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SSTRM Workshop 4: C4I and Sensors, Volume 1 - Report (Oct 8, 2010)

SSTRM Workshop 4: C4I and Sensors, Volume 1 - Report (Oct 8, 2010)

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    SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 4: C4I and Sensors, Volume 1 - Report (Oct 8, 2010) SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 4: C4I and Sensors, Volume 1 - Report (Oct 8, 2010) Document Transcript

    • Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Workshop 4: C4I/Sensors Montréal, March 9-11, 2010 Volume 1. C4I/Sensors Report Department of National Defence Defence Research and Development Canada Industry Canada September 15, 2010
    • Acknowledgements The Department of National Defence (DND), Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), and Industry Canada (IC) would like to acknowledge the contributions and support provided by the IC Special Events team that organized the C4I/Sensors workshop venue, logistics, and accommodations; the Soldier Systems TRM C4I/Sensors Technical Subcommittee and co-chairs, and the Executive Steering Committee for sharing their time and expertise; the Strategic Review Group Inc., for facilitating the workshop; and the participants from across Canada, the United States, and abroad, who contributed to making the workshop a success. Special thanks to those who presented at the workshop, for sharing their time, energy, and knowledge. Page ii of 159
    • Table of Contents Executive Summary ...................................................................................................... vii Preface: C4I/Sensors and The Soldier Systems TRM ..................................................... 9 About the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) ......................................... 9 C4I/Sensors and the Roadmap .............................................................................. 10 The Workshop Process .......................................................................................... 12 C4I/Sensors Workshop Introduction .............................................................................. 13 Introductory Presentation Abstracts ........................................................................ 13 Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Development and Implementation Phases, Mr. G. Nimmo (IC) ......................................... 13 Soldier Systems Modernization Effort Update and Return on Power/Energy Workshop, LCol M.A. Bodner (DRDC) ................................................. 14 Overview of DRDC R&D Strategy and Program, Dr. G. Vézina (DRDC).......... 15 Focus Days Program and Process, Return on Visioning Workshop: C4I Elements, Mr. P. Carr (SRG) ......................................................... 15 Part I. Soldier Systems C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence) ................................................................................................... 16 1. Soldier Systems C4I Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs and Goals .................... 16 C4I Session 1 Presentation Abstracts .................................................................... 16 1.1 Overview of Current Soldier Systems Equipment and C4I Deficiencies, Capt. A. Dionne (DND) ............................................. 16 Demonstration of the Need for C4I in the Field ................................................ 17 1.2 Future Soldier C4I Capabilities Requirements, Mr.P. Comtois (DND) ........................................................................... 20 Luncheon Speaker: Marine Expeditionary Rifle Squad (MERS): Trends and Initiatives for Infantry C4I Systems, Mrs. S. Torfin (USMC) ........... 20 C4I Breakaway Session 1. C4I Needs—the Vision ................................................. 21 Inputs to C4I Working Session 1 ............................................................................ 21 Results of C4I Working Session 1 .......................................................................... 24 Page iii of 159
    • IC Analysis Placeholder 1 (Summary) ............................................................. 25 2. C4I Objectives, Driving Elements, Barriers, and Technical Challenges .................. 26 C4I Session 2 Presentation Abstracts .................................................................... 26 2.1 Overview of Army IM Strategy and C4IST Concept, Mr. S. Hoag (DLCI-3) ........................................................................... 26 2.2 Soldier C4I Systems Development Trends & Technical Challenges: an Industry Perspective, Mr. L. O'Neill (Industry Co-Chair) .................. 26 C4I Breakaway Session 2: The Challenges & Functionalities ................................. 27 Inputs to C4I Working Session 2 ............................................................................ 27 Results of C4I Working Session 2 .......................................................................... 28 Other Presentations ............................................................................................... 30 Collaboration Tool (ICee) Presentation, Mrs. M. Huard (IC/DND) .................... 30 Overview of IRB Program, Ms. Nathalie Couture, Senior Manager, Industrial and Regional Benefits Policy (IC) ......................................... 30 3. Potential Solutions/Options and Related Technologies .......................................... 31 C4I Session 3 Presentation Abstracts .................................................................... 31 3.1 NATO LCG1 Soldier C4I Architecture & Symbology, Mr. C. Lemelin (DND) .......................................................................... 31 3.2 Soldier Communication & Software Radio Technologies: State-of-the-Art Overview, Mr. J. Schelsak (CRC) ............................... 31 3.3 Applications of Novel Biometrics Technologies to Soldier C4I Systems, Dr. Q. Xiao (DRDC) ....................................................... 32 3.4 Soldier Navigation Technologies in Complex Environment: State-of-the-Art Overview, Mr. J. Bird (DRDC) ..................................... 32 3.5 Human Factors Lessons Learned about C4I Interfaces for Soldiers, Maj. L. Bossi (DND), Ed Nakaza, Sr Consultant, HumanSystems Incorporated ........................................................................................ 33 Luncheon speaker: NSERC: Overview of NSERC Research Partnerships Programs, Mrs. M. Michalska ............................................................... 34 Page iv of 159
    • C4I Breakaway Session 3: C4I Technologies/Solutions ......................................... 35 Inputs to C4I Working Session 3 ..................................................................... 35 Results of C4I Working Session 3 ................................................................... 37 4. Technology Gaps and Collaboration Opportunities................................................... 40 C4I Session 4 Presentation Abstracts .................................................................... 40 4.1 Unattended Ground Sensors: State-of-the-Art Overview, Mr. B. Ricard (DRDC) & Mrs L. Lamont (CRC) .................................... 40 C4I Breakaway Session 4: Priorities and Collaborators .......................................... 41 Inputs to C4I Working Session 4 ..................................................................... 41 Results of C4I Working Session 4 ................................................................... 41 5. ICee Contest Winner Presentations ......................................................................... 47 Rapid Intervention Tracking System, 3D RFID TAC ........................................ 47 innUVative Systems, Mr. Mike Meakin ............................................................ 47 MicroDAGR, Rockwell Collins ......................................................................... 48 Newtrax, Low Energy UGS Mesh Networks for Persistent Surveillance in Remote Areas .................................................................................. 48 Part II. Soldier Sensors Systems............................................................................... 49 Introduction to Soldier Sensors ..................................................................................... 49 Introductory Presentation Abstract ......................................................................... 49 Return on Lethal & Non Lethal Weapons Effects Workshop: C4I Related Considerations, Mr. D. Compton ...................................... 49 1. Soldier Systems Sensors Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs, Goals, Objectives, Desired Systems Performance, Barriers, Technical Challenges........... 50 Sensors Session 1 Presentation Abstracts ............................................................. 50 1.1 Future Soldier Sensors Capability Requirements, Drivers, Challenges and Gaps, Capt O. Sylvain, DND ...................................... 50 Demonstration of the Need for Sensors in the Field ........................................ 51 1.2 Overview of Soldier Sensor Systems Development Trends & Challenges: an Industry Perspective, Mr. Rick Bowes (Industry Co-chair)...................................................... 54 Page v of 159
    • Sensors Breakaway Session 1. The Vision & Challenges ...................................... 55 Inputs to Sensors Working Session 1 .............................................................. 55 Results of Sensors Working Session 1 ............................................................ 56 2. Potential Solutions/Options and Related Technologies .......................................... 62 Sensors Session 2 Presentation Abstracts ............................................................. 62 2.1 See Through Wall Sensing Technologies: State-of-the-art Overview, Mr. Pascale Sévigny (DRDC) ............................................................... 62 2.2 Emerging Sensing Technology Overview, Mr. J. Maheux (DRDC) ....... 62 Luncheon speaker: Overview of Precarn Programs on Intelligent and Communication Systems, Dr. H. Rothschild ......................................... 63 2.3 Physiological Status Monitoring Technologies: State-of-the-art Overview, Dr. S. Stergiopoulos (DRDC) ............................................... 63 2.4 Nano/Micro Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Technologies: State-of-the-Art Overview, Dr. F Wong (DRDC) ................................... 64 Sensors Breakaway Working Session 2: The Technologies ................................... 65 Inputs to Sensors Working Session 2 .............................................................. 65 Results of Sensors Working Session 2 ............................................................ 66 3. Sensor Technology Gaps and Collaborations......................................................... 69 Sensors Breakaway Session 3 ............................................................................... 69 Inputs to Sensors Working Session 3 .............................................................. 69 Results of Sensors Working Session 3 ............................................................ 69 Part III. Next Steps ....................................................................................................... 70 Ongoing and Upcoming Roadmap Activities ................................................................. 70 Ongoing C4I/Sensors Collaborations...................................................................... 70 Sharing Knowledge with the ICee Database and Wiki ............................................ 70 Upcoming Workshops ............................................................................................ 71 Appendixes A. Workshop Agenda .................................................................................................. 72 B. C4I/Sensors Scope Definition ................................................................................. 76 C. List of Workshop Participants ................................................................................. 80 Page vi of 159
