English consonants - Fall 2012


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English consonants - Fall 2012

  2. 2. CONSONANTS It’s easy There are 25 symbols for the consonants of English – sixteenare identical to the letters in theEnglish alphabet!
  3. 3. CONSONANTSIt’s hard These are funny words and you have to remember what they mean: Bi-labial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottis
  4. 4. Quiz next class!
  5. 5. CONSONANTSDEFINEDA consonant is a speech sound that is formed when thearticulators interrupt the flow of air through the vocal tract.The place of articulation, the manner of articulation, and thevoicing of a consonant determine its classification.Well sung consonants are precise, quick, energetic, andprovide definition of the vocal line.
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OFCONSONANTS1. Voicing: Are they voiced or unvoiced?2. Place of Articulation3. Manner of articulation{Think of consonants as having three names – first, middle,last}
  7. 7. VOICED OR NOT?Either voiced or unvoiced – if it has pitch or not.[feel your throat to know the difference] [z] vs. [s] [b] vs. [p] [d] vs. [t] [g] vs. [k] [v] vs. [f]
  8. 8. PLACE OFARTICULATIONBi-labial: Lips [p] [b] [m]Labio-dental: top teeth touching bottom lip [f] [v]Dental: teeth [θ] [ð]Alveolar: gum ridge [t] [d] [s] [z] [n]Palatal: hard palate [ʃ] [ʒ] [tʃ] [dʒ]Velar: soft palate [k] [g] [ŋ]Glottis: space between vocal folds [h]
  9. 9. MANNER OFARTICULATIONManner of articulation – what happens to the structures thatare involved. STOP-PLOSIVES FRICATIVES AFFRICATIVES NASALS LATERALS (LIQUIDS) GLIDES See text book on page 130
  10. 10. STOP-PLOSIVESThe airflow is prevented from passing through the mouth ornose and is suddenly released.Pairs of stop-plosive consonants differentiated by theirvoicing: [p] and [b] [t] and [d] [k] and [g]
  11. 11. PLOSIVES [p] and [b] ARTICULATED WHERE????? [t] and [d] ARTICULATED WHERE????? [k] and [g] ARTICULATED WHERE?????
  12. 12. PLOSIVES [p] and [b] BI-LABIAL [t] and [d] ALVEOLAR [k] and [g] VELAR
  13. 13. [p]Sound in context: push, depend, stopSpellings: pest1. The everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace2. Oh the deep, deep love of Jesus3. Perky Patty picks pretty pink posies
  14. 14. [b]Sound in context: back, about, webSpellings: best1. But who may abide the day of his coming2. We are climbing Jacob’s ladder3. Brett burned Brian’s buttered breakfast biscuits
  15. 15. [d]Sound in context: deaf, widow, sadSpellings: done1. And the ears of the deaf unstopped2. O Sacred Head, now wounded3. Doleful David disavows dapper Dan’s disclaimer
  16. 16. [t]Sound in context: took, seated, brightSpellings: ton, kissed1. O thou that tellest good tidings to Zion2. Comfort, comfort ye my people3. Tiny tots attain terribly tattered mittens
  17. 17. [g]Sound in context: give, begun, bigSpellings: ghost, got1. Glory to God in the highest2. God of grace and God of glory3. Good girls get great gag giftsCommon problem: substitution of unvoiced [k] for voiced[g], particularly when it is in the final position.“vigor” should not sound like “vicar”
  18. 18. [k]Sound in context: cost, become, walkSpellings: cot, chorus, sick, keep, unique1. Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her2. Come, all Christians, be committed3. Ken’s calm cow comforted Kathie’s kicking, crying calves
  19. 19. NASALSA nasal consonant is one in which the oralpassageway is blocked at some point and the softpalate is lowered to allow the air to flow throughthe nasal passageway.Three nasal consonants: [m] [n] [ŋ]
  20. 20. [m]Voiced or Unvoiced?:Place of articulation:Manner of articulation:
  21. 21. [m]Voiced or Unvoiced?: VoicedPlace of articulation: BilabialManner of articulation: NasalCommon Problems: Insufficient nasal resonance. The [m]sound should be well hummed up through the nose in speechand singing. Also – inadequate duration or muffledness.
  22. 22. [n]Voiced or Unvoiced?:Place of articulation:Manner of articulation:
  23. 23. [n]Voiced or Unvoiced?: unvoicedPlace of articulation: alveolarManner of articulation: nasalCommon problems: insufficient nasal resonance;inadequate duration.
