On-demand self-service. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service’s provider.Broad network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs).Resource pooling. The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of locationindependence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines.Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out, and rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.Measured Service. Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.
Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings.Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations, typically through a pay-per-use business model.Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).
Private cloud. The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.Community cloud. The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.Public cloud. The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.Hybrid cloud. The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds).
The NIST Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) Validation Program (SCAP) is designed to test the ability of products to use the features and functionality available through SCAP and its component standards.XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) is a freely available, standards-based way to communicate and exchange business information between business systems.
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RSA: CSA GRC Stack Update for the CSA Atlanta Chapter
Cloud ComputingNIST Definition<br />UPDATED (Jan 2011) – National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 800-145 (Draft)<br />Model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) <br />Rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction<br />Composed of 5 essential characteristics, 3 service models, and 4 deployment models.<br />Source: http://www.nist.gov/itl/csd/cloud-020111.cfm<br />
Cloud Computing5 Essential Characteristics<br />On-demand tenant self-service model for provisioning computing capabilities (server time, network storage, etc.)<br />Broad network access with capabilities over the network accessible by standard mechanisms and mobile platforms<br />Resource pooling through dynamically assigned physical and virtual capabilities delivered in a multi-tenant model and location independent<br />Rapid elasticity of provisioned resources automatically or manually adjusted aligned with service level flexibility and needs<br />Measured service to monitor, control and report on transparent resource optimization<br />
Cloud Computing3 Service Models<br />Software as a Service (SaaS)<br />Capability made available to tenant (or consumer) to use provider’s applications running on cloud infrastructure, accessible via web browser, mobile apps, and system interfaces.<br />Examples: Salesforce.com, Drop Box, Box.net, Google Docs, WebEx<br />Platform as a Service (PaaS)<br />Capability made available to tenant to deploy tenant owned (created or acquired) applications using programming languages and tools supported by provider.<br />Examples: Microsoft Azure, Amazon Web Services, Bungee Connect<br />Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) / Datacenter as a Service (DaaS)<br />Capability made available to tenant to provision processing, storage, networks or other fundamental computing resources to host and run tenant’s applications.<br />Examples: Rackspace, Terremark (Verizon), Savvis, AT&T<br />
Cloud Computing4 Deployment Models<br />(4) HYBRID<br /><ul><li>Composition of 2 or more deployment models that remain unique entities
Bound together by standardized or proprietary technology enabling data and application portability</li></li></ul><li>Cloud ComputingSecurity: Largest Barrier to Adoption<br />
HISPI membership (Release ISO Review Body)</li></li></ul><li>Cloud Controls MatrixCharacteristics<br /><ul><li>Objective measure to monitor activities and then take corrective action to accomplish organizational goals.
Comprised of a set of policies and processes (internal controls) affecting the way Cloud services are directed, administered or controlled.
Aligned to Information Security regulatory rules and industry accepted guidance.
Controls reflect the intent of the CSA Guidance as applied to existing patterns of Cloud execution.</li></li></ul><li>Cloud Controls MatrixOptimal & Holistic Compliance<br />Bridging Regulatory Governance And Practical Compliance<br />
Consensus Assessment Initiative<br />Research tools and processes to perform shared assessments of cloud providers<br />Lightweight “common assessment criteria” concept<br />Integrated with Controls Matrix<br />Ver 1 CAI Questionnaire released Oct 2010, approx 140 provider questions to identify presence of security controls or practices<br />
Consensus Assessment InitiativeTeam<br />Contributors<br /><ul><li>Matthew Becker – Bank of America
CloudAudit<br />Provide a common interface and namespace that allows cloud computing providers to automate the Audit, Assertion, Assessment, and Assurance (A6) of their environments<br />Allow authorized consumers of services to do likewise via an open, extensible and secure interface and methodology.<br />
CloudAuditObjective<br />A structure for organizing assertions and supporting documentation for specific controls across different compliance frameworks in a way that simplifies discovery by humans and tools.<br />Define a namespace that can support diverse frameworks<br />Express five critical compliance frameworks in that namespace<br />Define the mechanisms for requesting and responding to queries relating to specific controls<br />Integrate with portals and AAA systems<br />
CloudAuditAligned to Cloud Controls Matrix<br />First efforts aligned to compliance frameworks as established by CSA Control Matrix:<br />PCI DSS<br />HIPAA<br />COBIT<br />ISO/IEC 27001-2005<br />NISTSP800-53<br />Incorporate CSA’s CAI and additional CompliancePacks<br />Expand alignment to “infrastructure” and “operations” -centric views also<br />
CloudAuditRelease Deliverables<br />Contains all Compliance Packs, documentation and scripts needed to begin implementation of CloudAudit<br />Working with Service Providers and Tool Vendors for Adoption<br />Officially folded CloudAudit under the Cloud Security Alliance in October, 2010<br />http://www.cloudaudit.org/CloudAudit_Distribution_20100815.zip<br />
CloudAuditRelease Deliverables (cont.)<br />manifest.xml<br />Structured listing of control endpoints contents<br />Can be extended to provide contextual information<br />Primarily aimed at tool consumption<br />In Atom format<br />
CSA GRC Stack<br />Bringing it all together to peel back the layers of control ownership and address concerns for trusted Cloud adoption.<br />Provider Assertions<br />Private, Community & Public Clouds<br />Control Requirements<br />
CSA GRC Stack<br /><ul><li>Whether implementing private, public or hybrid clouds, the shift to compute as a service presents new challenges across the spectrum of Governance, Risk Management and Compliance (GRC) requirements – success dependent upon:
Relevant control objectives and timely access to necessary supporting data.
CSA GRC Stack provides a toolkit for enterprises, cloud providers, security solution providers, IT auditors and other key stakeholders to instrument and assess both private and public clouds against industry established best practices, standards and critical compliance requirements.
Integrated suite of 3 CSA initiatives: CloudAudit, Cloud Controls Matrix (CCM) and Consensus Assessments Initiative Questionnaire (CAIQ).
Available now for free download at: www.cloudsecurityalliance.org/grcstack.zip</li></li></ul><li>CSA GRC StackBringing it all together…<br />
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)
Statement on Standards for Attestation Engagements (SSAE) No. 16 SOC 2 – Service Organization Controls over Security, Confidentiality, Processing Integrity, Availability, and Privacy
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Consolidated feedback on Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP)</li></li></ul><li>CSA GRC StackIndustry Collaboration & Support (cont.)<br /><ul><li>Inverse Control Framework Mappings
Information Security Forum (ISF)</li></li></ul><li>About the Cloud Security Alliance<br />
About the Cloud Security Alliance<br />Global, not-for-profit organization<br />Almost 18,000 individual members, 80 corporate members<br />Building best practices and a trusted cloud ecosystem<br />Agile philosophy, rapid development of applied research<br />GRC: Balance compliance with risk management<br />Reference models: build using existing standards<br />Identity: a key foundation of a functioning cloud economy<br />Champion interoperability<br />Advocacy of prudent public policy<br />“To promote the use of best practices for providing security assurance within Cloud Computing, and provide education on the uses of Cloud Computing to help secure all other forms of computing.”<br />