    • D. C4I Working Session 1 Participant Input ................................................................ 90 E. C4I Working Session 2 Participant Worksheets ...................................................... 91 F. C4I Working Session 3 Participant Stickies—the Challenges ................................. 98 G. Sensors Working Session 2 ................................................................................. 139 H. C4I/Sensor Mind Maps ......................................................................................... 154 List of Figures Figure 1. C4I/Sensors and the Soldier Systems TRM.................................................... 10 Figure 2. The Technical Roadmapping Process ............................................................ 12 Figure 3. Three sections of dismounted soldiers proceed through a village ................... 17 Figure 4. The sections are separated geographically, and the soldiers can't all see each other ................................................................................... 17 Figure 5.The point man in section 1 encounters what appears to be a villager with a weapon ................................................................................................ 18 Figure 6. Example of completed worksheet for C4I Session 2 ....................................... 28 Figure 7. C4I Challenges Determined from Breakaway Session 2 Participant Responses .................................................................................... 29 Figure 8. Example of a completed sticky from sensor working session 1....................... 36 Figure 9. Distribution of C4I stickies on the wall by challenge and potential for progress ...................................................................................... 38 Figure 10. Distribution of C4I stickies on the wall by challenge and timeframe .............. 39 Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players .................. 42 Figure 12. The sensors demonstration focused on observation post "Falcon's Nest," represented by the triangle in the graphic. .............................................................. 51 Figure 13. Distribution of Sensor Stickies on the Wall by Challenge and Timeframe ..... 67 Figure 14. Distribution of Sensor Stickies on the Wall by Challenge and Potential for Progress ................................................................................... 68 Page vii of 159
    • Executive Summary This report describes the C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence) and Sensors Workshop held in Montréal in March, 2010—the fourth in a series of technical workshops held as part of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmapping (TRM) initiative. The Preface introduces the Soldier Systems TRM project, which involves industry, government, academia, and other interested parties in working toward developing an integrated system for the dismounted soldier. It places C4I and sensors in the context of the project, and describes the process followed during the workshop to achieve the ultimate goal of identifying research and development priorities and collaborations for meeting the dismounted soldier's future C4I/Sensor needs. Part I, Soldier Systems C4I, describes activities on days 1 and 2 of the workshop, which focused on C4I and the dismounted soldier. It provides abstracts of the presentations made on those days. It also describes four breakout sessions, during which participants worked together to develop a vision for C4I and the dismounted soldier, identify the challenges and key functionalities involved in realizing the vision, outline the technologies to work on, and establish priorities and collaborations for working on those technologies. Part II, Soldier Systems Sensors, describes activities on day 3 of the workshop, which focused on sensors and the dismounted soldier. As with Part 1, it includes presentation abstracts and working session descriptions and summarizes the results of the working sessions. Part III, Next Steps, describes upcoming activities in the ongoing Soldier Systems TRM project. Appendixes to the report provide the workshop agenda, define C4I/Sensor terms, list the workshop participants, and describe DND's soldier systems mind maps for C4I/Sensors. Page viii of 159
    • Preface: C4I/Sensors and The Soldier Systems TRM The C4I/Sensors Workshop held in Montréal, Québec, March 9-11, 2010, was one in a series of workshops associated with the development phase of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmapping initiative. About the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) The Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) project is a unique industry- government collaboration to apply roadmapping principles and processes to develop a comprehensive knowledge-sharing platform and identify technology opportunities in support of the Canadian Forces Soldier Modernization Effort. Participation in the Soldier Systems TRM is free and voluntary and open to Canadian and international manufacturing, services, and technology-based companies of all sizes, and to researchers and other experts from academia, government, and not-for-profit research organizations from Canada and around the world. The focus of the Soldier Systems TRM—the soldier system—is defined within NATO as the integration of everything the soldier wears, carries and consumes for enhanced individual and collective (small unit) capability within the national command and control structure. It centers on the needs of the dismounted soldier, who is often away from the supply network and must be self-sufficient for up to 72 hours. The overarching goal of the Soldier Systems TRM is to understand how today's technology—and tomorrow's—might contribute to a superior soldier system that increases capacities and operational effectiveness for the individual soldier in the five NATO capability areas of Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I); Survivability; Mobility; Lethality; and Sustainability. The Soldier Systems TRM exercise is governed by an Executive Steering Committee made up of government and industry representatives, and includes technical subcommittees dedicated to each capability area. For information about any aspect of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap project, visit http://www.soldiersystems-systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca Page 9 of 159
    • C4I/Sensors and the Roadmap C4I/Sensors1 was the fourth workshop held as part Figure 1. C4I/Sensors and the of the development phase of the Soldier Systems Soldier Systems TRM TRM. (Figure 1. C4I/Sensors and the Soldier Systems TRM). The first two days of the workshop 1. focused on C4I, and the third day on sensors. Visioning & Future Capabilities (Held in June 2009) C4I/Sensors and the Soldier System As with all of the Soldier Systems TRM workshops, 2. Technical Workshop: Power/Energy/Sustainability the focus of the C4I/Sensors workshop was on the needs of the dismounted soldier. C4I and sensors play a critical role in meeting those needs with a soldier system. They are the key to providing 3. Technical Workshop: networked situational awareness at the dismounted Weapons: Lethal & Non-Lethal soldier and small team level. This, in turn, is critical for precise navigation; 4. Technical 5. Technical information exchange, storage and retrieval; target Workshop: Workshop: acquisition; and intra and interconnectivity between C4I Sensors soldiers, leaders, weapons systems, and a range of factors associated with awareness of what is happening in the field. 6. Technical Workshop: Survivability/Equipment/Clothing C4I and sensors can be defined in different ways. & Footwear/Load Carriage To ensure that participants came to the workshop with a shared understanding of the workshop's 7. Technical Workshop: purpose and scope, and of key definitions related to Human & Systems Integration C4I/Sensors, participants were sent basic definitions and other information in advance of the workshop. The full information is provided in Appendix B, C4I/Sensors Scope Definition. A brief summary of 8. the information follows. Roadmap Integration 1 C4I stands for Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence. Page 10 of 159
    • C4I/Sensors Definitions The acronym C4I stands for "command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence". Command and control is about decision-making, the exercise of direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of a mission. Information, computers and communications technologies support command and control, and are used to achieve information superiority. C4I systems provide also tools to improve commanders with situational awareness—information about the location and status of enemy and friendly forces. Command and control (C2)—The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission. Command—The authority that a commander in the Armed Forces lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. Command includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for planning the employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling military forces for the accomplishment of assigned missions and meet the commander intent. Computing and communications—Two pervasive enabling technologies that support C2 and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Computers and communications process and transport information. Control—Authority which may be less than full command exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate or other organizations. Physical or psychological pressures exerted with the intent to assure that an agent or group will respond as directed. Intelligence (I)—The product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas. Information and knowledge about an adversary obtained through observation, investigation, analysis, or understanding. Page 11 of 159
    • The Workshop Process The goal of the C4I/Sensors Workshop was to: 1. Identify and validate the future C4I and sensor capabilities required by the dismounted soldier. 2. Identify the functionalities that can meet those capabilities, and the challenges associated with developing them. 3. Identify the technologies that must be developed to meet the challenges and address the needed functionalities. 4. Identify R&D priority areas and collaborations to be the focus of technology development efforts in the context of the Soldier Systems TRM. To achieve this goal, the workshop followed a carefully designed process (Figure 2. The Technical Roadmapping Process) using a series of presentations and working sessions. This document summarizes those presentations and the results of the working sessions, following the structure of the workshop agenda (See Appendix A. Workshop Agenda). Figure 2. The Technical Roadmapping Process Page 12 of 159
    • C4I/Sensors Workshop Introduction The workshop started with a series of introductory presentations designed to familiarize participants with the technical roadmapping process and with soldier systems. Abstracts of those presentations follow. The full presentations are provided in Volume 2, C4I/Sensors Slide Decks, Day 1 of 3—C4I. They are also available in the Innovation Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) tool, which is accessible from the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap web site: http://www.soldiersystems- systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca Introductory Presentation Abstracts Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Development and Implementation Phases, Mr. G. Nimmo (IC) Defines and provides an overview of the technology roadmapping process. Describes other Canadian roadmapping experiences. Outlines the Soldier Systems TRM Project, including its objectives and the roles of industry and government. Describes Soldier Systems TRM project enablers, including the workshops, the Innovation Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) database and wiki, and roadmapping software. Lists project stakeholders. Outlines the governance framework and lists the C4I technical subcommittee members. Describes roadmap activities and schedules. Makes clear that roadmapping is about better planning, and is not part of the procurement process. Provides success snapshots associated with the Soldier Systems TRM to date. Page 13 of 159
