Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap
        Workshop 4: C4I/Sensors

           Montréal, March 9-11, 2010


     Volume 1....
Acknowledgements
The Department of National Defence (DND), Defence Research and Development Canada
(DRDC), and Industry Ca...
Table of Contents
Executive Summary .........................................................................................
IC Analysis Placeholder 1 (Summary) ............................................................. 25
2.   C4I Objectives, ...
C4I Breakaway Session 3: C4I Technologies/Solutions ......................................... 35
           Inputs to C4I ...
Sensors Breakaway Session 1. The Vision & Challenges ...................................... 55
            Inputs to Senso...
D. C4I Working Session 1 Participant Input ................................................................ 90
E.    C4I W...
Executive Summary
This report describes the C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and
Intelligence) and Sensor...
Preface: C4I/Sensors and The Soldier Systems
TRM
The C4I/Sensors Workshop held in Montréal, Québec, March 9-11, 2010, was ...
C4I/Sensors and the Roadmap
C4I/Sensors1 was the fourth workshop held as part            Figure 1. C4I/Sensors and the
of ...
C4I/Sensors Definitions
The acronym C4I stands for "command, control, communications, computers, and
intelligence".

Comma...
The Workshop Process
The goal of the C4I/Sensors Workshop was to:

   1. Identify and validate the future C4I and sensor c...
C4I/Sensors Workshop Introduction
The workshop started with a series of introductory presentations designed to familiarize...
Soldier Systems Modernization Effort Update and Return on Power/Energy
Workshop, LCol M.A. Bodner (DRDC)
                 ...
Overview of DRDC R&D Strategy and Program, Dr. G. Vézina (DRDC)
Outlines the "Canada First"
strategy of DRDC (Defence
Rese...
Part I. Soldier Systems C4I (Command, Control,
        Communications, Computers, and
        Intelligence)

1.     Soldie...
Demonstration of the Need for C4I in the Field
Included in Captain Dionne's
                                  Figure 3. Th...
A confrontation
At this point, a volunteer dressed in battle gear took the role of the point soldier, who
knows the rules ...
What is happening?
All of the soldiers are asking "What is happening?"

To answer that question, they need information. Wh...
1.2    Future Soldier C4I Capabilities Requirements, Mr.P. Comtois (DND)
Provides a vision statement for
C4I. Describes co...
C4I Breakaway Session 1. C4I Needs—the Vision
The objectives of the first working session were to:

      Discuss the ove...
Participant Input from the Visioning Workshop Held in June, 2009




                                                     ...
Participant Input from the Visioning Workshop Held in June, 2009 (continued)




                                         ...
A Vision Statement
The following vision statement was provided to workshop participants prior to working
session 1:

   In...
IC Analysis Placeholder 1 (Summary)




                                      Page 25 of 159
2.     C4I Objectives, Driving Elements, Barriers,
       and Technical Challenges
This chapter provides abstracts of the ...
C4I Breakaway Session 2: The Challenges & Functionalities
The objectives of the second working session were to discuss:
  ...
Results of C4I Working Session 2
Following discussions at the tables, a facilitated report-back was held, during which
sel...
Figure 7. C4I Challenges Determined from Breakaway Session 2
                                Participant Responses

   For...
______________________________________________________________________


Other Presentations
Collaboration Tool (ICee) Pre...
3.     Potential Solutions/Options and Related
       Technologies
This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations th...
Provides overview of networking techniques to support advanced radio. Discusses
software defined radio (SDR) and interoper...
3.5    Human Factors Lessons Learned about C4I Interfaces for Soldiers,
       Maj. L. Bossi (DND), Ed Nakaza, Sr Consulta...
______________________________________________________________________

Luncheon speaker: NSERC: Overview of NSERC Researc...
C4I Breakaway Session 3: C4I Technologies/Solutions
The objectives of the third working session were to discuss:
      Th...
    You have 3 sticky notes:

           o   Fill them in at your table

           o   Using the coloured dots supplied,...
Results of C4I Working Session 3
The stickies were collected and used to plot the distribution shown in Figures 7 and 8.

...
Figure 9. Distribution of C4I stickies on the wall by challenge and potential for progress
From left to right, the columns...
Figure 10. Distribution of C4I stickies on the wall by challenge and timeframe
From left to right, the columns for each ch...
4. Technology Gaps and Collaboration
   Opportunities
This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations that preceded t...
C4I Breakaway Session 4: Priorities and Collaborators
The objectives of working session 4 were to:

      Choose the high...
Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players

                                             Number...
Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players

                                            Number,...
Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players

                                            Number,...
Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players

                                     Number, if
   ...
Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players

                                        Number, if
...
5. ICee Contest Winner Presentations
In advance of the C4I/Sensors workshop, four names were drawn from a list of
organiza...
MicroDAGR, Rockwell Collins
Describes the MicroDAGR
handheld GPS, including
current features and potential
future enhancem...
Part II. Soldier Sensors Systems

Introduction to Soldier Sensors
Part II describes activities on day 3 of the workshop, w...
1.      Soldier Systems Sensors Deficiencies, Vision,
        Themes/Needs, Goals, Objectives, Desired
        Systems Per...
Demonstration of the Need for Sensors in the Field
Captain Sylvain's presentation
included a demonstration—a
continuation ...
Situational stages

Capt. Sylvain described the typical stages involved in handling a situation (although, as
he pointed o...
What the demonstration showed
The demonstration illustrated the sensor needs of the soldier in the field, the existing
tec...
1.2    Overview of Soldier Sensor Systems Development Trends &
       Challenges: an Industry Perspective, Mr. Rick Bowes
...
Sensors Breakaway Session 1. The Vision & Challenges
The objective of the first sensors working session was to discuss:

 ...
Results of Sensors Working Session 1
Following the table discussions, a facilitated report-back was held during which sele...
Theme 1: Personal Sensors (3 tables reporting)

Theme vision elements
 Brain-sensor interface prototypes (5 years) and fi...
Theme 2: Crew Sensors (1 table reporting)

Theme vision elements
Not provided

Key Functionalities

 Long range ID of peo...
Theme 3: Area Sensors (2 tables reporting)

Theme vision elements
 Deliver an accurate and timely sensor product to the s...
Theme 4: Weapons Sensors (2 tables reporting)

Theme vision elements
 Within five years soldiers will have a single devic...
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 4: C4I and Sensors, Volume 1 - Report (Oct 8, 2010)
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SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 4: C4I and Sensors, Volume 1 - Report (Oct 8, 2010)
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 4: C4I and Sensors, Volume 1 - Report (Oct 8, 2010)
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SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 4: C4I and Sensors, Volume 1 - Report (Oct 8, 2010)

