Overview• Spans 900 to 1500• Early half of era consisted of monophonic chants, laude, and songs• Later part of the era consisted of polyphonic mass movements, mass cycels, motets, and secular songs
Chant• Deﬁned: monophonic liturgical music of the Christian Church• There are various categories of chant that reﬂect the historical time frame, geography, and usage
Categories of chant• Old Roman• Mozarabic• Gallican• Ambrosian• Gregorian• Sarum
• Old Roman: 7th through 9th centuries• Mozarabic: 7th-9th but sung by Christians in Spain under Muslim rule• Gallican: chants composed in Gaul before the 10th century• Ambrosian: named after St. Ambrose - chant centered in Milan (Italy) during the 12th and 13th centuries• Gregorian: label given to liturgical chant sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church• Sarum: Gregorian chants that were modiﬁed and used throughout the British Isles between 13th and 16th Ccenturies
Gregorian ChantBegan in the late 17th Century with Pope Gregory who called for a common liturgy in efforts to consolidate the different factions of the Catholic Church
Best known chants• Ave Maria (1679) • Pange lingua (957)• Cantate Domino (826) • Salve regina (279, 276)• Dies irae (1810) • Vicimae paschali laudes (780)• Hodie Christus natus est (413)• Magniﬁcat anima mea (207-212) ✤ this list taken from Dennis Schrock’s Choral Repertoire (2009)• O magnum mysterium (382)
Characteristics of chant• syllabic or melismatic?• does it have musical structure or is it through-composed?
How to read chantThis is a description of the traditional Gregorian Chant notation, so that anyone will be able to read thenotation and sing it.Chant is written in neumes, which are notes sung on a single syllable.Gregorian Chant has no meter at all, though it does have a rhythm of groups of 2 or 3 notes.Vertical lines separate musical phrases and may sometimes allow a pause for taking a breath, likeChant is not in a major key or a minor key, but in modes (though there are some modes which cansound like a modern scale).Chant is written on a 4-line staff, instead of 5 lines as music is written on now. marks where Do is on the staff. Here it is on the third line from the bottom, so if Do is on C thenthe lines would go F-A-C-E. would mean that Do is on the top line, so if Do is on C the notes on the lines would be D-F-A-C. is a Fah Clef, and indicates where Fah is on the staff. Here, Do would be on the bottom space.
Assignment: Transcribing chant• On the next slide, you will ﬁnd the “Hodie Christus natus est” chant.• Transcribe the piece into modern notation, carefully aligning text with notes.• Extra points for putting it into sibelius.• Due: TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 7, 2012 (place in my box)