    • Soldier Systems Modernization Effort Update and Return on Power/Energy Workshop, LCol M.A. Bodner (DRDC) Describes C4I technologies evolution. Outlines next- generation soldier needs. Provides definitions of C4ISR and soldier systems, including the C4ISR NATO Definition: The provision of information and intelligence that enables decision superiority necessary to execute the Commander's Intent, along with the appropriate level of situational awareness, to the point of achieving the desired effect. Describes Canadian Forces Objective Force 2028 Vision. Outlines C4I/Sensor initiatives, future capability vision, and army strategy. Describes the soldier modernization effort and the integrated soldier "system of systems." Outlines soldier systems R& D history. Describes core C4I/Sensor capabilities and future requirements. Places the soldier system in the context of the world stage. Summarizes global market opportunities. Places the Soldier Systems TRM project in the context of the preceding soldier systems efforts. Describes outcomes of the Power and Energy Workshop held Sept 21-23, 2009. Summarizes future soldier systems challenges. Describes the pre-eminent place of the soldier in Canadian Forces combat systems. Page 14 of 159
    • Overview of DRDC R&D Strategy and Program, Dr. G. Vézina (DRDC) Outlines the "Canada First" strategy of DRDC (Defence Research and Development Canada) and the Land R&D Program. Outlines the strategy direction. Describes Defence R&D Canada partners. Explains how science and technology can help solve defence and security problems. Outlines technologies that can lead to advantages or disadvantages. Lists defence S&T partner groups, thrusts, and themes. Describes new related DRDC initiatives. Focus Days Program and Process, Return on Visioning Workshop: C4I Elements, Mr. P. Carr (SRG) Defines a technology roadmap (TRM). Outlines its principles. Describes its three phases. Provides an overview of the TRM process. Describes the objectives of the C4I/Sensors workshop. Outlines progress made in past Soldier Systems TRM workshops. Outlines the logistics of the workshop, including the working session process. Page 15 of 159
    • Part I. Soldier Systems C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence) 1. Soldier Systems C4I Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs and Goals This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations that focused on C4I deficiencies, vision, needs and goals, and describes C4I Breakaway Session 1. The Vision. C4I Session 1 Presentation Abstracts 1.1 Overview of Current Soldier Systems Equipment and C4I Deficiencies, Capt. A. Dionne (DND) Points out that critical deficiencies exist in the area of C4I, and that deficiencies in this and other areas must be addressed holistically. Describes the communications equipment available to the soldier of today. Outlines deficiencies/gaps in the areas of command, sense, and action. Describes the scenario of a platoon of soldiers entering, passing through, and exiting a village, and the C4I issues they face along the way (see "Demonstration of the Need for C4I in the Field," on the next page). Concludes with a description of the Future "GAP" in the 2015-2020 timeframe. Page 16 of 159
    • Demonstration of the Need for C4I in the Field Included in Captain Dionne's Figure 3. Three sections of dismounted soldiers presentation was a proceed through a village demonstration of the scenario. It followed the progress of a team of soldiers entering, passing through, and exiting a village. The team, led by Captain Dionne, whose call signal was "One One," was divided into three sections with call signals "One One Alpha, One One Beta, and One One Charlie". A commander for each section was chosen from the workshop participants. The platoon commander Figure 4. The sections are separated described how the platoon would geographically, and the soldiers can't all see progress through the village— each other entering from the southwest, passing through the main square, and exiting to the south east. The sections were separated by about 5-10 meters distance between soldiers. Captain Dionne described how the soldiers in the sections, separated as they are by distance and buildings, have limited situational awareness. Their information is limited by the briefing at the start of the day, the map provided to them, and what they can see based on their order in the sections. Captain Dionne described the situation of the point man at the head of section 1—in a busy village, with people nearby, children trying to get candy from him, mopeds passing him, and other activity taking place around him. Page 17 of 159
    • A confrontation At this point, a volunteer dressed in battle gear took the role of the point soldier, who knows the rules of engagement and has to determine what is a threat and what is not as he leads the section through the Figure 5.The point man in section 1 encounters village. what appears to be a villager with a weapon When a villager approaches carrying what appears to be a weapon, the soldier sends the radio message that he has made contact, and shouts at the villager to show his hands. Section 3 only gets a portion of Section 1's message, because of obstacles to transmission involving direct line of sight—they hear "One One Alpha" and know only that something is happening. Section 2 stops, but doesn't see what is happening. Section 1 is taking position to help the point man do his job. The point man is trying to engage the villager, asking him to show he is not a threat. The soldier knows he could be dealing with a member of the civilian police force, a local employee of a security organization, or a possible threat. He continues to try to get the person to respond. When he gets no response to several attempts, he shows a more aggressive posture and tells the villager to put his rifle on the ground. The villager then pulls out a handgun to try to shoot the soldier, and the soldier is forced to take action to neutralize the target. Throughout the encounter, Section 2 had no visual, so it doesn't know what has happened. They will try to get as close as possible to assess the situation. The section leader has to see what is happening and what might happen in order to build a plan and communicate it to the soldiers in his section, to Sections 1 and 3, and to headquarters. At headquarters, someone is trying to determine exactly where the soldiers are, and what is happening. The platoon commander knows he has one section engaged, and has to reach the third section and pass along that information. Page 18 of 159
    • What is happening? All of the soldiers are asking "What is happening?" To answer that question, they need information. Where is everyone? What are they doing? Where are they going? The section leaders, who can feel very alone and can be faced with long lead times to get assets, have to anticipate what the platoon commander will be asking, and what the plan will be to respond to the situation. The need for C4I Captain Dionne summed up the demonstration by emphasizing the need for better C4I capabilities to operate more effectively in the demonstration situation and similar encounters. It set the scene for the questions that workshop participants would be asked to address over the next three days:  What needs does the soldier have that this demonstration points out?  What is the C4I vision for the soldier?  What functionalities must the soldier have?  What technologies can provide those functionalities?  What research and development must be done to develop the needed technologies?  Who has the capabilities to do the work?  Who can work together to realize the vision?  How long will it take? More to come ... Captain Dionne concluded by pointing out the triangle at the bottom of the first demonstration slide (Figure 3. Three sections of dismounted soldiers proceed through a village), and promising that it would be explained in a further demonstration, later in the workshop (See "Demonstration of the Need for Sensors in the Field, in Part II. Soldier Sensor Systems). Page 19 of 159
    • 1.2 Future Soldier C4I Capabilities Requirements, Mr.P. Comtois (DND) Provides a vision statement for C4I. Describes constraints and limitations associated with C4I. Outlines C4I functional and performance requirements in a range of theme areas that were described to workshop participants in a handout. Concludes that the C4I vision and requirements are continuously evolving, and that solutions must involve many disciplines and require involvement by many participants. ______________________________________________________________________ Luncheon Speaker: Marine Expeditionary Rifle Squad (MERS): Trends and Initiatives for Infantry C4I Systems, Mrs. S. Torfin (USMC) Describes the Marine Expeditionary Rifle Squad (MERS) mission, and methodology. Provides a description of marine infantry battalions, and a snapshot of their deployment process. Outlines current operations. Explains the types of radios deployed by MERS for various missions. Provides feedback on the quality of C4I from marine infantry battalions. Outlines future plans for C4I and soldier systems. ______________________________________________________________________ Page 20 of 159
    • C4I Breakaway Session 1. C4I Needs—the Vision The objectives of the first working session were to:  Discuss the overall vision of how DND/CF intends to meet the dismounted soldier's C4I needs  Set a focal point for some of the C4I "theme" areas Inputs to C4I Working Session 1 Working session inputs included the preceding presentations, and the participants pre- existing knowledge based on their areas of expertise. Before working session 1, participants were asked to sit with people from other organizations, with a maximum of 3 non-industry participants at each table (coloured cards indicated non-industry participants and helped ensure the required groupings at each table). Participants were also asked to choose a leader and a recorder for the discussion that was to follow. In addition to the presentations that preceded the working session, the workshop participants were given the following inputs:  A description of C4ISR Vision and Future Capability Requirements  A copy of participant input from the C4I/Sensors Visioning Breakout Session at the Soldier Systems TRM Visioning Workshop held in June 2009  A vision statement  Instructions to follow during the discussion Each of these is included on the following pages of this report. Page 21 of 159
    • Participant Input from the Visioning Workshop Held in June, 2009 Page 22 of 159
    • Participant Input from the Visioning Workshop Held in June, 2009 (continued) Page 23 of 159
    • A Vision Statement The following vision statement was provided to workshop participants prior to working session 1: In the next 10 to 20 years, the soldier should be capable of obtaining a complete relevant picture of an operation based on the current situation with 99% confidence in the information accuracy in near real time within a transparent solution from a weight, volume and cognitive load perspective. Working Session 1 Instructions The workshop participants were give the following instructions: After introductions, please spend about 20 minutes on each exercise: 1. Answer the question: Is the C4I vision sufficient? (i.e., is there an important dimension that hasn't been mentioned? Is it ambitious enough?) 2. Have your table pick two of the C4I "themes" that were discussed. Develop a "vision" for one theme, and then again for the other (e.g., With respect to C4I, in 3 years, the dismounted soldier would be able to...; in 5 years, the dismounted soldier would be able to ...; in 10 years...). Be as precise and quantified as possible. For report-back purposes, summarize your table's discussion on the flipchart provided. Also summarize the discussion on the laminated sheet provided at each table. Results of C4I Working Session 1 Following the table discussions, a facilitated report-back was held, during which selected tables presented their results and participants were invited to comment and ask questions. The laminated sheets that each table filled out to summarize their discussions were collected. A summary of their contents follows. Page 24 of 159
    • IC Analysis Placeholder 1 (Summary) Page 25 of 159