  1. 1. Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Workshop 4: C4I/Sensors Montréal, March 9-11, 2010 Volume 1. C4I/Sensors Report Department of National Defence Defence Research and Development Canada Industry Canada September 15, 2010
  2. 2. Acknowledgements The Department of National Defence (DND), Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), and Industry Canada (IC) would like to acknowledge the contributions and support provided by the IC Special Events team that organized the C4I/Sensors workshop venue, logistics, and accommodations; the Soldier Systems TRM C4I/Sensors Technical Subcommittee and co-chairs, and the Executive Steering Committee for sharing their time and expertise; the Strategic Review Group Inc., for facilitating the workshop; and the participants from across Canada, the United States, and abroad, who contributed to making the workshop a success. Special thanks to those who presented at the workshop, for sharing their time, energy, and knowledge. Page ii of 159
  3. 3. Table of Contents Executive Summary ...................................................................................................... vii Preface: C4I/Sensors and The Soldier Systems TRM ..................................................... 9 About the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) ......................................... 9 C4I/Sensors and the Roadmap .............................................................................. 10 The Workshop Process .......................................................................................... 12 C4I/Sensors Workshop Introduction .............................................................................. 13 Introductory Presentation Abstracts ........................................................................ 13 Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Development and Implementation Phases, Mr. G. Nimmo (IC) ......................................... 13 Soldier Systems Modernization Effort Update and Return on Power/Energy Workshop, LCol M.A. Bodner (DRDC) ................................................. 14 Overview of DRDC R&D Strategy and Program, Dr. G. Vézina (DRDC).......... 15 Focus Days Program and Process, Return on Visioning Workshop: C4I Elements, Mr. P. Carr (SRG) ......................................................... 15 Part I. Soldier Systems C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence) ................................................................................................... 16 1. Soldier Systems C4I Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs and Goals .................... 16 C4I Session 1 Presentation Abstracts .................................................................... 16 1.1 Overview of Current Soldier Systems Equipment and C4I Deficiencies, Capt. A. Dionne (DND) ............................................. 16 Demonstration of the Need for C4I in the Field ................................................ 17 1.2 Future Soldier C4I Capabilities Requirements, Mr.P. Comtois (DND) ........................................................................... 20 Luncheon Speaker: Marine Expeditionary Rifle Squad (MERS): Trends and Initiatives for Infantry C4I Systems, Mrs. S. Torfin (USMC) ........... 20 C4I Breakaway Session 1. C4I Needs—the Vision ................................................. 21 Inputs to C4I Working Session 1 ............................................................................ 21 Results of C4I Working Session 1 .......................................................................... 24 Page iii of 159
  4. 4. IC Analysis Placeholder 1 (Summary) ............................................................. 25 2. C4I Objectives, Driving Elements, Barriers, and Technical Challenges .................. 26 C4I Session 2 Presentation Abstracts .................................................................... 26 2.1 Overview of Army IM Strategy and C4IST Concept, Mr. S. Hoag (DLCI-3) ........................................................................... 26 2.2 Soldier C4I Systems Development Trends & Technical Challenges: an Industry Perspective, Mr. L. O'Neill (Industry Co-Chair) .................. 26 C4I Breakaway Session 2: The Challenges & Functionalities ................................. 27 Inputs to C4I Working Session 2 ............................................................................ 27 Results of C4I Working Session 2 .......................................................................... 28 Other Presentations ............................................................................................... 30 Collaboration Tool (ICee) Presentation, Mrs. M. Huard (IC/DND) .................... 30 Overview of IRB Program, Ms. Nathalie Couture, Senior Manager, Industrial and Regional Benefits Policy (IC) ......................................... 30 3. Potential Solutions/Options and Related Technologies .......................................... 31 C4I Session 3 Presentation Abstracts .................................................................... 31 3.1 NATO LCG1 Soldier C4I Architecture & Symbology, Mr. C. Lemelin (DND) .......................................................................... 31 3.2 Soldier Communication & Software Radio Technologies: State-of-the-Art Overview, Mr. J. Schelsak (CRC) ............................... 31 3.3 Applications of Novel Biometrics Technologies to Soldier C4I Systems, Dr. Q. Xiao (DRDC) ....................................................... 32 3.4 Soldier Navigation Technologies in Complex Environment: State-of-the-Art Overview, Mr. J. Bird (DRDC) ..................................... 32 3.5 Human Factors Lessons Learned about C4I Interfaces for Soldiers, Maj. L. Bossi (DND), Ed Nakaza, Sr Consultant, HumanSystems Incorporated ........................................................................................ 33 Luncheon speaker: NSERC: Overview of NSERC Research Partnerships Programs, Mrs. M. Michalska ............................................................... 34 Page iv of 159
  5. 5. C4I Breakaway Session 3: C4I Technologies/Solutions ......................................... 35 Inputs to C4I Working Session 3 ..................................................................... 35 Results of C4I Working Session 3 ................................................................... 37 4. Technology Gaps and Collaboration Opportunities................................................... 40 C4I Session 4 Presentation Abstracts .................................................................... 40 4.1 Unattended Ground Sensors: State-of-the-Art Overview, Mr. B. Ricard (DRDC) & Mrs L. Lamont (CRC) .................................... 40 C4I Breakaway Session 4: Priorities and Collaborators .......................................... 41 Inputs to C4I Working Session 4 ..................................................................... 41 Results of C4I Working Session 4 ................................................................... 41 5. ICee Contest Winner Presentations ......................................................................... 47 Rapid Intervention Tracking System, 3D RFID TAC ........................................ 47 innUVative Systems, Mr. Mike Meakin ............................................................ 47 MicroDAGR, Rockwell Collins ......................................................................... 48 Newtrax, Low Energy UGS Mesh Networks for Persistent Surveillance in Remote Areas .................................................................................. 48 Part II. Soldier Sensors Systems............................................................................... 49 Introduction to Soldier Sensors ..................................................................................... 49 Introductory Presentation Abstract ......................................................................... 49 Return on Lethal & Non Lethal Weapons Effects Workshop: C4I Related Considerations, Mr. D. Compton ...................................... 49 1. Soldier Systems Sensors Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs, Goals, Objectives, Desired Systems Performance, Barriers, Technical Challenges........... 50 Sensors Session 1 Presentation Abstracts ............................................................. 50 1.1 Future Soldier Sensors Capability Requirements, Drivers, Challenges and Gaps, Capt O. Sylvain, DND ...................................... 50 Demonstration of the Need for Sensors in the Field ........................................ 51 1.2 Overview of Soldier Sensor Systems Development Trends & Challenges: an Industry Perspective, Mr. Rick Bowes (Industry Co-chair)...................................................... 54 Page v of 159
  6. 6. Sensors Breakaway Session 1. The Vision & Challenges ...................................... 55 Inputs to Sensors Working Session 1 .............................................................. 55 Results of Sensors Working Session 1 ............................................................ 56 2. Potential Solutions/Options and Related Technologies .......................................... 62 Sensors Session 2 Presentation Abstracts ............................................................. 62 2.1 See Through Wall Sensing Technologies: State-of-the-art Overview, Mr. Pascale Sévigny (DRDC) ............................................................... 62 2.2 Emerging Sensing Technology Overview, Mr. J. Maheux (DRDC) ....... 62 Luncheon speaker: Overview of Precarn Programs on Intelligent and Communication Systems, Dr. H. Rothschild ......................................... 63 2.3 Physiological Status Monitoring Technologies: State-of-the-art Overview, Dr. S. Stergiopoulos (DRDC) ............................................... 63 2.4 Nano/Micro Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Technologies: State-of-the-Art Overview, Dr. F Wong (DRDC) ................................... 64 Sensors Breakaway Working Session 2: The Technologies ................................... 65 Inputs to Sensors Working Session 2 .............................................................. 65 Results of Sensors Working Session 2 ............................................................ 66 3. Sensor Technology Gaps and Collaborations......................................................... 69 Sensors Breakaway Session 3 ............................................................................... 69 Inputs to Sensors Working Session 3 .............................................................. 69 Results of Sensors Working Session 3 ............................................................ 69 Part III. Next Steps ....................................................................................................... 70 Ongoing and Upcoming Roadmap Activities ................................................................. 70 Ongoing C4I/Sensors Collaborations...................................................................... 70 Sharing Knowledge with the ICee Database and Wiki ............................................ 70 Upcoming Workshops ............................................................................................ 71 Appendixes A. Workshop Agenda .................................................................................................. 72 B. C4I/Sensors Scope Definition ................................................................................. 76 C. List of Workshop Participants ................................................................................. 80 Page vi of 159
