Morrisons session 4 phils


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  • Introduce session aims.
  • Introduce session objectives.
  • Explain that effective working within business teams is one of the underpinning principles of a lean organisation.
  • Ask the team to flip chart what they think makes an effective team. Feedback to each peer group.
    Explain that there are distinct differences between a group and a work team. Calling a group a team does not make them a team. Work groups have a strong individual focus and teams have a strong collective focus. The individual is not lost on a team, but that person's work is co-ordinated to fit in with the greater good. Team concerns are much more focused on the outcomes of the overall unit rather than an individual's accomplishments.
  • Expand on each work team.
    Work teams – are usually members of a specific work area or department that have the common goal of achieving the aims of the department, for example, shipping 100 containers per day, manufacturing 2000 parts per day or making 100 sales calls per day
    Project teams – often are put together to work on a new product launch or development. The people in project teams work together for one specific reason, the aims of the project and are often then dispersed after the project completion.
    Cross functional teams – these types of teams gather members from across the organisation, this ensure they have specialist knowledge from across a variety of departments as well as from different levels within an organisation.
    Interdependent teams - members of an interdependent-level work group rely on each other to get the work done. Sometimes members have their own roles and at other times they share responsibilities. Yet, in either case, they coordinate with one another to produce an overall product or set of outcomes. When this interdependence exists, you have a team.
  • Explain that - Effective business teams don’t just happen, they get together one day and decide to be an effective team, they develop and mature and go through several phases before becoming an effective business team.
    Describe how Tuckman's model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style. Beginning with a directing style, moving through coaching, then participating. At this point the team may produce a successor leader and the previous leader can move on to develop a new team.
  • Explain that, Dr Meredith Belbin studied team-work for many years, and famously observed that people in teams tend to assume different "team roles." He defined a team role as "a tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way" and named nine such team roles that he argued underlie team success.
    Although Belbin identified 9 different team roles, it was also identified that the differences between these roles fit into 3 categories; action orientated roles, people orientated roles and thought orientated roles, and that each role contributed successfully to the team.
  • Ask group to flip chart ideas of the benefits of effective teams.
    Explain; The most effective teams are united in a common purpose, they show trust towards each other and are committed to doing their best to achieve goals. The team members are open and supportive with each other; they accept consensus decisions, work through conflict and depend on each other for success.
    Being part of an effective business team can offer many opportunities for an individual to develop their skills also; giving and receiving feedback, recognising and being able to deal with conflicting situations, time management, supporting others, improving communication skills including speaking, listening and body language.
    It is important also to recognise the barriers to effective performance. For example; lack of commitment from a team member or leader, conflict between team members, poor communication and lack of appropriate skills are all situations that can be barriers to effective performance.
  • Ask the group to list what they think leadership involves. Compare with the next slide.
  • Explain that there are a variety of theories and leadership styles that have been researched that we look at now.
  • Expand on the leadership styles.
    Autocratic leadership style: In this style of leadership, a leader has complete command and hold over their team. The team cannot put forward their views even if they are best for the teams or organisational interests. They cannot criticise or question the leader’s way of getting things done. The leader himself gets the things done. The advantage of this style is that it leads to speedy decision-making and greater productivity under leader’s supervision. Drawbacks of this leadership style are that it leads to greater employee absenteeism and turnover. This leadership style works only when the leader is the best in performing or when the job is monotonous, unskilled and routine in nature or where the project is short-term and risky.
    Persuasive leadership style: A persuasive leading is a passive/aggressive leadership style. This type of leader has a knack for convincing others to follow her/him because they are entertaining or likable. The persuasive leader never has to put a lot of energy into getting people to follow. Groups of people are often drawn to this personality and willing to follow for this reason.
    Consultative leadership style: Consultative leadership is basically task oriented and always focuses on the end result by using the skills of others in formulating plans and taking decisions. But then the final decision making power is always retained with the leader.  But still, that final decision is not arrived at without looking for inputs from the members who will be affected by the decision. The consultative leadership stands out through its attempt to involve people who have problems in seeking ideas for the solution. This way, it helps those to develop leadership and decision making ability in them. Team building is a prime target in Consultative leadership.
    Participative leadership style: In this type of leadership style all the members of the team are involved to identify the vital goals and develop procedures and strategies to reach those goals.  Analysing from this perspective, participative team leadership can be viewed as a style that depends on the leader functioning as a facilitator and not a dictator to issue orders and get things done. Participative leadership in its most effective form will let the talents and potential skills of the team members to be made the best use of particularly when arriving at decisions and taking the right course of action. The final decision will always be taken by the leader but then this sharing of functions within the team will supply the perfect atmosphere for every member in the team to provide inputs that are worth enough to make the final decision, which would be ultimately profitable for the organisation as a whole.
  • Introduce Maslow and Herzberg motivational thoeries.
  • Explain; A person must satisfy lower level basic needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. 
    Once these needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualisation. Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualisation.
  • Explain - Herzberg’s ideas are linked to job enrichment, which means that improvements in pay will not in themselves motivate workers. He suggested that in order to motivate them, workers like being involved in the organisation, receiving feedback on their performance and being given a range of different tasks to complete.
  • Ask group to say what they think the attributes of a team leader are.
  • Review session objectives.