    • 2. C4I Objectives, Driving Elements, Barriers, and Technical Challenges This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations preceding the second working session, and describes Working Session 2: The Challenges. C4I Session 2 Presentation Abstracts 2.1 Overview of Army IM Strategy and C4IST Concept, Mr. S. Hoag (DLCI-3) Outlines the scope and strategic environment evolution of land forces C4ISR. Describes key gaps. Summaries strategy to 2028, including four main thrust areas—Governance and compliance, Institutionalization and sustainability, Capability development and integration, and Interoperability—and how each will be addressed. 2.2 Soldier C4I Systems Development Trends & Technical Challenges: an Industry Perspective, Mr. L. O'Neill (Industry Co-Chair) Provides an industry perspective on Soldier Systems C4I. Describes what industry is hearing, technical challenges for information exchange— including the soldier as a sensor, easy connectivity, support for standard interfaces, and more. Describes what industry needs to know. Page 26 of 159
    • C4I Breakaway Session 2: The Challenges & Functionalities The objectives of the second working session were to discuss:  The functionalities required to "move forward" within a theme area  The technological barriers/challenges to moving forward in that theme area Inputs to C4I Working Session 2 Prior to the second working session, the workshop tables were organized by these six themes: 1. Communication 2. Human interfaces 3. Geo-location 4. Integration 5. Interoperability 6. Security Participants were asked to choose a table that corresponded to their domain of expertise or interest. Working Session 2 Instructions The following instructions were provided to guide the discussion: 1. For your theme, set out some of the main "vision" characteristics. 2. To achieve that vision, what functionalities need to be provided to the soldier? What would be a quantifiable objective for that functionality? 3. Identify the main technological obstacles/barriers/challenges that need to be overcome, so that the functionality can be provided to the soldier. A laminated working sheet was provided for each table to record the results of their discussion. Page 27 of 159
    • Results of C4I Working Session 2 Following discussions at the tables, a facilitated report-back was held, during which selected tables presented their results. Participants were invited to comment and ask questions. The laminated sheets that participants completed (see example) were collected from each table. Figure 6. Example of completed worksheet for C4I Session 2 Based on the discussions that took place during the breakaway sessions, and the collected input, fifteen main technical challenges were identified, grouped into the six theme areas. The content was retained to be used in the next working session, during which participants would propose potential solutions to address the challenges. Figure 7 lists the challenges associated with each theme area. The detailed participant input used to generate this summary is provided in Appendix E, C4I Working Session 2 Participant Worksheets. Page 28 of 159
    • Figure 7. C4I Challenges Determined from Breakaway Session 2 Participant Responses For detailed content of the working sheets, see Appendix E., C4I Working Session 2 Participant Worksheets Challenge Theme 1. Lack of UI configurability/usability C4I Human Interfaces 2. Overcoming infection/comfort-related to C4I Human Interfaces C4I equipment 3. Denied signal environment Communication 4. Inability to scan and use a range of Communication frequencies 5. Spectrum availability Communication 6. Effective language recognition (including C4I Human Interfaces language/cultural AI) 7. Lack of standards/agreed guidelines Interoperability/Integration 8. Power/energy limitations 9. Poor signature management Communication 10. Detecting and overcoming Security jamming/spoofing 11. Inability to configure C4I devices to context C4I Human Interfaces/Integration (functional) 12. Inability to configure C4I devices to context Interoperability/Security (cross-domain, interoperability, security) 13. Over-reliance on technology solutions (no C4I Human Interfaces longer training the fundamentals) 14. Poor bandwidth/capacity management Communication 15. Lack of High Performance User Interface C4I Human Interfaces/ Characteristics Page 29 of 159
    • ______________________________________________________________________ Other Presentations Collaboration Tool (ICee) Presentation, Mrs. M. Huard (IC/DND) Provides an overview of the Innovation Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee), a database and wiki that supports the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap and can be accessed at the roadmap's web site. Explains the objectives and concepts of the ICee. Defines the wiki and explains its importance for the Soldier Systems TRM. Outlines advantages for participants. Describes steps that participants can take to start using the ICee. Overview of IRB Program, Ms. Nathalie Couture, Senior Manager, Industrial and Regional Benefits Policy (IC) An update on offset policy in Canada. Describes enhancements to Canada's Industrial and Regional Benefits (IRB) Policy. Explains that the program is client-driven and market-driven. Outlines the rationale for policy review. Describes alignment of the key drivers. Provides background on the updating of Canada's Offset Policy, the direction of the policy, policy enhancements, and IRB opportunities under the Soldier Systems TRM. ______________________________________________________________________ Page 30 of 159
    • 3. Potential Solutions/Options and Related Technologies This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations that preceded the third breakaway session, and describes Breakaway Session 3: Potential Solutions and C4I Technologies. C4I Session 3 Presentation Abstracts 3.1 NATO LCG1 Soldier C4I Architecture & Symbology, Mr. C. Lemelin (DND) Summarizes NATO's approach to Soldier Systems. Explains the key is interoperability. Describes interoperability challenge, and the NATO outlook to 2035. Outlines lessons learned. Lists reasons to migrate to XML as a standard. Outlines a solution in the making, including addressing systems architecture and security. 3.2 Soldier Communication & Software Radio Technologies: State-of- the-Art Overview, Mr. J. Schelsak (CRC) An overview of soldier radio communications, including description of tactical mobile ad- hoc network, target characteristics, and current soldier radio communications. Describes challenges associated with design, key technologies, radio spectrum. Discusses adaptive radio and adaptive channel aggregation, MIMO systems and measured channel MIMI capacity. Page 31 of 159
    • Provides overview of networking techniques to support advanced radio. Discusses software defined radio (SDR) and interoperability and implementation challenges. 3.3 Applications of Novel Biometrics Technologies to Soldier C4I Systems, Dr. Q. Xiao (DRDC) Describes biometric basics. Outlines CF/DND biometric activities. Describes common access card (CAC) and its five core areas. Describes automated biometric identification system (ABIS), biometrics automated toolset (BAT), and handheld interagency identity detection equipment (HIIDE). Outlines US Navy biometric system and describes future USN biometric device. Describes smart gun. Outlines possible biometrics to be embedded within the future soldier system. 3.4 Soldier Navigation Technologies in Complex Environment: State-of- the-Art Overview, Mr. J. Bird (DRDC) Describes soldier navigation in complex environments, and why it is so difficult. Provides information about global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), the new military M- Code GPS signal, and GNSS limitations. Discusses integration with other sensors. Provides overview of NATO RTO study. Describes a number of systems and devices associated with soldier navigation. Page 32 of 159
    • 3.5 Human Factors Lessons Learned about C4I Interfaces for Soldiers, Maj. L. Bossi (DND), Ed Nakaza, Sr Consultant, HumanSystems Incorporated Describes human factors lessons learned and C4I requirements with regard to human factors. Discusses digital maps, messaging, and reporting, visual display hardware alternatives, and tactical cuing at night. Describes possible input devices and weapon-mounted controls. Introduces potential future soldier C4I control devices. Describes future soldier C4I interface research needs. Page 33 of 159
    • ______________________________________________________________________ Luncheon speaker: NSERC: Overview of NSERC Research Partnerships Programs, Mrs. M. Michalska An overview of the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) and its partnership programs. Outlines its budget, strategy for partnership and innovation. Describes a four-point plan for industry-university collaborations, seven strategic target areas. Outlines a range of grants available through NSERC, including interaction grants, engage grants, and collaborative R&D grants. Discusses eligibility requirements. Describes NSERC-related research chairs in Canadian universities. Explains "idea to innovation (I2I)" concept. ______________________________________________________________________ Page 34 of 159
    • C4I Breakaway Session 3: C4I Technologies/Solutions The objectives of the third working session were to discuss:  The specific technologies to work on to solve the C4I technical challenges  The time horizons for developing those technologies Inputs to C4I Working Session 3 Before working session 3, the technical obstacles and challenges that each table of participants described on laminated forms during working session 2 were analyzed and used to define the challenges (see figure x) with the themes under which they apply. Instructions to Participants One of the walls of the conference room was divided into a grid, with the fourteen challenges along the top, and time periods (5 years, 10 years, more than 10 years) along the side. Participants were provided with pre-printed sticky notes to fill in, like the example shown here, and asked to stick them on the wall under the challenge they addressed. They were also given red and green coloured sticky dots, and these instructions:  Use the sticky notes and go up to the wall and populate the columns with ―solutions‖ for that column, contributing technologies and their time horizons Page 35 of 159
    •  You have 3 sticky notes: o Fill them in at your table o Using the coloured dots supplied, colour-code them to indicate your 1st, 2nd and 3rd, indicating relative ―potential for progress":  Green = highest potential  Red = second highest potential  articipants were also asked to summarize the results of the sticky notes for their table, using a laminated form provided: The questions they were asked to address using the stickies were: 1. What technologies need to be worked on to overcome the challenges? 2. What would be the relative ranking of these technologies in terms of potential for progress? 3. What would be the time horizon for developing each technology? Figure 8. Example of a completed sticky from sensor working session 1 Page 36 of 159
    • Results of C4I Working Session 3 The stickies were collected and used to plot the distribution shown in Figures 7 and 8.  Figure 7 shows distribution by challenge and potential for progress. From left to right, the columns for each challenge area represent high potential for progress, medium potential for progress, and potential for progress left blank  Figure 8, shows distribution by challenge and timeframe (by the years 2015 and 2020) and includes a third column where no timeframe was specified For detailed contents of the stickies used to generate these tables, see Appendix F., C4I Working Session 3 Participant Stickies. Page 37 of 159
    • Figure 9. Distribution of C4I stickies on the wall by challenge and potential for progress From left to right, the columns for each challenge area represent high potential for progress, medium potential for progress, and potential for progress left blank. Page 38 of 159
    • Figure 10. Distribution of C4I stickies on the wall by challenge and timeframe From left to right, the columns for each challenge area represent the time frame in which progress can be expected: by 2015, by 2020, and timeframe left blank. Page 39 of 159