  7. 7. D. C4I Working Session 1 Participant Input ................................................................ 90 E. C4I Working Session 2 Participant Worksheets ...................................................... 91 F. C4I Working Session 3 Participant Stickies—the Challenges ................................. 98 G. Sensors Working Session 2 ................................................................................. 139 H. C4I/Sensor Mind Maps ......................................................................................... 154 List of Figures Figure 1. C4I/Sensors and the Soldier Systems TRM.................................................... 10 Figure 2. The Technical Roadmapping Process ............................................................ 12 Figure 3. Three sections of dismounted soldiers proceed through a village ................... 17 Figure 4. The sections are separated geographically, and the soldiers can't all see each other ................................................................................... 17 Figure 5.The point man in section 1 encounters what appears to be a villager with a weapon ................................................................................................ 18 Figure 6. Example of completed worksheet for C4I Session 2 ....................................... 28 Figure 7. C4I Challenges Determined from Breakaway Session 2 Participant Responses .................................................................................... 29 Figure 8. Example of a completed sticky from sensor working session 1....................... 36 Figure 9. Distribution of C4I stickies on the wall by challenge and potential for progress ...................................................................................... 38 Figure 10. Distribution of C4I stickies on the wall by challenge and timeframe .............. 39 Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players .................. 42 Figure 12. The sensors demonstration focused on observation post "Falcon's Nest," represented by the triangle in the graphic. .............................................................. 51 Figure 13. Distribution of Sensor Stickies on the Wall by Challenge and Timeframe ..... 67 Figure 14. Distribution of Sensor Stickies on the Wall by Challenge and Potential for Progress ................................................................................... 68 Page vii of 159
  8. 8. Executive Summary This report describes the C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence) and Sensors Workshop held in Montréal in March, 2010—the fourth in a series of technical workshops held as part of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmapping (TRM) initiative. The Preface introduces the Soldier Systems TRM project, which involves industry, government, academia, and other interested parties in working toward developing an integrated system for the dismounted soldier. It places C4I and sensors in the context of the project, and describes the process followed during the workshop to achieve the ultimate goal of identifying research and development priorities and collaborations for meeting the dismounted soldier's future C4I/Sensor needs. Part I, Soldier Systems C4I, describes activities on days 1 and 2 of the workshop, which focused on C4I and the dismounted soldier. It provides abstracts of the presentations made on those days. It also describes four breakout sessions, during which participants worked together to develop a vision for C4I and the dismounted soldier, identify the challenges and key functionalities involved in realizing the vision, outline the technologies to work on, and establish priorities and collaborations for working on those technologies. Part II, Soldier Systems Sensors, describes activities on day 3 of the workshop, which focused on sensors and the dismounted soldier. As with Part 1, it includes presentation abstracts and working session descriptions and summarizes the results of the working sessions. Part III, Next Steps, describes upcoming activities in the ongoing Soldier Systems TRM project. Appendixes to the report provide the workshop agenda, define C4I/Sensor terms, list the workshop participants, and describe DND's soldier systems mind maps for C4I/Sensors. Page viii of 159
  9. 9. Preface: C4I/Sensors and The Soldier Systems TRM The C4I/Sensors Workshop held in Montréal, Québec, March 9-11, 2010, was one in a series of workshops associated with the development phase of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmapping initiative. About the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) The Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) project is a unique industry- government collaboration to apply roadmapping principles and processes to develop a comprehensive knowledge-sharing platform and identify technology opportunities in support of the Canadian Forces Soldier Modernization Effort. Participation in the Soldier Systems TRM is free and voluntary and open to Canadian and international manufacturing, services, and technology-based companies of all sizes, and to researchers and other experts from academia, government, and not-for-profit research organizations from Canada and around the world. The focus of the Soldier Systems TRM—the soldier system—is defined within NATO as the integration of everything the soldier wears, carries and consumes for enhanced individual and collective (small unit) capability within the national command and control structure. It centers on the needs of the dismounted soldier, who is often away from the supply network and must be self-sufficient for up to 72 hours. The overarching goal of the Soldier Systems TRM is to understand how today's technology—and tomorrow's—might contribute to a superior soldier system that increases capacities and operational effectiveness for the individual soldier in the five NATO capability areas of Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I); Survivability; Mobility; Lethality; and Sustainability. The Soldier Systems TRM exercise is governed by an Executive Steering Committee made up of government and industry representatives, and includes technical subcommittees dedicated to each capability area. For information about any aspect of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap project, visit http://www.soldiersystems-systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca Page 9 of 159
  10. 10. C4I/Sensors and the Roadmap C4I/Sensors1 was the fourth workshop held as part Figure 1. C4I/Sensors and the of the development phase of the Soldier Systems Soldier Systems TRM TRM. (Figure 1. C4I/Sensors and the Soldier Systems TRM). The first two days of the workshop 1. focused on C4I, and the third day on sensors. Visioning & Future Capabilities (Held in June 2009) C4I/Sensors and the Soldier System As with all of the Soldier Systems TRM workshops, 2. Technical Workshop: Power/Energy/Sustainability the focus of the C4I/Sensors workshop was on the needs of the dismounted soldier. C4I and sensors play a critical role in meeting those needs with a soldier system. They are the key to providing 3. Technical Workshop: networked situational awareness at the dismounted Weapons: Lethal & Non-Lethal soldier and small team level. This, in turn, is critical for precise navigation; 4. Technical 5. Technical information exchange, storage and retrieval; target Workshop: Workshop: acquisition; and intra and interconnectivity between C4I Sensors soldiers, leaders, weapons systems, and a range of factors associated with awareness of what is happening in the field. 6. Technical Workshop: Survivability/Equipment/Clothing C4I and sensors can be defined in different ways. & Footwear/Load Carriage To ensure that participants came to the workshop with a shared understanding of the workshop's 7. Technical Workshop: purpose and scope, and of key definitions related to Human & Systems Integration C4I/Sensors, participants were sent basic definitions and other information in advance of the workshop. The full information is provided in Appendix B, C4I/Sensors Scope Definition. A brief summary of 8. the information follows. Roadmap Integration 1 C4I stands for Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence. Page 10 of 159
  11. 11. C4I/Sensors Definitions The acronym C4I stands for "command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence". Command and control is about decision-making, the exercise of direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of a mission. Information, computers and communications technologies support command and control, and are used to achieve information superiority. C4I systems provide also tools to improve commanders with situational awareness—information about the location and status of enemy and friendly forces. Command and control (C2)—The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission. Command—The authority that a commander in the Armed Forces lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. Command includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for planning the employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling military forces for the accomplishment of assigned missions and meet the commander intent. Computing and communications—Two pervasive enabling technologies that support C2 and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Computers and communications process and transport information. Control—Authority which may be less than full command exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate or other organizations. Physical or psychological pressures exerted with the intent to assure that an agent or group will respond as directed. Intelligence (I)—The product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas. Information and knowledge about an adversary obtained through observation, investigation, analysis, or understanding. Page 11 of 159
