server without having to fix dozens of links. A relative link to a file in the same folder as the web page you are editing looks like: "shakespeare.html". In contrast, an "absolute" link looks like: "http://ed.fnal.gov/lincon/projects/essays/shakespeare.shtml". You can see that if your project was copied onto a different web server, you would have to fix all those absolute links. You will need to use absolute links when linking to Web pages for external resources that are not inside your project folder.6. We strongly suggest using all lower case letters because people make fewer mistakes. Web authors (such as yourself) make fewer mistakes when creating links to your pages. Web readers make fewer mistakes when typing in the addresses to access your pages.7. Use relatively short names that are indicative of the content of the page. Nothing "cute" because you probably wont remember it six months from now when you need to edit it.8. Also name your files with images, sounds, etc., with names that will help you remember what is in them. Participants who name their images something like picture1.jpg through picture20.jpg are frequently frustrated later because they have to open five or ten files later to find the image they want to edit. If you instead name your images something more descriptive, they will be easier to find later. Examples:
  • 36. lightbulb.gif book.jpg bluebullet.gif redline.jpg stopsign.gif 9. Be sure to create a graphics folder (directory) inside the folder (directory) you are using for all your Web pages. It should be titled "graphics"--all lower case letters. Past participants who did not do this have told us they wish they did because it was harder to keep their files organized with so many pictures in with the Web pages. 10. Name your anchors in your pages something descriptive. An anchor named "#assessment" is easier to link to and tell others about than an anchor named "#anchor82904872".This means that in your file names, folder names, and anchor names there should be: No SPACES or TABS No COMMAS or APOSTROPHES No SLASHES or QUOTES No # & % + * = @ ~ ^ $ No < > ( ) [ ] { } : ; ? ! No Other Unusual CharactersAre these HTML file names OK? If not, why? 1. district123_home_page 2. my homepage.html 3. linc_home.html
  • 37. 4. 1_4_all.html5. a:b.htm6. JoesReview.html7. earthquakes.HTML8. socrates.html9. buy/sell.html10. "alpine"skiing.html11. exercise#1.html12. costs>10bucks.html13. editor.htm14. rnfrst.htm15. image6.JPEG16. why_problem_based?.html