    • 4. Technology Gaps and Collaboration Opportunities This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations that preceded the fourth breakaway session, and describes Breakaway Session 4: C4I Priorities and Collaborations. C4I Session 4 Presentation Abstracts 4.1 Unattended Ground Sensors: State-of-the-Art Overview, Mr. B. Ricard (DRDC) & Mrs L. Lamont (CRC) Describes unattended ground sensor (UGS) technology. Explains what UGS is, why it is used, and its benefits. Provides a state-of-the-art overview of UGS, including sensing and networking aspects. Describes multi-hop ad hoc networking and clustering. Outlines development trends, technical challenges, and gaps to fill. Presents a multi-day scenario for UGS technology and the dismounted soldier. Page 40 of 159
    • C4I Breakaway Session 4: Priorities and Collaborators The objectives of working session 4 were to:  Choose the highest priority technologies to work on  Identify collaborators that should be involved in working on the technologies Inputs to C4I Working Session 4 The workshop participants were asked to answer two questions: 1. Which technologies does it make sense to work on first? Why? 2. Whom would it make sense to involve in that collaboration for any variety of reasons? To provide their answers, participants were instructed to: 1. Highlight three (3) lines on the tables they had completed in working session 3, to indicate these are the highest-priority technologies to work on 2. List the collaborators they believe should be involved in working on these priority technologies Results of C4I Working Session 4 The following table summarizes the participant input from the breakaway session. To reiterate, this content is the result of It indicates 40 technology focused projects that should be undertaken in priority to address the technical challenges identified in session 2. Some of the key players or collaborators that could contribute to the development of these technologies have also been indicated. Page 41 of 159
    • Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players Number, if Noted More Technologies than Once Key Players 1. Wireless Networking  Industry  General Dynamics  Lockheed Martin  Regent Technology 2. Mobile Ad-Hoc network (TLR 3)  Industry  Radio Systems Developers  Network System Developers Ericsson  Communications Research Centre  Network / Research Centres of Excellence 3. Satellite with frequency scanning 2  Wireless Industry to send out multiple frequencies -  Mining Industry user's interface also scans  Geomatics Industry  IT Security Industry  UAV Industry  DRDC 4. Frequency agile transceivers  Research labs  Universities  Government 5. Software development (TRL 3) 4  DND  Mobile Device Developers  Militarized Display Companies 6. Speech recognition 2  Nuance – speech software manufacturers  Commercial GPS Providers  Military GPS Providers 7. Voice/Language recognition 4  Universities software (TRL 5).  Software developers  Radio developers 8. Adaptive radio frequency 2  Spectrum Regulators  Radio Manufacturers  Spectrum Users  Academia 9. Artificial Intelligence , simulation,  DND machine learning (TLR 5-6)  Militarized Display Developers  Mobile Device Companies Page 42 of 159
    • Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players Number, if Noted More Technologies than Once Key Players 10. Flexible rollable OLED display  Samsung  Fujitsu  Panasonic  Large LED Manufacturers 11. Optical communication (ad hoc).  Thales (TRL 3).  Tulmar  Optical communication companies / researchers 12. Optical interface, tactile interface.  Academia  End-Users  User Interface / Output / Display Hardware Developers 13. Know what standards already  Universities exist and are relevant (TRL N/A)  Industry  Government 14. Development of AI content of C4I  DRDC Valcariter to perform coarse GUI  Universities adjustment with operator fine  Subject matter experts adjustment (TRL 7) 15. Optimization algorithms with  Communications Research Centre robust cost functions (TLR 6)  Rockwell Collins  Harris Corporation  Telecommunication companies 16. Network monitoring dynamic  Communications Research Centre priority based allocation (TLR 8)  Rockwell Collins  Harris Corporation  Telecommunication companies 17. Tactical micro UAVs, improved  Communications Research Centre MANET solutions matched to  Rockwell Collins SWRs (TRL 6)  Harris Corporation  Telecommunication companies 18. Laser rangefinder, target locators  Thales with covert comms (TRL 6).  Communication researchers  Optics researcher  SAGEM Page 43 of 159
    • Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players Number, if Noted More Technologies than Once Key Players 19. Digital fused visible & near IR  Night Vision Laboratories and possibly thermal  DRDC Valcartier technologies  L3  Laval University 20. Li Battery, solar, bio-mech 4  Research in Motion generation and capacitors + to  Motorola store defined energy level.  Rockwell Collins 21. New material development +  Groupe CTT (organic). Photo voltaic organic  Hydro-Quebec material. (TRL 2).  Solar Energy Harvesting Companies 22. Fuel cell, wireless power 4  Energy / Power Research Institutions (electromagnetic radiation).  Power Generation Industry 23. MIMO – Multiple Input Multiple  Academia Output  Government  Industry  Military 24. Fielding the capability within the  Research in Motion acquisition timeframe –  Motorola obsolescence avoidance  Rockwell Collins 25. Alternative Energy Source Solar,  Protonex Biochemical Processes, Energy  Ballard Power Harvesting of motion and  Texas Instruments residual heat  Analog device producers 26. Algorithm Fractal Application  DRDC Valcartier Mapping Awareness  Universities  Subject matter experts 27. Artificial intelligence for detecting  DRDC Valcartier user context and info push  Universities  Subject matter experts 28. Active RF Power Control  Commercial wireless manufacturers  Military  Academia  Industry Page 44 of 159
    • Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players Number, if Noted More Technologies than Once Key Players 29. Higher degree of soldier hw  Academics system integration continuing  Power / Electronic industry miniaturization efficiency in  Battery producers components 30. Make content and context based  DRDC Toronto security filters which can be  C4I companies accepted and certified by NSA and NATO 31. Power combination: chemical-  Research Institutes battery-bio-kinetics-low power  Electro-textile companies computing  Space Agencies  Companies developing / using mobile energy  Wireless power developers / researchers 32. Micro nuclear energy reactor  Research Institutes  Electro-textile companies  Space Agencies  Companies developing / using mobile energy  Wireless power developers / researchers 33. Bidirectional neural interface  Electro textile companies  Research Institutes  New material developers / processor companies 34. Sustainable Power Generation  Industry Tech  Textile companies  Universities  Research Organizations 35. Data centric comms.  Software Developers  Universities  Research Organizations  Banking Industry 36. Open source approach (std)  CLS  Innovation Collaboration Environment  WSC  MIP Page 45 of 159
    • Figure 11. 40 Key Technologies to Research, and Suggested Key Players Number, if Noted More Technologies than Once Key Players 37. Smart Power Management  Battery Companies  Fuel Cell Companies  Power Harvesting Companies  IT Companies  INTEL  Raytheon  ITT Corporation  Harris  Rockwell Collins  General Dynamics  CHI Systems  Draper Labs  Honeywell 38. Visual display WDR Camera  Physiological Researchers  Physio - Physical Researchers  Display Manufacturers 39. Meta-data exchange/practice  Academia 40. Defining intelligent default: PDA  Apple I-Phone type platform with robust  DND development frameworks  Mobile Device Companies  Militarized Display Companies Page 46 of 159
    • 5. ICee Contest Winner Presentations In advance of the C4I/Sensors workshop, four names were drawn from a list of organizations that contributed content to the ICee database or wiki. Each was then given the change to present at the workshop. This chapter provides abstracts of those presentations. Rapid Intervention Tracking System, 3D RFID TAC Describes the RFID TAC Access Control™ system for advanced real time location (RILS) technology. Explains the RFID TAC difference and the RFID TAC wireless grid. Summarizes field testing results and presents conclusions. Describes RITS for first responders and for the military. innUVative Systems, Mr. Mike Meakin An overview of Mr. Meakin's background, which includes eight years as a combat systems engineering officer. Describes elements of the 4CE Control Station©, its history, and the problem it addresses. Explains how the solution reduces risk to the soldier in a number of ways, including by providing organic air capability, SUAV/MAV as precision munitions, combined UGV/UAV combat operations, and more. Discusses counter IED operations and simplified interfaces. Page 47 of 159
    • MicroDAGR, Rockwell Collins Describes the MicroDAGR handheld GPS, including current features and potential future enhancements. Provides overview of the front, back, and sides of the MicroDAGR. Shows the main menu, as well as pages for present position, compass, map, mark waypoint, planning, and setup. Newtrax, Low Energy UGS Mesh Networks for Persistent Surveillance in Remote Areas Gives an overview of the Newtrax L1 network. Describes typical problems with UGS deployments. Explains how L1 addresses the problems and is a cost-effective solution. Provides examples of deployment scenarios, including a trail scenario and waterfront scenario. Page 48 of 159
    • Part II. Soldier Sensors Systems Introduction to Soldier Sensors Part II describes activities on day 3 of the workshop, which focused on soldier systems sensors. Introductory Presentation Abstract The day started with welcome and opening remarks from Mr. Geoff Nimmo of Industry Canada, and with the following presentation. Return on Lethal & Non Lethal Weapons Effects Workshop: C4I Related Considerations, Mr. D. Compton An overview of the results of the Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons Effects Workshop held in March, 2010. Describes its purpose, number of participants, and outcomes. Summarizes key points, including the vision for lethal and non-lethal weapons. Emphasizes the need for a standard power rail. Page 49 of 159
    • 1. Soldier Systems Sensors Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs, Goals, Objectives, Desired Systems Performance, Barriers, Technical Challenges This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations focused on Sensor deficiencies, vision, needs and goals, and describes Sensors Breakaway Session 1. Sensors Session 1 Presentation Abstracts 1.1 Future Soldier Sensors Capability Requirements, Drivers, Challenges and Gaps, Capt O. Sylvain, DND An overview of soldier sensor requirements, vision, and scope. Provides key definitions, including detection, recognition, identification, location, tracking, and engagement. Describes current technologies, including night vision and laser aiming devices, binoculars, and sights. Summarizes deficiencies. Includes a demonstration of the Need for Sensors (description follows). Page 50 of 159
    • Demonstration of the Need for Sensors in the Field Captain Sylvain's presentation included a demonstration—a continuation of the mission described by Captain Dionne on day 1 of the workshop in his Demonstration of the Need for C4I in the field (See Part 1, Chapter 1, soldier Systems C4I Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs and Goals). A workshop participant volunteered to play the role of a soldier for the demonstration. Capt. Dionne equipped him with Figure 12. The sensors demonstration focused on battle gear to demonstrate the observation post "Falcon's Nest," represented by weight of the equipment the triangle in the graphic. typically carried, the options for the various sensors the soldier could choose to carry or not, and the difficulty of choosing among the options and of carrying the selected sensors in a way that makes them usable. Capt. Sylvain reminded participants of the mission described during the demonstration on day 1, in which a platoon of three sections of soldiers set out to enter, pass through, and exit a village. The point soldier for Section 1 was confronted by an unidentified armed person, and followed a recognized engagement process to confront that person, including reporting the situation to the other sections and the platoon commander via radio. The sensor demonstration revisited that mission from the perspective of observation post Falcon's Nest, located to the south of the village, indicated in the graphic by a triangle. Captain Sylvain reminded participants that situational awareness among the soldiers was limited by line-of-sight and radio communication. For the purposes of the sensors demonstration, however, CCAN15—a small UAV—is available for support, and may be available to the observation post. Page 51 of 159