  12. 12. The Workshop Process The goal of the C4I/Sensors Workshop was to: 1. Identify and validate the future C4I and sensor capabilities required by the dismounted soldier. 2. Identify the functionalities that can meet those capabilities, and the challenges associated with developing them. 3. Identify the technologies that must be developed to meet the challenges and address the needed functionalities. 4. Identify R&D priority areas and collaborations to be the focus of technology development efforts in the context of the Soldier Systems TRM. To achieve this goal, the workshop followed a carefully designed process (Figure 2. The Technical Roadmapping Process) using a series of presentations and working sessions. This document summarizes those presentations and the results of the working sessions, following the structure of the workshop agenda (See Appendix A. Workshop Agenda). Figure 2. The Technical Roadmapping Process Page 12 of 159
  13. 13. C4I/Sensors Workshop Introduction The workshop started with a series of introductory presentations designed to familiarize participants with the technical roadmapping process and with soldier systems. Abstracts of those presentations follow. The full presentations are provided in Volume 2, C4I/Sensors Slide Decks, Day 1 of 3—C4I. They are also available in the Innovation Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) tool, which is accessible from the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap web site: http://www.soldiersystems- systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca Introductory Presentation Abstracts Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Development and Implementation Phases, Mr. G. Nimmo (IC) Defines and provides an overview of the technology roadmapping process. Describes other Canadian roadmapping experiences. Outlines the Soldier Systems TRM Project, including its objectives and the roles of industry and government. Describes Soldier Systems TRM project enablers, including the workshops, the Innovation Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) database and wiki, and roadmapping software. Lists project stakeholders. Outlines the governance framework and lists the C4I technical subcommittee members. Describes roadmap activities and schedules. Makes clear that roadmapping is about better planning, and is not part of the procurement process. Provides success snapshots associated with the Soldier Systems TRM to date. Page 13 of 159
  14. 14. Soldier Systems Modernization Effort Update and Return on Power/Energy Workshop, LCol M.A. Bodner (DRDC) Describes C4I technologies evolution. Outlines next- generation soldier needs. Provides definitions of C4ISR and soldier systems, including the C4ISR NATO Definition: The provision of information and intelligence that enables decision superiority necessary to execute the Commander's Intent, along with the appropriate level of situational awareness, to the point of achieving the desired effect. Describes Canadian Forces Objective Force 2028 Vision. Outlines C4I/Sensor initiatives, future capability vision, and army strategy. Describes the soldier modernization effort and the integrated soldier "system of systems." Outlines soldier systems R& D history. Describes core C4I/Sensor capabilities and future requirements. Places the soldier system in the context of the world stage. Summarizes global market opportunities. Places the Soldier Systems TRM project in the context of the preceding soldier systems efforts. Describes outcomes of the Power and Energy Workshop held Sept 21-23, 2009. Summarizes future soldier systems challenges. Describes the pre-eminent place of the soldier in Canadian Forces combat systems. Page 14 of 159
  15. 15. Overview of DRDC R&D Strategy and Program, Dr. G. Vézina (DRDC) Outlines the "Canada First" strategy of DRDC (Defence Research and Development Canada) and the Land R&D Program. Outlines the strategy direction. Describes Defence R&D Canada partners. Explains how science and technology can help solve defence and security problems. Outlines technologies that can lead to advantages or disadvantages. Lists defence S&T partner groups, thrusts, and themes. Describes new related DRDC initiatives. Focus Days Program and Process, Return on Visioning Workshop: C4I Elements, Mr. P. Carr (SRG) Defines a technology roadmap (TRM). Outlines its principles. Describes its three phases. Provides an overview of the TRM process. Describes the objectives of the C4I/Sensors workshop. Outlines progress made in past Soldier Systems TRM workshops. Outlines the logistics of the workshop, including the working session process. Page 15 of 159
  16. 16. Part I. Soldier Systems C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence) 1. Soldier Systems C4I Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs and Goals This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations that focused on C4I deficiencies, vision, needs and goals, and describes C4I Breakaway Session 1. The Vision. C4I Session 1 Presentation Abstracts 1.1 Overview of Current Soldier Systems Equipment and C4I Deficiencies, Capt. A. Dionne (DND) Points out that critical deficiencies exist in the area of C4I, and that deficiencies in this and other areas must be addressed holistically. Describes the communications equipment available to the soldier of today. Outlines deficiencies/gaps in the areas of command, sense, and action. Describes the scenario of a platoon of soldiers entering, passing through, and exiting a village, and the C4I issues they face along the way (see "Demonstration of the Need for C4I in the Field," on the next page). Concludes with a description of the Future "GAP" in the 2015-2020 timeframe. Page 16 of 159
  17. 17. Demonstration of the Need for C4I in the Field Included in Captain Dionne's Figure 3. Three sections of dismounted soldiers presentation was a proceed through a village demonstration of the scenario. It followed the progress of a team of soldiers entering, passing through, and exiting a village. The team, led by Captain Dionne, whose call signal was "One One," was divided into three sections with call signals "One One Alpha, One One Beta, and One One Charlie". A commander for each section was chosen from the workshop participants. The platoon commander Figure 4. The sections are separated described how the platoon would geographically, and the soldiers can't all see progress through the village— each other entering from the southwest, passing through the main square, and exiting to the south east. The sections were separated by about 5-10 meters distance between soldiers. Captain Dionne described how the soldiers in the sections, separated as they are by distance and buildings, have limited situational awareness. Their information is limited by the briefing at the start of the day, the map provided to them, and what they can see based on their order in the sections. Captain Dionne described the situation of the point man at the head of section 1—in a busy village, with people nearby, children trying to get candy from him, mopeds passing him, and other activity taking place around him. Page 17 of 159
  18. 18. A confrontation At this point, a volunteer dressed in battle gear took the role of the point soldier, who knows the rules of engagement and has to determine what is a threat and what is not as he leads the section through the Figure 5.The point man in section 1 encounters village. what appears to be a villager with a weapon When a villager approaches carrying what appears to be a weapon, the soldier sends the radio message that he has made contact, and shouts at the villager to show his hands. Section 3 only gets a portion of Section 1's message, because of obstacles to transmission involving direct line of sight—they hear "One One Alpha" and know only that something is happening. Section 2 stops, but doesn't see what is happening. Section 1 is taking position to help the point man do his job. The point man is trying to engage the villager, asking him to show he is not a threat. The soldier knows he could be dealing with a member of the civilian police force, a local employee of a security organization, or a possible threat. He continues to try to get the person to respond. When he gets no response to several attempts, he shows a more aggressive posture and tells the villager to put his rifle on the ground. The villager then pulls out a handgun to try to shoot the soldier, and the soldier is forced to take action to neutralize the target. Throughout the encounter, Section 2 had no visual, so it doesn't know what has happened. They will try to get as close as possible to assess the situation. The section leader has to see what is happening and what might happen in order to build a plan and communicate it to the soldiers in his section, to Sections 1 and 3, and to headquarters. At headquarters, someone is trying to determine exactly where the soldiers are, and what is happening. The platoon commander knows he has one section engaged, and has to reach the third section and pass along that information. Page 18 of 159
  19. 19. What is happening? All of the soldiers are asking "What is happening?" To answer that question, they need information. Where is everyone? What are they doing? Where are they going? The section leaders, who can feel very alone and can be faced with long lead times to get assets, have to anticipate what the platoon commander will be asking, and what the plan will be to respond to the situation. The need for C4I Captain Dionne summed up the demonstration by emphasizing the need for better C4I capabilities to operate more effectively in the demonstration situation and similar encounters. It set the scene for the questions that workshop participants would be asked to address over the next three days:  What needs does the soldier have that this demonstration points out?  What is the C4I vision for the soldier?  What functionalities must the soldier have?  What technologies can provide those functionalities?  What research and development must be done to develop the needed technologies?  Who has the capabilities to do the work?  Who can work together to realize the vision?  How long will it take? More to come ... Captain Dionne concluded by pointing out the triangle at the bottom of the first demonstration slide (Figure 3. Three sections of dismounted soldiers proceed through a village), and promising that it would be explained in a further demonstration, later in the workshop (See "Demonstration of the Need for Sensors in the Field, in Part II. Soldier Sensor Systems). Page 19 of 159