  24. 24. [ŋ]Voiced or Unvoiced?:Place of articulation:Manner of articulation:
  25. 25. [ŋ]Voiced or Unvoiced?: voicedPlace of articulation: velarManner of articulation: nasalCommon problems: insufficient nasal resonance;inadequate duration; substitution of [n] for [ŋ]
  26. 26. Words with [ŋ]Hanging [hæŋ ɪŋ]Singing [sɪŋ ɪŋ]Long [lɔŋ]Finger [fɪŋ ɡər]Single [sɪŋ ɡəl]Bank [bæŋk]Drunk [drʌŋk]
  27. 27. FRICATIVES (WALL, 161)A fricative consonant is one in which the air flow is partiallyinterrupted as it passes through the vocal tract, thus producinga noisy sound. Because they can be sustained, they are calledcontinuants. There are four pairs of cognates plus [h]. [v] vs. [f] [ð] vs [ɵ] [z] vs [s] [ʒ] vs [ʃ] [h]
  28. 28. REMEMBERING THEMIDDLE NAME[v] vs. [f] voiced or unvoiced labio-dental fricative[ð] vs [ɵ] voiced or unvoiced dental fricative[z] vs [s] voiced or unvoiced alveolar ridge fricative[ʒ] vs [ʃ] voiced or unvoiced palatal fricative
  29. 29. [h]Voiced or Unvoiced?Place of articulation:Manner of articulation
  30. 30. [h]Voiced or Unvoiced?Place of articulation: ɡlottisManner of articulation: fricativeCommon problems: over aspiration; pushing too much airthrough the glottis, resulting in breathiness.
  31. 31. AFFRICATIVES: COMBINATIONCONSONANTSDefined: Consonants that combine the articulation of twoconsonant sounds into a single speech unit.“A composite speech sound consisting of a stop and africative articulated at the same point (as “ch” in chair and “j”in joy)
  32. 32. AFFRICATIVESIn English, there are four combination consonants or twopairs of cognates:[tʃ][dʒ][ts][dz]
  33. 33. AFFRICATIVES[tʃ]Chill, nature, much, ancient, choice, question1. For unto us a child is born2. When the church of Jesus3. But they still got an itch for heavenly graces
  34. 34. AFFRICATIVES[dʒ]Context: jaw, region, ageSpellings: budge, soldier, gentle, joy1. Behold a virgin shall conceive.2. Jesus loves me3. I shall imagine life.
  35. 35. AFFRICATIVES[ts]Context: ______, _______, sitsSpellings: eats, waltz, lets1. The lord of hosts.2. Christian hearts in love united.3. My papa’s waltz.
  36. 36. AFFRICATIVES[dz]Context: _______, ______, wedsSpellings: sends, God’s, solitudesThere were shepherds abiding in the field.
  37. 37. SPELLINGS FOR ‘QU’AND ‘X’QuTwo possible sounds in English:[k] quiche, conquer, baroque[kw] quite, require
  38. 38. SPELLINGS FOR ‘QU’AND ‘X’xIn initial position, like “xylophone”[z]In medial position, like the word “excuse”[ks]
  39. 39. IN EXCELSIS DEOHow do you say it?
  40. 40. IN EXCELSIS DEOCorrect:[in ɛkʃɛlsis dɛɔ]
  41. 41. PRACTICE!ChoseJamChinaBridgeMatchBreech
  42. 42. PRACTICE!Chose [tʃ]Jam [dʒ]China [tʃ]Bridge [dʒ]Match [tʃ]Breech [tʃ]
  43. 43. PRACTICE!ShareChairBeigeHedgeShipChipMatchBreech
  44. 44. PRACTICE!Share [ʃ]Chair [tʃ]Beige [ʒ]Hedge [dʒ]Ship [ʃ]Chip [tʃ]Match [tʃ]Breech [tʃ]
  45. 45. TRANSCRIBE In the scented bud of the morning – O When the windy grass went rippling far, I saw my dear one walking slow In the field where the daisies are.
  46. 46. [ɪn ðə sɛntəd bʌd əv ðə mɔ3nɪŋ oʊhwɛn ðə wɪndɪ ɡræs wɛnt rɪplɪŋ fa3ɑɪ sɔ mɑɪ dɪ3 wʌn wɔkɪŋ sloʊɪn ðə fild hwɛ3 ðə dɛɪzɪz ɑ3]
  47. 47. We did not lauɡh and we did not speak As we wandered happily to and fro; I kissed mydear on either cheek, In the bud of the morning – O.