    • Situational stages Capt. Sylvain described the typical stages involved in handling a situation (although, as he pointed out, not all of the stages are involved in all situations):  Detection. The realization that an object is present (e.g., something is raising dust).  Recognition. The type of object is discerned (e.g., the dust is raised by someone walking along a path)  Identification. Specific objects can be discerned (e.g., the person walking along the path is carrying a shovel, not a weapon). Positive identification goes further (e.g., the person is using the shovel to remove weeds from a garden.) Often, confirmation is needed from multiple sensors to reach this point.  Location. Where is the object? Can involve using a laser location, a GPS grid, or a description (e.g., at the corner of building 18).  Tracking. Knowing the location over time—especially difficult if the object is attempting to avoid detection.  Engagement. When appropriate, sighting a weapon and firing. These steps are followed by an assessment phase, after which the process is repeated. What to carry, and where to carry it Capt. Sylvain pointed out that soldiers already have many sensors available to them, including the "Mark 1 Eyeball," which is the best sensor available and shouldn't be blocked by other sensors. He went on to discuss sensor needs, and available sensor devices, including night vision goggles, laser aiming devices, kite sight and maxi kite magnification devices, binoculars, C79 and holographic sights, hand-held thermal imagers, and thermal weapon sights. He also outlined requirements for target handover from one soldier and device to another, and for sensors that can identify friendly forces quickly. During the discussion, Capt Sylvain used the volunteer to point out the difficulty of choosing among the sensors to carry on a mission, and the logistical problems of using more than one sensor at a time. For example, when the soldier needed binoculars, these were out of reach, attached to equipment on his back. Asked whether he would like the binoculars integrated into the sight on his helmet, the answer was a resounding "yes." Page 52 of 159
    • What the demonstration showed The demonstration illustrated the sensor needs of the soldier in the field, the existing technologies available, the limitations of those technologies, and the need to integrate technologies and devices and provide new technologies and devices to meet soldiers' needs. Currently, the soldier cannot carry all of the sensors available, and choosing the right devices is impossible because upcoming needs cannot be predicted. As Capt. Sylvain explained, what is needed is:  Integration—"fewer boxes; multi-spectral sights; everything in one box"  Integration of sensors with weapons—"the weapon sights and binoculars need to be integrated"  Devices for recognition, identification, location, tracking, and beyond, all need to be integrated  Devices that can see through walls, around walls, and more—all without adding to the weight the soldier carries  Integration of sensor information—"We already have more information than we can process. How do we process it? How can we pre-screen the information to use the right information at the right time?" In short, the demonstration brought to life the sensor challenges and needs of the dismounted soldier in the field, and challenged the workshop participants to address them in the upcoming working sessions. Page 53 of 159
    • 1.2 Overview of Soldier Sensor Systems Development Trends & Challenges: an Industry Perspective, Mr. Rick Bowes (Industry Co-chair) Provides an industry perspective of Soldier Sensor Systems. Outlines soldier requirements. Describes key trends, focusing on the trend toward delegating decision making to lower levels of the command echelon. Describes key challenges, including continuous force transformation; adaptable mission solutions; integrating mounted and dismounted operations; and reduced size, weight and power (SWaP). Page 54 of 159
    • Sensors Breakaway Session 1. The Vision & Challenges The objective of the first sensors working session was to discuss:  The vision of how DND/CF intends to meet the dismounted soldier‘s Sensor Systems needs  The functionalities required to ―move forward‖ within a Sensor Systems theme area  The technological barriers/challenges to moving forward This working session for repeated, for sensors, the process carried out for C4I during working sessions 1 and 2 on day 1 of the workshop. Because participants were already familiar with the process, having gone through it on day 1, the two C4I sessions from day 1 were condensed into one session for Sensors. Inputs to Sensors Working Session 1 Participants were asked to choose a Sensors theme from this list: 1. Personal sensors 2. Crew sensors 3. Area sensors 4. Weapons sensors 5. Sensors Integration. They were given the following instructions, and asked to spend about 20 minutes on each question. 1. For your Sensor Systems ―theme,‖ develop a ―vision‖ (e.g., With respect to Sensor Systems, in 3 years, the dismounted soldier would be able to …: in 5 years the dismounted soldier would be able to …; in 10 years …). Be as precise and quantified as possible. 2. To achieve that vision, what functionalities need to be provided to the soldier? What would be a quantifiable objective for that functionality? 3. Identify the main technological obstacles/barriers/challenges that need to be overcome so that the functionality can be provided to the soldier? Each group was asked to organize its discussion on a flipchart for report-back, and to record the discussion on a laminated form provided to each table. Page 55 of 159
    • Results of Sensors Working Session 1 Following the table discussions, a facilitated report-back was held during which selected tables presented their results and participants were invited to commend and ask questions. The completed forms were collected. A summary of their contents follows in provided in the five tables on the following pages. This information was used to identify fifteen main technical challenges that would be addressed in the second working session. Page 56 of 159
    • Theme 1: Personal Sensors (3 tables reporting) Theme vision elements  Brain-sensor interface prototypes (5 years) and fielded systems (10 years)  Reach an extended vision/audio (within the next 5 years)  Body worn sensors. Have all body worn sensors integrated and able to communicate to a soldier worn common display within 3 years. Within the 5 years range, those sensors would communicate to ‗network‘. Within 10 years, there would be an expansion of ―body worn se fused sensor suite‖. Key Functionalities  Brain Sensor Interface  Get a visual within 500m  Common interface standards functionality (―Thought  Use a wide-angle and protocols for body worn controls‖) vision/optics sensors  Directional hearing  Enhanced navigation sensors  Expanded multispectral sensors  Bio-Metric sensors (health, environment, stress)  Environmental sensors Technical Challenges/Drivers  Interpret brain signals  Variable frequency ?  Fault Tolerant Architectures  Improve brain interfaces  Resolution sensors ? (Micro Electro Technical (more precisely electro  Merging of information Systems enchephalo gram). from many cameras  Submicron integrated circuit  Adaptable trainable  High resolution display technologies interface  New sensor detection,  New photonic materials  Train soldiers, while  Image processing extending E-O sensor considering human factors capability performance of brain control.  Multi-band  Fault tolerant data  Algorithm architectures suitable for  Processing wearable applications  Power  Artificial intelligence useful for information fusion  Nano-material science Other Barriers N/A Other comments N/A Page 57 of 159
    • Theme 2: Crew Sensors (1 table reporting) Theme vision elements Not provided Key Functionalities  Long range ID of people in all lighting and weather line of sight, which is about 2 km  Non-line of sight ID – 500m (around the corners, in buildings, in coves)  Have an accurate location of targets –blue force – with one meter accuracy  Have an ability to share, record, and transmit pictures, video, target location within a section and outside of section  Have small, lightweight, and low power consumption capabilities  Data have to be filtered / proceed in a way to avoid information overload Technical Challenges/Drivers  Fuse multiple sensors (digital fusion) in order to be able to identify the threats at night  No sensors that can see through walls yet  Bandwidth  GPS denied environments  Information overload  Many electronic devices required for long-range surveillance purposes Other Barriers N/A Other comments N/A Page 58 of 159
    • Theme 3: Area Sensors (2 tables reporting) Theme vision elements  Deliver an accurate and timely sensor product to the soldiers and that it fits is current area of interest  Within three years soldiers could access current existing ISR assets.  In five years those sensors could be fitted to organic interests  Within ten years, nothing less than available fused data.  The soldier deployed autonomous system (arial + crowd – RSTA system) must be situation adaptable. Key Functionalities  ―Wide Area Visual Allowing Zoom by  Allowing for observation and surveillance Individual Soldier‖ through multi-sensor  Soldier Cueing‖ - wide area sensors (i.e.  Endurance capability (72 hour mission) acoustic) and by moving target indication.  ―Threat Detection, Threat Elimination‖: data  ―Declutter‖ information (from detecting, recognizing, pursuing, to destroying)  Sensors reusability  Networked communication with other soldiers and soldier knowledge generation Technical Challenges/Drivers  Camera resolution insufficient (Mav –  Weight Bandwidth)  The intermittent communications vs. no  Need for multi MAV solution communications reality  Building which lead to ground based  Power storage processing  Choices of storage medium (conversion  Processing power devices, fuel cells, ICE…)  Need for additional power  Data communications protocols  Weight  Data display to soldier  Heat  Intelligent data fusion and filtering  Integration to integrated to   existing displays  Artificial intelligence (to keep the soldier in the loop) and the operator interface (easy on the go identification of objects of interest) Other Barriers N/A Other comments The importance to have sensors that are passive. Page 59 of 159
    • Theme 4: Weapons Sensors (2 tables reporting) Theme vision elements  Within five years soldiers will have a single device that work as a rifle sight (day and night) through a range of 0-300m and is integrated over standard power/data rail.  Within three years soldier would be able to transmit the sight picture to its section level (day or night).  In five years, the section level will be networked with effective communication protocols. Key Functionalities  Be able to detect and recognize identity (0-  Power/data rail (being developed by NATO) 300m) in all light conditions.  Image splitter on sight (exists)  Integrated targeting to enhance accuracy  Data management system (under  Integrated geo-location to enable target development) hard-over  Transmission module  Networked interoperability  Combat I.D. to prevent fratercide Technical Challenges/Drivers  Multi-spectral  Integrated DMC in sight  High resolution  Low power sensor  Wide spectrum optics  Instantaneous zoom to range display  Size  Weight  Power  Night vision  ―Boresighting‖ and ―parelax‖ for multi-sensor ballistic solution for different ammo types and moving targets  Bearing, range, elevation to accurately target, and DTED data in order to allow the soldier to locate accurately Other Barriers N/A Other comments This table also wrote a general ―challenge‖ statement in which they express that there is a need to achieve industry teaming agreements. This would involve time and finances, and the standardization of protocols. Page 60 of 159