  20. 20. 1.2 Future Soldier C4I Capabilities Requirements, Mr.P. Comtois (DND) Provides a vision statement for C4I. Describes constraints and limitations associated with C4I. Outlines C4I functional and performance requirements in a range of theme areas that were described to workshop participants in a handout. Concludes that the C4I vision and requirements are continuously evolving, and that solutions must involve many disciplines and require involvement by many participants. ______________________________________________________________________ Luncheon Speaker: Marine Expeditionary Rifle Squad (MERS): Trends and Initiatives for Infantry C4I Systems, Mrs. S. Torfin (USMC) Describes the Marine Expeditionary Rifle Squad (MERS) mission, and methodology. Provides a description of marine infantry battalions, and a snapshot of their deployment process. Outlines current operations. Explains the types of radios deployed by MERS for various missions. Provides feedback on the quality of C4I from marine infantry battalions. Outlines future plans for C4I and soldier systems. ______________________________________________________________________ Page 20 of 159
  21. 21. C4I Breakaway Session 1. C4I Needs—the Vision The objectives of the first working session were to:  Discuss the overall vision of how DND/CF intends to meet the dismounted soldier's C4I needs  Set a focal point for some of the C4I "theme" areas Inputs to C4I Working Session 1 Working session inputs included the preceding presentations, and the participants pre- existing knowledge based on their areas of expertise. Before working session 1, participants were asked to sit with people from other organizations, with a maximum of 3 non-industry participants at each table (coloured cards indicated non-industry participants and helped ensure the required groupings at each table). Participants were also asked to choose a leader and a recorder for the discussion that was to follow. In addition to the presentations that preceded the working session, the workshop participants were given the following inputs:  A description of C4ISR Vision and Future Capability Requirements  A copy of participant input from the C4I/Sensors Visioning Breakout Session at the Soldier Systems TRM Visioning Workshop held in June 2009  A vision statement  Instructions to follow during the discussion Each of these is included on the following pages of this report. Page 21 of 159
  22. 22. Participant Input from the Visioning Workshop Held in June, 2009 Page 22 of 159
  23. 23. Participant Input from the Visioning Workshop Held in June, 2009 (continued) Page 23 of 159
  24. 24. A Vision Statement The following vision statement was provided to workshop participants prior to working session 1: In the next 10 to 20 years, the soldier should be capable of obtaining a complete relevant picture of an operation based on the current situation with 99% confidence in the information accuracy in near real time within a transparent solution from a weight, volume and cognitive load perspective. Working Session 1 Instructions The workshop participants were give the following instructions: After introductions, please spend about 20 minutes on each exercise: 1. Answer the question: Is the C4I vision sufficient? (i.e., is there an important dimension that hasn't been mentioned? Is it ambitious enough?) 2. Have your table pick two of the C4I "themes" that were discussed. Develop a "vision" for one theme, and then again for the other (e.g., With respect to C4I, in 3 years, the dismounted soldier would be able to...; in 5 years, the dismounted soldier would be able to ...; in 10 years...). Be as precise and quantified as possible. For report-back purposes, summarize your table's discussion on the flipchart provided. Also summarize the discussion on the laminated sheet provided at each table. Results of C4I Working Session 1 Following the table discussions, a facilitated report-back was held, during which selected tables presented their results and participants were invited to comment and ask questions. The laminated sheets that each table filled out to summarize their discussions were collected. A summary of their contents follows. Page 24 of 159
  25. 25. IC Analysis Placeholder 1 (Summary) Page 25 of 159
  26. 26. 2. C4I Objectives, Driving Elements, Barriers, and Technical Challenges This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations preceding the second working session, and describes Working Session 2: The Challenges. C4I Session 2 Presentation Abstracts 2.1 Overview of Army IM Strategy and C4IST Concept, Mr. S. Hoag (DLCI-3) Outlines the scope and strategic environment evolution of land forces C4ISR. Describes key gaps. Summaries strategy to 2028, including four main thrust areas—Governance and compliance, Institutionalization and sustainability, Capability development and integration, and Interoperability—and how each will be addressed. 2.2 Soldier C4I Systems Development Trends & Technical Challenges: an Industry Perspective, Mr. L. O'Neill (Industry Co-Chair) Provides an industry perspective on Soldier Systems C4I. Describes what industry is hearing, technical challenges for information exchange— including the soldier as a sensor, easy connectivity, support for standard interfaces, and more. Describes what industry needs to know. Page 26 of 159
  27. 27. C4I Breakaway Session 2: The Challenges & Functionalities The objectives of the second working session were to discuss:  The functionalities required to "move forward" within a theme area  The technological barriers/challenges to moving forward in that theme area Inputs to C4I Working Session 2 Prior to the second working session, the workshop tables were organized by these six themes: 1. Communication 2. Human interfaces 3. Geo-location 4. Integration 5. Interoperability 6. Security Participants were asked to choose a table that corresponded to their domain of expertise or interest. Working Session 2 Instructions The following instructions were provided to guide the discussion: 1. For your theme, set out some of the main "vision" characteristics. 2. To achieve that vision, what functionalities need to be provided to the soldier? What would be a quantifiable objective for that functionality? 3. Identify the main technological obstacles/barriers/challenges that need to be overcome, so that the functionality can be provided to the soldier. A laminated working sheet was provided for each table to record the results of their discussion. Page 27 of 159
  28. 28. Results of C4I Working Session 2 Following discussions at the tables, a facilitated report-back was held, during which selected tables presented their results. Participants were invited to comment and ask questions. The laminated sheets that participants completed (see example) were collected from each table. Figure 6. Example of completed worksheet for C4I Session 2 Based on the discussions that took place during the breakaway sessions, and the collected input, fifteen main technical challenges were identified, grouped into the six theme areas. The content was retained to be used in the next working session, during which participants would propose potential solutions to address the challenges. Figure 7 lists the challenges associated with each theme area. The detailed participant input used to generate this summary is provided in Appendix E, C4I Working Session 2 Participant Worksheets. Page 28 of 159
  29. 29. Figure 7. C4I Challenges Determined from Breakaway Session 2 Participant Responses For detailed content of the working sheets, see Appendix E., C4I Working Session 2 Participant Worksheets Challenge Theme 1. Lack of UI configurability/usability C4I Human Interfaces 2. Overcoming infection/comfort-related to C4I Human Interfaces C4I equipment 3. Denied signal environment Communication 4. Inability to scan and use a range of Communication frequencies 5. Spectrum availability Communication 6. Effective language recognition (including C4I Human Interfaces language/cultural AI) 7. Lack of standards/agreed guidelines Interoperability/Integration 8. Power/energy limitations 9. Poor signature management Communication 10. Detecting and overcoming Security jamming/spoofing 11. Inability to configure C4I devices to context C4I Human Interfaces/Integration (functional) 12. Inability to configure C4I devices to context Interoperability/Security (cross-domain, interoperability, security) 13. Over-reliance on technology solutions (no C4I Human Interfaces longer training the fundamentals) 14. Poor bandwidth/capacity management Communication 15. Lack of High Performance User Interface C4I Human Interfaces/ Characteristics Page 29 of 159
  30. 30. ______________________________________________________________________ Other Presentations Collaboration Tool (ICee) Presentation, Mrs. M. Huard (IC/DND) Provides an overview of the Innovation Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee), a database and wiki that supports the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap and can be accessed at the roadmap's web site. Explains the objectives and concepts of the ICee. Defines the wiki and explains its importance for the Soldier Systems TRM. Outlines advantages for participants. Describes steps that participants can take to start using the ICee. Overview of IRB Program, Ms. Nathalie Couture, Senior Manager, Industrial and Regional Benefits Policy (IC) An update on offset policy in Canada. Describes enhancements to Canada's Industrial and Regional Benefits (IRB) Policy. Explains that the program is client-driven and market-driven. Outlines the rationale for policy review. Describes alignment of the key drivers. Provides background on the updating of Canada's Offset Policy, the direction of the policy, policy enhancements, and IRB opportunities under the Soldier Systems TRM. ______________________________________________________________________ Page 30 of 159