  • Morrisons session 4 phils

    1. 1. Working in Business Teams April 2013 Improving Operational Performance
    2. 2. To introduce team working, leadership and the benefits of working in business teams. Session Aims
    3. 3. By the end of the session participants will be able to: Explain what makes an effective team. Demonstrate working effectively in a team to achieve goals. Explain the role of a team leader and compare this with the role of team members. Session Objectives
    4. 4. Lean organisations are successful, they are reducing costs, becoming more efficient and improving quality. Something that lean organisations have in common is that they all have teams that work together in a productive manner to achieve common goals.
    5. 5. What makes an effective team? Work Groups Teams Individual accountability Share information Focus on individual goals Produce individual work Define individual roles and tasks Concerned with own outcomes Purpose shaped by manager Individual and mutual Focus on team goals Discuss, decide and plan Collective work Share and rotate roles All outcomes Shaped by whole team
    6. 6. There are several different types of teams that often come together for different reasons but also have different attributes. •Work teams •Project teams •Cross functional teams •Interdependent teams Types of teams
    7. 7. In 1965 Dr Bruce Tuckman published a team development model that is still seen as accurate today. Forming Storming Norming Performing This theory is a helpful explanation of team development and behaviour. Team development
    8. 8. 8 Forming - High dependence on leader for guidance and direction. Little agreement on team aims other than received from leader. Individual roles and responsibilities are unclear. Leader must be prepared to answer lots of questions about the team's purpose, objectives and external relationships. Processes are often ignored. Members test tolerance of system and leader.
    9. 9. Storming - Decisions don't come easily within group. Team members vie for position as they attempt to establish themselves in relation to other team members and the leader, who might receive challenges from team members. Clarity of purpose increases but plenty of uncertainties persist. Cliques and factions form and there may be power struggles. The team needs to be focused on its goals to avoid becoming distracted by relationships and emotional issues. Compromises may be required to enable progress.
    10. 10. 10 Norming - Agreement and consensus is largely formed amongst the team, who respond well to facilitation by leader. Roles and responsibilities are clear and accepted. Big decisions are made by group agreement. Smaller decisions may be delegated to individuals or small teams within group. Commitment and unity is strong. The team may engage in fun and social activities. The team discusses and develops its processes and working style. There is general respect for the leader and some of leadership is more shared by the team
    11. 11. 11 Performing - The team is more strategically aware; the team knows clearly why it is doing what it is doing. The team has a shared vision. There is a focus on over- achieving goals, and the team makes most of the decisions against criteria agreed with the leader. The team has a high degree of autonomy. Disagreements are resolved within the team positively and changes to processes and structure are made by the team. The team requires delegated tasks and projects from the leader. The team does not need to be instructed or assisted.
    12. 12. Belbins Team Roles Action Orientated Roles People Orientated Roles Thought Orientated Roles Shaper – challenges the team to improve. Implementer – puts ideas into action. Completer – ensures thorough completion Coordinator – acts as chairperson Team Work – explores outside opportunities Resource investigator – explores opportunities Plant – presents new ideas and approaches Evaluator – analyses the options. Specialist – provides specialised skills.
    13. 13. For the organisation; it ensures they are making the best use of people’s strengths, internal communication is more effective and research shows that efficiency and productivity are increased through less duplication of tasks, less risk by sharing workloads and having a more flexible workforce. The benefits are not only for the organisation though. As an individual you will have opportunities to stretch your talents and take on new responsibilities as well as being given the chance to be creative and take initiative in projects. Benefits of effective teams.
    14. 14. The role of the team leader within a business team is a pivotal one. Many factors rely on the team leader and their effectiveness and skills in leading the team. The definition of leadership is: The activity of leading a group of people or an organisation or the ability to do this. The team leader
    15. 15. Leadership involves;  •establishing a clear vision, sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly •providing the information, knowledge and methods to realis e that vision •coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of all members and stakeholders •balancing responsibilities between task and individual needs A leader steps up in times of crisis, and is able to think and act creatively in difficult situations.
    16. 16. • Autocratic – a leader has complete command and hold over a team. • Persuasive – a passive/aggressive leadership style. • Consultative – focuses on the end result and uses the skills of others. • Participative – all the team members are involved to identify the vital goals. Leadership styles
    17. 17. The problem of keeping workers happy has been a challenge for businesses for a long time. Being able to motivate a team of people is a skill, a skill that not everybody naturally possesses. An effective leader has to be a good motivator, and to be a good motivator it is important to gain an understanding of what people are motivated by. Motivation
    18. 18. Maslow stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fulfil the next one, and so on. Maslow
    19. 19. Herzberg – asked 200 workers what motivated them and from the answers he developed his two-factor theory. Herzberg found that it was possible to split the things that motivate people into 2 groups, but not based around money. Instead he split them into what he called motivators and hygiene factors. Herzberg
    20. 20. An effective team leader needs to have a variety skills and qualities. Communication skills are critical, being able to listen and use questioning techniques effectively are priceless skills. A leader needs to be able to manage conflict, lead by example, shows respect to everyone in their team, encourages and supports their team and values individuals, offering little criticism and giving feedback and recognition regularly. Attributes of a team leader
    21. 21. By the end of the session participants will be able to: Explain what makes an effective team. Demonstrate working effectively in a team to achieve goals. Explain the role of a team leader and compare this with the role of team members. Session Objectives