    • Theme 5: Sensors Integration (1 table reporting) Theme vision elements  Have all existing functionalities integrated in one box (in 5 years), i.e. basic integration of local assets (self and platoon support systems).  A systems approach oriented to provide simplified SA from COI (i.e. plug and play).  Within 3 to 5 years, it is about sensors integration through ―Manual Crosstell‖.  In 5 to 10 years, the integration will be automated.  In 15 years, there will be the true sensor integration (seamless, noven, common picture). Key Functionalities  Local processing: forces stakeholders to  Physical interface standards think of a higher capacity FPGA, because  Data interface standards soldier systems must be self-sufficient and  Sharing of the information (COI, Communities connected of interest)  A way to ensure the best connection  Situational awareness to overlay simplified  Common data format delivery  Fuse of different types of data (model situation)  Model of situation (difficulties are found at HI, processing, etc.) Technical Challenges/Drivers  Data / information exchange across unit  Language (common engineering), and soldier centric (developing technology)  Security  Information overload  Communications  Overload issues (human factors filtering)  Delivery of information in time Other Barriers  Set standards (determine who sets the availability) Other comments N/A Page 61 of 159
    • 2. Potential Solutions/Options and Related Technologies This chapter provides abstracts of the presentations preceding the second sensors breakaway session, and describes Breakaway Session 2: Potential Solutions and Sensor Technologies. Sensors Session 2 Presentation Abstracts 2.1 See Through Wall Sensing Technologies: State-of-the-art Overview, Mr. Pascale Sévigny (DRDC) Describes requirements for through- wall sensing. Reviews technical issues associated with seeing through walls. Describes current through-wall radar productions, motion detection and localization devices, imaging with stationary radar concept, and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SZR) imaging. Provides information about the DRDC experimental test bed for SAR technology. Describes challenges. 2.2 Emerging Sensing Technology Overview, Mr. J. Maheux (DRDC) Describes potential soldier sensor systems, including acoustic small arms fire localization, hearing enhancement and protection, translation devices, and day and night vision sensors. Outlines current and future technologies and current trends in sensors. Page 62 of 159
    • ______________________________________________________________________ Luncheon speaker: Overview of Precarn Programs on Intelligent and Communication Systems, Dr. H. Rothschild Provides a brief history of Precarn, Inc., which supports pre-commercial development and industry use of leading- edge technologies. Describes Precarn programs, including the National Program, Small Company Program, Industrial T-Gap (Technology Gap Assistance Program), Alliance Program, and Application Sector Funds. Provides innovation summary and the role of Precarn. ______________________________________________________________________ 2.3 Physiological Status Monitoring Technologies: State-of-the-art Overview, Dr. S. Stergiopoulos (DRDC) An overview of assessment of operational readiness in combat casualty care, including a description of the current vital signs approach. Describes challenges. Outlines different treatment phases, including remote triage. Provides overview of wireless low level communication technologies and wireless secure communication technologies. Discusses biometrics technologies for quantifying operational performance. Outlines client needs, proposed investigations and methodologies, and current efforts in biometrics for stressors. Page 63 of 159
    • 2.4 Nano/Micro Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Technologies: State-of-the- Art Overview, Dr. F Wong (DRDC) Describes the situation, mission, and key question associated with airborne sensors for the dismounted soldier. Outlines technology domains relevant to the development of a mobile aerial sensor. Summarizes current options, including fixed wing, ducted fan, rotorcraft, and flapping wing. Explains the R&D challenges associated with miniaturization and with power and autonomous navigation. Outlines R&D domains for a mobile aerial sensor. Page 64 of 159
    • Sensors Breakaway Working Session 2: The Technologies The objectives of the second working session were to discuss:  The specific technologies to work on that will solve the sensor challenges  The time horizons associated with developing those technologies Inputs to Sensors Working Session 2 Before working session 2, the technical obstacles and challenges that participants described on laminated forms during working session 1 were used to define the sensor challenges (Figure 10). Instructions to participants The workshop participants were given pre-printed stickies like those provided during working session 3 on day 1 of the workshop (recall that C4I sessions 1 and 2 were compressed into Sensor session 1). Participants were given the following instructions for using the stickies and the sheets:  Use the sticky notes individually and go up to the wall and populate the columns with technologies and their time horizons—you have 3 notes; fill them in at your table  Also, to help us keep it all straight, would you list all your table‘s solution (technologies) on the plasticized summary sheet. Please write clearly Page 65 of 159
    • Results of Sensors Working Session 2 The laminated tables completed during the working session (example below) were collected. Their contents are summarized in Figures 13 and 14, on the following pages:  Figure 13 shows the sticky distribution by challenge and timeframe for the 15 challenge areas identified in the first working session  Figure 14 shows the sticky distribution by challenge and potential for progress for the 15 challenge areas idendified in the first working session Page 66 of 159
    • Figure 13. Distribution of Sensor Stickies on the Wall by Challenge and Timeframe The sticky distribution by challenge and timeframe for the 15 challenge areas identified in the first working session Page 67 of 159
    • Figure 14. Distribution of Sensor Stickies on the Wall by Challenge and Potential for Progress The sticky distribution by challenge and potential for progress for the 15 challenge areas idendified in the first working session Potential for progress Page 68 of 159
    • 3. Sensor Technology Gaps and Collaborations This chapter describes the third, and final breakaway session of the Sensors workshop. Sensors Breakaway Session 3 Inputs to Sensors Working Session 3 For the third working session, the workshop participants were asked to return to the wall to review all of the stickies that were posted there. They were asked to use coloured dots to identify which they believe have the most potential for progress:  Green = highest potential  Red = second highest potential Results of Sensors Working Session 3 The following table shows the distribution of the coloured dots on the stickies, indicating priorities for further collaborative effort by theme. Technology identified by the participants as having the most potential. Solution Description Technologies Timeframe 1. Soldier to Soldier and Soldier to Master Slave or bandwidth on communications center transmit demand priority handling 2. Experience from video gaming 2015 industry to uncluttered the graphical display and to improve learning curve 3. Dynamic model-based representation Standard data format, 2015 of environment and situation interoperability 4. Self sufficient data aware soldier as Priority in information handling the main decision link Page 69 of 159
    • Part III. Next Steps Ongoing and Upcoming Roadmap Activities The C4I/Sensors Workshop was just a part of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmapping process. It represents one step on the journey to a superior soldier system for the Canadian Forces. Ongoing C4I/Sensors Collaborations One of the key results of the workshop was the identification of areas for ongoing, collaborative effort. The C4I/Sensors Technical Subcommittee, with the guidance of the Soldier Systems TRM Executive Steering Committee, will continue to clarify these collaborations and, with industry and government participants, to work on moving them ahead. Sharing Knowledge with the ICee Database and Wiki A key to the success of any technical roadmapping initiative is ensuring easy collaboration among its participants. For the Soldier Systems TRM, the Innovation, Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) provide collaboration opportunities. To reiterate, the Innovation, Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) is an online database of information relevant to soldier systems, and a Wiki that enables online networking, communication, and contribution to the roadmapping process on an ongoing basis. It is a password-protected single tool that includes sections for communicating restricted, sensitive information meant for a selected audience. The ICee is open to all who wish to participate in the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap. Participants can contribute to both the database and the Wiki. For more information about the ICee tool visit http://www.soldiersystems- systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca Page 70 of 159
    • Upcoming Workshops Discussion and collaboration in all aspects of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap is expected to continue throughout this development phase of the roadmap and beyond. To ensure this, additional Soldier Systems TRM workshops are planned in focus areas that include:  Survivability/Personal Protective Equipment/Footwear/Clothing/Load Carriage  Human and Systems Integration  Overall Roadmap Integration Dates for these workshops, and information about them, is available at the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap website: http://soldiersystems-systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca/ Page 71 of 159
    • A. Workshop Agenda Monday, March 8 18h30 – 21h00 Networking Dinner (not hosted): Lapalme et Raphaël Bistro Français, 40-1155 rue Metcalfe. Tuesday, March 9—C4I Focus Day 1 7h30 – 8h00 Registration, Continental breakfast Soldier Systems TRM Introduction 8h00 – 8h05 Welcome and Opening Remarks, Mr. T. Page (CADSI) and Maj. S. Dufour (DLR-5) 8h05 – 8h15 Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Development and Implementation Phases, Mr. G. Nimmo (IC) 8h15 – 8h40 Soldier Systems Modernization Effort Update and Return on Power/Energy Workshop, LCol. M.A. Bodner (DRDC) 8h40 – 8h55 Overview of DRDC R&D Strategy and Program, Dr. G. Vézina (DRDC) 8h55 – 9h15 Focus Days Program and Process, Return on Visioning Workshop: C4I Elements, and Mindmap Exercise, Mr. P. Carr (SRG) 1. Soldier Systems C4I Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs and Goals 9h15 – 9h45 1.1 Overview of current Soldier Systems Equipment and C4I Deficiencies, Capt. A. Dionne (DND) Demonstration of Current Soldier Equipment 9h45 – 10h15 Coffee Break (ICee Registration & Networking) 10h15 – 11h00 1.2 Future Soldier C4I Capabilities Requirements, M. P. Comtois (DND) 11h00 – 12h00 Breakaway Roundtables Facilitated Discussions (1) 12h00 – 13h30 Lunch (no host) 13h10 – 13h30 Guest: Mrs S. Torfin (USMC), MERS Program Overview 13h30 – 14h15 Report Back (Plenary), Mr P. Carr 2. C4I Objectives, Driving Elements, Barriers, and Technical Challenges 14h15 – 14h35 2.1 Overview of Army IM Strategy and C4ISR Concept, Mr. S. Hoag (DLCI-3) 14h35 – 15h00 2.2 Soldier C4I Systems Development Trends & Technical Challenges: an Industry Perspective, Mr. L. O‘Neill (Industry Co-Chair) 15h00 - 15h30 Coffee Available 15h00 – 16h00 Breakaway Roundtables Facilitated Discussions (2) Page 72 of 159