  31. 31. 3. Potential Solutions/Options and Related Technologies This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations that preceded the third breakaway session, and describes Breakaway Session 3: Potential Solutions and C4I Technologies. C4I Session 3 Presentation Abstracts 3.1 NATO LCG1 Soldier C4I Architecture & Symbology, Mr. C. Lemelin (DND) Summarizes NATO's approach to Soldier Systems. Explains the key is interoperability. Describes interoperability challenge, and the NATO outlook to 2035. Outlines lessons learned. Lists reasons to migrate to XML as a standard. Outlines a solution in the making, including addressing systems architecture and security. 3.2 Soldier Communication & Software Radio Technologies: State-of- the-Art Overview, Mr. J. Schelsak (CRC) An overview of soldier radio communications, including description of tactical mobile ad- hoc network, target characteristics, and current soldier radio communications. Describes challenges associated with design, key technologies, radio spectrum. Discusses adaptive radio and adaptive channel aggregation, MIMO systems and measured channel MIMI capacity. Page 31 of 159
  32. 32. Provides overview of networking techniques to support advanced radio. Discusses software defined radio (SDR) and interoperability and implementation challenges. 3.3 Applications of Novel Biometrics Technologies to Soldier C4I Systems, Dr. Q. Xiao (DRDC) Describes biometric basics. Outlines CF/DND biometric activities. Describes common access card (CAC) and its five core areas. Describes automated biometric identification system (ABIS), biometrics automated toolset (BAT), and handheld interagency identity detection equipment (HIIDE). Outlines US Navy biometric system and describes future USN biometric device. Describes smart gun. Outlines possible biometrics to be embedded within the future soldier system. 3.4 Soldier Navigation Technologies in Complex Environment: State-of- the-Art Overview, Mr. J. Bird (DRDC) Describes soldier navigation in complex environments, and why it is so difficult. Provides information about global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), the new military M- Code GPS signal, and GNSS limitations. Discusses integration with other sensors. Provides overview of NATO RTO study. Describes a number of systems and devices associated with soldier navigation. Page 32 of 159
  33. 33. 3.5 Human Factors Lessons Learned about C4I Interfaces for Soldiers, Maj. L. Bossi (DND), Ed Nakaza, Sr Consultant, HumanSystems Incorporated Describes human factors lessons learned and C4I requirements with regard to human factors. Discusses digital maps, messaging, and reporting, visual display hardware alternatives, and tactical cuing at night. Describes possible input devices and weapon-mounted controls. Introduces potential future soldier C4I control devices. Describes future soldier C4I interface research needs. Page 33 of 159
  34. 34. ______________________________________________________________________ Luncheon speaker: NSERC: Overview of NSERC Research Partnerships Programs, Mrs. M. Michalska An overview of the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) and its partnership programs. Outlines its budget, strategy for partnership and innovation. Describes a four-point plan for industry-university collaborations, seven strategic target areas. Outlines a range of grants available through NSERC, including interaction grants, engage grants, and collaborative R&D grants. Discusses eligibility requirements. Describes NSERC-related research chairs in Canadian universities. Explains "idea to innovation (I2I)" concept. ______________________________________________________________________ Page 34 of 159
  35. 35. C4I Breakaway Session 3: C4I Technologies/Solutions The objectives of the third working session were to discuss:  The specific technologies to work on to solve the C4I technical challenges  The time horizons for developing those technologies Inputs to C4I Working Session 3 Before working session 3, the technical obstacles and challenges that each table of participants described on laminated forms during working session 2 were analyzed and used to define the challenges (see figure x) with the themes under which they apply. Instructions to Participants One of the walls of the conference room was divided into a grid, with the fourteen challenges along the top, and time periods (5 years, 10 years, more than 10 years) along the side. Participants were provided with pre-printed sticky notes to fill in, like the example shown here, and asked to stick them on the wall under the challenge they addressed. They were also given red and green coloured sticky dots, and these instructions:  Use the sticky notes and go up to the wall and populate the columns with ―solutions‖ for that column, contributing technologies and their time horizons Page 35 of 159
  36. 36.  You have 3 sticky notes: o Fill them in at your table o Using the coloured dots supplied, colour-code them to indicate your 1st, 2nd and 3rd, indicating relative ―potential for progress":  Green = highest potential  Red = second highest potential  articipants were also asked to summarize the results of the sticky notes for their table, using a laminated form provided: The questions they were asked to address using the stickies were: 1. What technologies need to be worked on to overcome the challenges? 2. What would be the relative ranking of these technologies in terms of potential for progress? 3. What would be the time horizon for developing each technology? Figure 8. Example of a completed sticky from sensor working session 1 Page 36 of 159
  37. 37. Results of C4I Working Session 3 The stickies were collected and used to plot the distribution shown in Figures 7 and 8.  Figure 7 shows distribution by challenge and potential for progress. From left to right, the columns for each challenge area represent high potential for progress, medium potential for progress, and potential for progress left blank  Figure 8, shows distribution by challenge and timeframe (by the years 2015 and 2020) and includes a third column where no timeframe was specified For detailed contents of the stickies used to generate these tables, see Appendix F., C4I Working Session 3 Participant Stickies. Page 37 of 159
  38. 38. Figure 9. Distribution of C4I stickies on the wall by challenge and potential for progress From left to right, the columns for each challenge area represent high potential for progress, medium potential for progress, and potential for progress left blank. Page 38 of 159
  39. 39. Figure 10. Distribution of C4I stickies on the wall by challenge and timeframe From left to right, the columns for each challenge area represent the time frame in which progress can be expected: by 2015, by 2020, and timeframe left blank. Page 39 of 159
  40. 40. 4. Technology Gaps and Collaboration Opportunities This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations that preceded the fourth breakaway session, and describes Breakaway Session 4: C4I Priorities and Collaborations. C4I Session 4 Presentation Abstracts 4.1 Unattended Ground Sensors: State-of-the-Art Overview, Mr. B. Ricard (DRDC) & Mrs L. Lamont (CRC) Describes unattended ground sensor (UGS) technology. Explains what UGS is, why it is used, and its benefits. Provides a state-of-the-art overview of UGS, including sensing and networking aspects. Describes multi-hop ad hoc networking and clustering. Outlines development trends, technical challenges, and gaps to fill. Presents a multi-day scenario for UGS technology and the dismounted soldier. Page 40 of 159
  41. 41. C4I Breakaway Session 4: Priorities and Collaborators The objectives of working session 4 were to:  Choose the highest priority technologies to work on  Identify collaborators that should be involved in working on the technologies Inputs to C4I Working Session 4 The workshop participants were asked to answer two questions: 1. Which technologies does it make sense to work on first? Why? 2. Whom would it make sense to involve in that collaboration for any variety of reasons? To provide their answers, participants were instructed to: 1. Highlight three (3) lines on the tables they had completed in working session 3, to indicate these are the highest-priority technologies to work on 2. List the collaborators they believe should be involved in working on these priority technologies Results of C4I Working Session 4 The following table summarizes the participant input from the breakaway session. To reiterate, this content is the result of It indicates 40 technology focused projects that should be undertaken in priority to address the technical challenges identified in session 2. Some of the key players or collaborators that could contribute to the development of these technologies have also been indicated. Page 41 of 159
  42. 42. Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players Number, if Noted More Technologies than Once Key Players 1. Wireless Networking  Industry  General Dynamics  Lockheed Martin  Regent Technology 2. Mobile Ad-Hoc network (TLR 3)  Industry  Radio Systems Developers  Network System Developers Ericsson  Communications Research Centre  Network / Research Centres of Excellence 3. Satellite with frequency scanning 2  Wireless Industry to send out multiple frequencies -  Mining Industry user's interface also scans  Geomatics Industry  IT Security Industry  UAV Industry  DRDC 4. Frequency agile transceivers  Research labs  Universities  Government 5. Software development (TRL 3) 4  DND  Mobile Device Developers  Militarized Display Companies 6. Speech recognition 2  Nuance – speech software manufacturers  Commercial GPS Providers  Military GPS Providers 7. Voice/Language recognition 4  Universities software (TRL 5).  Software developers  Radio developers 8. Adaptive radio frequency 2  Spectrum Regulators  Radio Manufacturers  Spectrum Users  Academia 9. Artificial Intelligence , simulation,  DND machine learning (TLR 5-6)  Militarized Display Developers  Mobile Device Companies Page 42 of 159
  43. 43. Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players Number, if Noted More Technologies than Once Key Players 10. Flexible rollable OLED display  Samsung  Fujitsu  Panasonic  Large LED Manufacturers 11. Optical communication (ad hoc).  Thales (TRL 3).  Tulmar  Optical communication companies / researchers 12. Optical interface, tactile interface.  Academia  End-Users  User Interface / Output / Display Hardware Developers 13. Know what standards already  Universities exist and are relevant (TRL N/A)  Industry  Government 14. Development of AI content of C4I  DRDC Valcariter to perform coarse GUI  Universities adjustment with operator fine  Subject matter experts adjustment (TRL 7) 15. Optimization algorithms with  Communications Research Centre robust cost functions (TLR 6)  Rockwell Collins  Harris Corporation  Telecommunication companies 16. Network monitoring dynamic  Communications Research Centre priority based allocation (TLR 8)  Rockwell Collins  Harris Corporation  Telecommunication companies 17. Tactical micro UAVs, improved  Communications Research Centre MANET solutions matched to  Rockwell Collins SWRs (TRL 6)  Harris Corporation  Telecommunication companies 18. Laser rangefinder, target locators  Thales with covert comms (TRL 6).  Communication researchers  Optics researcher  SAGEM Page 43 of 159
  44. 44. Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players Number, if Noted More Technologies than Once Key Players 19. Digital fused visible & near IR  Night Vision Laboratories and possibly thermal  DRDC Valcartier technologies  L3  Laval University 20. Li Battery, solar, bio-mech 4  Research in Motion generation and capacitors + to  Motorola store defined energy level.  Rockwell Collins 21. New material development +  Groupe CTT (organic). Photo voltaic organic  Hydro-Quebec material. (TRL 2).  Solar Energy Harvesting Companies 22. Fuel cell, wireless power 4  Energy / Power Research Institutions (electromagnetic radiation).  Power Generation Industry 23. MIMO – Multiple Input Multiple  Academia Output  Government  Industry  Military 24. Fielding the capability within the  Research in Motion acquisition timeframe –  Motorola obsolescence avoidance  Rockwell Collins 25. Alternative Energy Source Solar,  Protonex Biochemical Processes, Energy  Ballard Power Harvesting of motion and  Texas Instruments residual heat  Analog device producers 26. Algorithm Fractal Application  DRDC Valcartier Mapping Awareness  Universities  Subject matter experts 27. Artificial intelligence for detecting  DRDC Valcartier user context and info push  Universities  Subject matter experts 28. Active RF Power Control  Commercial wireless manufacturers  Military  Academia  Industry Page 44 of 159
  45. 45. Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players Number, if Noted More Technologies than Once Key Players 29. Higher degree of soldier hw  Academics system integration continuing  Power / Electronic industry miniaturization efficiency in  Battery producers components 30. Make content and context based  DRDC Toronto security filters which can be  C4I companies accepted and certified by NSA and NATO 31. Power combination: chemical-  Research Institutes battery-bio-kinetics-low power  Electro-textile companies computing  Space Agencies  Companies developing / using mobile energy  Wireless power developers / researchers 32. Micro nuclear energy reactor  Research Institutes  Electro-textile companies  Space Agencies  Companies developing / using mobile energy  Wireless power developers / researchers 33. Bidirectional neural interface  Electro textile companies  Research Institutes  New material developers / processor companies 34. Sustainable Power Generation  Industry Tech  Textile companies  Universities  Research Organizations 35. Data centric comms.  Software Developers  Universities  Research Organizations  Banking Industry 36. Open source approach (std)  CLS  Innovation Collaboration Environment  WSC  MIP Page 45 of 159
  46. 46. Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players Number, if Noted More Technologies than Once Key Players 37. Smart Power Management  Battery Companies  Fuel Cell Companies  Power Harvesting Companies  IT Companies  INTEL  Raytheon  ITT Corporation  Harris  Rockwell Collins  General Dynamics  CHI Systems  Draper Labs  Honeywell 38. Visual display WDR Camera  Physiological Researchers  Physio - Physical Researchers  Display Manufacturers 39. Meta-data exchange/practice  Academia 40. Defining intelligent default: PDA  Apple I-Phone type platform with robust  DND development frameworks  Mobile Device Companies  Militarized Display Companies Page 46 of 159
  47. 47. 5. ICee Contest Winner Presentations In advance of the C4I/Sensors workshop, four names were drawn from a list of organizations that contributed content to the ICee database or wiki. Each was then given the change to present at the workshop. This chapter provides abstracts of those presentations. Rapid Intervention Tracking System, 3D RFID TAC Describes the RFID TAC Access Control™ system for advanced real time location (RILS) technology. Explains the RFID TAC difference and the RFID TAC wireless grid. Summarizes field testing results and presents conclusions. Describes RITS for first responders and for the military. innUVative Systems, Mr. Mike Meakin An overview of Mr. Meakin's background, which includes eight years as a combat systems engineering officer. Describes elements of the 4CE Control Station©, its history, and the problem it addresses. Explains how the solution reduces risk to the soldier in a number of ways, including by providing organic air capability, SUAV/MAV as precision munitions, combined UGV/UAV combat operations, and more. Discusses counter IED operations and simplified interfaces. Page 47 of 159
  48. 48. MicroDAGR, Rockwell Collins Describes the MicroDAGR handheld GPS, including current features and potential future enhancements. Provides overview of the front, back, and sides of the MicroDAGR. Shows the main menu, as well as pages for present position, compass, map, mark waypoint, planning, and setup. Newtrax, Low Energy UGS Mesh Networks for Persistent Surveillance in Remote Areas Gives an overview of the Newtrax L1 network. Describes typical problems with UGS deployments. Explains how L1 addresses the problems and is a cost-effective solution. Provides examples of deployment scenarios, including a trail scenario and waterfront scenario. Page 48 of 159
  49. 49. Part II. Soldier Sensors Systems Introduction to Soldier Sensors Part II describes activities on day 3 of the workshop, which focused on soldier systems sensors. Introductory Presentation Abstract The day started with welcome and opening remarks from Mr. Geoff Nimmo of Industry Canada, and with the following presentation. Return on Lethal & Non Lethal Weapons Effects Workshop: C4I Related Considerations, Mr. D. Compton An overview of the results of the Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons Effects Workshop held in March, 2010. Describes its purpose, number of participants, and outcomes. Summarizes key points, including the vision for lethal and non-lethal weapons. Emphasizes the need for a standard power rail. Page 49 of 159
  50. 50. 1. Soldier Systems Sensors Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs, Goals, Objectives, Desired Systems Performance, Barriers, Technical Challenges This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations focused on Sensor deficiencies, vision, needs and goals, and describes Sensors Breakaway Session 1. Sensors Session 1 Presentation Abstracts 1.1 Future Soldier Sensors Capability Requirements, Drivers, Challenges and Gaps, Capt O. Sylvain, DND An overview of soldier sensor requirements, vision, and scope. Provides key definitions, including detection, recognition, identification, location, tracking, and engagement. Describes current technologies, including night vision and laser aiming devices, binoculars, and sights. Summarizes deficiencies. Includes a demonstration of the Need for Sensors (description follows). Page 50 of 159
  51. 51. Demonstration of the Need for Sensors in the Field Captain Sylvain's presentation included a demonstration—a continuation of the mission described by Captain Dionne on day 1 of the workshop in his Demonstration of the Need for C4I in the field (See Part 1, Chapter 1, soldier Systems C4I Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs and Goals). A workshop participant volunteered to play the role of a soldier for the demonstration. Capt. Dionne equipped him with Figure 12. The sensors demonstration focused on battle gear to demonstrate the observation post "Falcon's Nest," represented by weight of the equipment the triangle in the graphic. typically carried, the options for the various sensors the soldier could choose to carry or not, and the difficulty of choosing among the options and of carrying the selected sensors in a way that makes them usable. Capt. Sylvain reminded participants of the mission described during the demonstration on day 1, in which a platoon of three sections of soldiers set out to enter, pass through, and exit a village. The point soldier for Section 1 was confronted by an unidentified armed person, and followed a recognized engagement process to confront that person, including reporting the situation to the other sections and the platoon commander via radio. The sensor demonstration revisited that mission from the perspective of observation post Falcon's Nest, located to the south of the village, indicated in the graphic by a triangle. Captain Sylvain reminded participants that situational awareness among the soldiers was limited by line-of-sight and radio communication. For the purposes of the sensors demonstration, however, CCAN15—a small UAV—is available for support, and may be available to the observation post. Page 51 of 159
  52. 52. Situational stages Capt. Sylvain described the typical stages involved in handling a situation (although, as he pointed out, not all of the stages are involved in all situations):  Detection. The realization that an object is present (e.g., something is raising dust).  Recognition. The type of object is discerned (e.g., the dust is raised by someone walking along a path)  Identification. Specific objects can be discerned (e.g., the person walking along the path is carrying a shovel, not a weapon). Positive identification goes further (e.g., the person is using the shovel to remove weeds from a garden.) Often, confirmation is needed from multiple sensors to reach this point.  Location. Where is the object? Can involve using a laser location, a GPS grid, or a description (e.g., at the corner of building 18).  Tracking. Knowing the location over time—especially difficult if the object is attempting to avoid detection.  Engagement. When appropriate, sighting a weapon and firing. These steps are followed by an assessment phase, after which the process is repeated. What to carry, and where to carry it Capt. Sylvain pointed out that soldiers already have many sensors available to them, including the "Mark 1 Eyeball," which is the best sensor available and shouldn't be blocked by other sensors. He went on to discuss sensor needs, and available sensor devices, including night vision goggles, laser aiming devices, kite sight and maxi kite magnification devices, binoculars, C79 and holographic sights, hand-held thermal imagers, and thermal weapon sights. He also outlined requirements for target handover from one soldier and device to another, and for sensors that can identify friendly forces quickly. During the discussion, Capt Sylvain used the volunteer to point out the difficulty of choosing among the sensors to carry on a mission, and the logistical problems of using more than one sensor at a time. For example, when the soldier needed binoculars, these were out of reach, attached to equipment on his back. Asked whether he would like the binoculars integrated into the sight on his helmet, the answer was a resounding "yes." Page 52 of 159
  53. 53. What the demonstration showed The demonstration illustrated the sensor needs of the soldier in the field, the existing technologies available, the limitations of those technologies, and the need to integrate technologies and devices and provide new technologies and devices to meet soldiers' needs. Currently, the soldier cannot carry all of the sensors available, and choosing the right devices is impossible because upcoming needs cannot be predicted. As Capt. Sylvain explained, what is needed is:  Integration—"fewer boxes; multi-spectral sights; everything in one box"  Integration of sensors with weapons—"the weapon sights and binoculars need to be integrated"  Devices for recognition, identification, location, tracking, and beyond, all need to be integrated  Devices that can see through walls, around walls, and more—all without adding to the weight the soldier carries  Integration of sensor information—"We already have more information than we can process. How do we process it? How can we pre-screen the information to use the right information at the right time?" In short, the demonstration brought to life the sensor challenges and needs of the dismounted soldier in the field, and challenged the workshop participants to address them in the upcoming working sessions. Page 53 of 159
  54. 54. 1.2 Overview of Soldier Sensor Systems Development Trends & Challenges: an Industry Perspective, Mr. Rick Bowes (Industry Co-chair) Provides an industry perspective of Soldier Sensor Systems. Outlines soldier requirements. Describes key trends, focusing on the trend toward delegating decision making to lower levels of the command echelon. Describes key challenges, including continuous force transformation; adaptable mission solutions; integrating mounted and dismounted operations; and reduced size, weight and power (SWaP). Page 54 of 159
  55. 55. Sensors Breakaway Session 1. The Vision & Challenges The objective of the first sensors working session was to discuss:  The vision of how DND/CF intends to meet the dismounted soldier‘s Sensor Systems needs  The functionalities required to ―move forward‖ within a Sensor Systems theme area  The technological barriers/challenges to moving forward This working session for repeated, for sensors, the process carried out for C4I during working sessions 1 and 2 on day 1 of the workshop. Because participants were already familiar with the process, having gone through it on day 1, the two C4I sessions from day 1 were condensed into one session for Sensors. Inputs to Sensors Working Session 1 Participants were asked to choose a Sensors theme from this list: 1. Personal sensors 2. Crew sensors 3. Area sensors 4. Weapons sensors 5. Sensors Integration. They were given the following instructions, and asked to spend about 20 minutes on each question. 1. For your Sensor Systems ―theme,‖ develop a ―vision‖ (e.g., With respect to Sensor Systems, in 3 years, the dismounted soldier would be able to …: in 5 years the dismounted soldier would be able to …; in 10 years …). Be as precise and quantified as possible. 2. To achieve that vision, what functionalities need to be provided to the soldier? What would be a quantifiable objective for that functionality? 3. Identify the main technological obstacles/barriers/challenges that need to be overcome so that the functionality can be provided to the soldier? Each group was asked to organize its discussion on a flipchart for report-back, and to record the discussion on a laminated form provided to each table. Page 55 of 159
  56. 56. Results of Sensors Working Session 1 Following the table discussions, a facilitated report-back was held during which selected tables presented their results and participants were invited to commend and ask questions. The completed forms were collected. A summary of their contents follows in provided in the five tables on the following pages. This information was used to identify fifteen main technical challenges that would be addressed in the second working session. Page 56 of 159
  57. 57. Theme 1: Personal Sensors (3 tables reporting) Theme vision elements  Brain-sensor interface prototypes (5 years) and fielded systems (10 years)  Reach an extended vision/audio (within the next 5 years)  Body worn sensors. Have all body worn sensors integrated and able to communicate to a soldier worn common display within 3 years. Within the 5 years range, those sensors would communicate to ‗network‘. Within 10 years, there would be an expansion of ―body worn se fused sensor suite‖. Key Functionalities  Brain Sensor Interface  Get a visual within 500m  Common interface standards functionality (―Thought  Use a wide-angle and protocols for body worn controls‖) vision/optics sensors  Directional hearing  Enhanced navigation sensors  Expanded multispectral sensors  Bio-Metric sensors (health, environment, stress)  Environmental sensors Technical Challenges/Drivers  Interpret brain signals  Variable frequency ?  Fault Tolerant Architectures  Improve brain interfaces  Resolution sensors ? (Micro Electro Technical (more precisely electro  Merging of information Systems enchephalo gram). from many cameras  Submicron integrated circuit  Adaptable trainable  High resolution display technologies interface  New sensor detection,  New photonic materials  Train soldiers, while  Image processing extending E-O sensor considering human factors capability performance of brain control.  Multi-band  Fault tolerant data  Algorithm architectures suitable for  Processing wearable applications  Power  Artificial intelligence useful for information fusion  Nano-material science Other Barriers N/A Other comments N/A Page 57 of 159
  58. 58. Theme 2: Crew Sensors (1 table reporting) Theme vision elements Not provided Key Functionalities  Long range ID of people in all lighting and weather line of sight, which is about 2 km  Non-line of sight ID – 500m (around the corners, in buildings, in coves)  Have an accurate location of targets –blue force – with one meter accuracy  Have an ability to share, record, and transmit pictures, video, target location within a section and outside of section  Have small, lightweight, and low power consumption capabilities  Data have to be filtered / proceed in a way to avoid information overload Technical Challenges/Drivers  Fuse multiple sensors (digital fusion) in order to be able to identify the threats at night  No sensors that can see through walls yet  Bandwidth  GPS denied environments  Information overload  Many electronic devices required for long-range surveillance purposes Other Barriers N/A Other comments N/A Page 58 of 159
  59. 59. Theme 3: Area Sensors (2 tables reporting) Theme vision elements  Deliver an accurate and timely sensor product to the soldiers and that it fits is current area of interest  Within three years soldiers could access current existing ISR assets.  In five years those sensors could be fitted to organic interests  Within ten years, nothing less than available fused data.  The soldier deployed autonomous system (arial + crowd – RSTA system) must be situation adaptable. Key Functionalities  ―Wide Area Visual Allowing Zoom by  Allowing for observation and surveillance Individual Soldier‖ through multi-sensor  Soldier Cueing‖ - wide area sensors (i.e.  Endurance capability (72 hour mission) acoustic) and by moving target indication.  ―Threat Detection, Threat Elimination‖: data  ―Declutter‖ information (from detecting, recognizing, pursuing, to destroying)  Sensors reusability  Networked communication with other soldiers and soldier knowledge generation Technical Challenges/Drivers  Camera resolution insufficient (Mav –  Weight Bandwidth)  The intermittent communications vs. no  Need for multi MAV solution communications reality  Building which lead to ground based  Power storage processing  Choices of storage medium (conversion  Processing power devices, fuel cells, ICE…)  Need for additional power  Data communications protocols  Weight  Data display to soldier  Heat  Intelligent data fusion and filtering  Integration to integrated to   existing displays  Artificial intelligence (to keep the soldier in the loop) and the operator interface (easy on the go identification of objects of interest) Other Barriers N/A Other comments The importance to have sensors that are passive. Page 59 of 159
  60. 60. Theme 4: Weapons Sensors (2 tables reporting) Theme vision elements  Within five years soldiers will have a single device that work as a rifle sight (day and night) through a range of 0-300m and is integrated over standard power/data rail.  Within three years soldier would be able to transmit the sight picture to its section level (day or night).  In five years, the section level will be networked with effective communication protocols. Key Functionalities  Be able to detect and recognize identity (0-  Power/data rail (being developed by NATO) 300m) in all light conditions.  Image splitter on sight (exists)  Integrated targeting to enhance accuracy  Data management system (under  Integrated geo-location to enable target development) hard-over  Transmission module  Networked interoperability  Combat I.D. to prevent fratercide Technical Challenges/Drivers  Multi-spectral  Integrated DMC in sight  High resolution  Low power sensor  Wide spectrum optics  Instantaneous zoom to range display  Size  Weight  Power  Night vision  ―Boresighting‖ and ―parelax‖ for multi-sensor ballistic solution for different ammo types and moving targets  Bearing, range, elevation to accurately target, and DTED data in order to allow the soldier to locate accurately Other Barriers N/A Other comments This table also wrote a general ―challenge‖ statement in which they express that there is a need to achieve industry teaming agreements. This would involve time and finances, and the standardization of protocols. Page 60 of 159

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