    • 16h00 – 16h55 Report Back (Plenary) and closure of C4I day 1 program, Mr. P. Carr 16h55 – 17h10 Collaboration Tool (ICee) Presentation, Mrs. M. Huard (IC/DND) 17h10 – 17h30 Mr. D. Duguay (IC), Overview of IRB Program 17h30 – 18h00 Icee Registration/Individual training sessions 17h30 – 18h30 Cash Bar Reception Wednesday, March 10 — C4I Focus Day 2 7h45 – 8h00 Registration Continental breakfast 8h00 – 8h05 Welcome and Opening Remarks, Mr. G. Nimmo (IC) 3. Potential Solutions/Options and Related Technologies (exploring solution sets) 8h05 – 8h15 Overview of Day 2 Content and Process, Mr. P. Carr (SRG) 8h15 – 8h35 3.1 NATO LCG1 Soldier C4I Architecture & Symbology, Mr. C. Lemelin (DND) 8h35 – 8h55 3.2 Soldier Communication & Software Radio Technologies: State-of-the-art Overview, Mr. J. Schelsak (CRC) 8h55 – 9h15 3.3 Applications of Novel Biometrics Technologies to Soldier C4I Systems, Dr. Q. Xiao (DRDC) 9h15 – 9h40 3.4 Soldier Navigation Technologies in Complex Environment: State-of-the-art Overview, Mr. J. Bird (DRDC) 9h40 – 10:00 3.5 Human Factors Lessons Learned about C4I Interfaces for Soldiers, Maj. L. Bossi (DND) 10h00 – 10h05 Breakaway Session Instructions, Mr. P. Carr 10h05 – 11h35 Brainstorming session: stickies on the wall (3) 10h00 – 10h30 Coffee Available 11h35 – 12h05 Report Back (Plenary), Mr. P. Carr 4. Technology Gaps & Collaboration Opportunities 13h30 – 13h50 3.6 Unattended Ground Sensors: State-of-the-art Overview, Mr. B. Ricard (DRDC) & Mrs L. Lamont (CRC) 13h50 – 14h10 Return on Mindmap Exercise, Mr. P. Carr 14h10 – 15h30 Breakaway Roundtables Facilitated Discussions (4) (Instructions Mr. P. Carr) Page 73 of 159
    • 15h00 – 15h30 Coffee Available 15h30 – 16h10 Report Back (Plenary), Mr. P. Carr 16h10 – 16h15 Icee Contest Winners Introduction, Mr. G. Nimmo 16h15 – 17h05 Icee Contest Winners Presentations 17h05 – 17h15 Closure of Soldier C4I Focus Days, LCol. M.A. Bodner (DRDC) & Mr. L. O’Neill (Industry Co- Chair) 17h15 – 18h15 ICee Tool Individual Support Sessions 17h15 – 18h30 Cash Bar Reception Thursday, March 11 — Soldier Sensors Systems Focus Day 7h30 – 8h00 Registration Continental breakfast Introduction 8h00 – 8h10 Welcome and Opening Remarks and Sensors Focus Day Program & Process, Mr. G. Nimmo 8h10 - 8h25 Return on Lethal & Non Lethal Weapon Effects Workshop: C4I Related Considerations, Mr. D. Compton 1. Soldier Systems Sensors Deficiencies, Vision, Themes/Needs, Goals, Objectives, Desired systems performance, Barriers, Technical Challenges 8h25 – 9h05 1.1. Future Soldier Sensors Capability Requirements, Drivers, Challenges and Gaps, Capt. O. Sylvain (DND) 9h05 – 9h30 1.2. Overview of Soldier Sensors Systems Development Trends & Challenges: an Industry Perspective, Mr. R. Bowes, (Industry Co-Chair) 9h30 – 10h40 Breakaway Roundtables Facilitated Discussions (1) 10h00 – 10h30 Coffee available 10h40 – 11h20 Report Back (Plenary), Mr P. Carr 2. Potential Solutions/Options and Related Technologies (exploring solution sets) 11h20 – 11h40 2.1 See-Thru Wall Sensing Technologies: State-of-the-art Overview, Mrs. P. Sévigny (DRDC) 11h40 – 12h00 2.2. Emerging Sensing Technology Overview, Mr. J. Maheux (DRDC) 12h00 – 13h15 Lunch (no host) 12h55 – 13h15 Guest: Dr. H. Rothschild : Overview of Precarn Programs on Intelligent and Communication Systems Page 74 of 159
    • 13h15 - 13h45 2.3. Physiological Status Monitoring Technologies: State-of-the-art Overview, Dr. S. Stergiopoulos (DRDC) 13h45 – 14h05 2.4 Nano/Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technologies: State-of-the-art Overview, Dr. F. Wong (DRDC) 14h05 – 15h15 Breakaway sticky-on-the-wall session (2) 15h00 – 15h15 Coffee available 15h15 – 15h45 Report Back (Plenary) and instructions for session 3, Mr. P. Carr 3. Technology Gaps & Collaboration Opportunities 15h45 – 16h30 Breakaway Roundtables Facilitated Discussions 16h30 – 17h10 Report Back (Plenary), Mr. P. Carr (SRG) 17h10 – 17h15 Closure of Soldier Sensor Systems Focus Day, LCol. M.A. Bodner (DRDC) & Mr. R. Bowes (Ind. Co-Chair) Page 75 of 159
    • B. C4I/Sensors Scope Definition This background information on C4I/Sensors was sent to workshop participants prior to the workshop. Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Technical Workshop on Soldier C4I & Sensors Scope Definition - C4I and Sensors for the Dismounted Soldier This definition is provided to participants of the C4I & Sensors Technical Workshop that is part of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap. C4I-Sensors can have a range of definitions, depending on the context and audience. The following definition will be used to guide the discussion at this SSTRM Workshop. Additional definitions are provided on page 2. The Context and Scope The SSTRM is about the needs of the dismounted soldier. Soldier System is defined as everything (items or equipment), that the dismounted soldier conducting land operations, wears, carries and consumes to fulfill his tasks as individuals, as members of fighting teams (sections and platoon) and as parts of higher-level operational units (companies and below) in a tactical environment. Future Soldier Systems are designed to enhance tactical level individual and team performance in the five NATO capabilities areas: Lethality, Mobility, Survivability, Sustainability, and C4I in the complex, network-enabled, effects-based digitized battle space. These future capabilities will enable the Adaptive Dispersed Operations (ADO) force employment concept. Research has shown that use of the latest technologies in the areas of command execution, target acquisition and situational awareness significantly contribute to increased operational effectiveness at the lower tactical levels C4I-Sensor or ―C4I-Sense‖ at the dismounted soldier and small team level also cover technologies related to mission planning, navigation, information exchange, intra/inter section data connectivity, weapons/body-worn sensors, and remote sensors (Small Unmanned Ground Vehicles (SUGV), Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAV), and Small Unattended Ground Sensors (SUGS)). Also included are Unit STANO capabilities (Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Night Observation) at the soldier and small team levels (Unit). Page 76 of 159
    • For the Workshop, Soldier C4I-Sensors is not:  Strategic, Joint, Army, Navy C4ISR  C4ISR and ISTAR at company level and above C4I, Sensors, and Other Related Terms The acronym C4I stands for "command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence". Command and control is about decision-making, the exercise of direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of a mission. Information, computers and communications technologies support command and control, and are used to achieve information superiority. C4I systems provide also tools to improve commanders with situational awareness—information about the location and status of enemy and friendly forces. Command and control (C2)—The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the accomplishment of the mission. Command—The authority that a commander in the Armed Forces lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. Command includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for planning the employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling military forces for the accomplishment of assigned missions and meet the commander intent. Computing and communications—Two pervasive enabling technologies that support C2 and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Computers and communications process and transport information. Control—Authority which may be less than full command exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate or other organizations. Physical or psychological pressures exerted with the intent to assure that an agent or group will respond as directed. Intelligence (I)—The product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign countries or areas. Information and knowledge about an adversary obtained through observation, investigation, analysis, or understanding. Page 77 of 159
    • The term "C4ISR" is often employed. The additional SR elements to C4I are surveillance and reconnaissance, which are defined as follow: Surveillance—The systematic observation of aerospace, surface or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means. Reconnaissance—A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy, or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area. Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition, and Reconnaissance are also often grouped under the ISTAR acronym: ISTAR: is the capability linking several battlefield functions together to assist a combat force in employing its sensors and managing information. Two additional terms are commonly used in describing C4I capabilities: Situational awareness—The knowledge of where you are, where other friendly elements are located, and the status, state, and location of the enemy. Situational awareness (SA) allows the Land Force to understand and assimilate the battle dimensions to exploit enemy weaknesses from a position of strength. Shared situational awareness (or situation understanding) enable collaboration and self-synchronization and enhance sustainability and speed of command. Information superiority—The relative advantage of one opponent over another in commanding and controlling his force. Information superiority or dominance is achieved by enabling better and faster decision-making using superior technical information. Sense is the Army operational function which integrates sensor and sensor analysis capabilities into a concept which allow for comprehensive sensor fusion and all source analysis within an integrated system providing commanders with timely and relevant knowledge. The Army Sense operational function includes all the C3ISR capabilities as Command stand alone in the Army construct, and it includes: Data Processing / Fusion Includes automated processing, information management (IM), and modeling / analysis of all sources. Decision Support Systems and knowledge bases (e.g. database) that enhance accurate and timely human decision-making. Page 78 of 159
    • Information Dissemination Complete, accurate, timely distribution of information and analysis to all required levels. Integrated Information Includes fusion of information from all sensors and sources enabling real-time analysis, comprehension and decision making. Intelligence Collection Includes the collection of information and data on enemy forces, the environment and friendly forces using the human intelligence (HUMINT), imagery, open sources, reconnaissance and surveillance, signals intelligence (SIGINT), and soldier surveillance, target acquisition and night observation (STANO). NEOPS or Network Enabled Operations (NEOPS), is the concept involving the integration of information systems, weapons and other effects-producing platforms such as to increase the effectiveness of military operations. By linking knowledgeable entities in a battle space, forces will be more capable of gaining information superiority and resulting ultimately in greater mission effectiveness. ADO or Adaptive Dispersed Operations is the ability to conduct coordinated, interdependent, full spectrum actions by widely dispersed teams throughout the width and depth of the Battlespace. The concept envisages networked and integrated maneuver forces alternatively dispersing and aggregating over extended distances to find, fix, and strike full spectrum threats throughout the Army of Tomorrow battle space. These operations are dispersed in relation to time, space, and purpose. Page 79 of 159
    • C. List of Workshop Participants Participants at the Soldier Systems C4I/Sensors Workshop Name: Last First Organization Abielmona Rami Larus Technologies Corporation Agnew Fred T. Valley Associates Group Aitken Philip Halltech Alessandro Voli SelexGalileo S.p.A. Alexander Pete L-3 Ruggedized Command & Control Solutions Anderson Leon DND Anthony David IBM Appleton Andrew CAE Archibald Mark NAIT Armstrong Patrick Xacore Arsenault Gilbert Mannarino Systems & Software Inc. Audette Celine Industrie Canada Avishai Gadi KG Canada Bahlis Jay BNH Expert Software Bain Robert IBM Bauml Pat Canadian Special Operations Forces Command Beaudoin Bob Vanguard Magazine Beaudry Julien IREQ (institut de recherche d'Hydro-Quebec) Bédard Stéphane B-Temia Inc Begriche Aldjia Groupe CTT Beland Paul DRDC Belanger Micheline DRDC Belzile Jean Ecole de Technologie Superieure Benaddi Dr. Hamid Stedfast Inc Bensouda Karima LGFI Bentahar Jamal Concordia University Bentaouk Amine Purelink Technology, inc Bertrand Hugo IREQ (institut de recherche d'Hydro-Quebec) Bird Jeff DND/DRDC Blais Pierre Harris Corporation, RF Communications Division Bodner L.Col. Mike DND Bosco Eric MiITACS Inc. Page 80 of 159
    • Participants at the Soldier Systems C4I/Sensors Workshop Name: Last First Organization Bossi Maj. L. DND Bouchard Tommy ETS Bowes Rick DRS Technologies Canada Ltd Brooks John Biopeak Brown Doug General Dynamics Canada Brunet Claude Canadian Space Agency Buchanan Major Kevin National Defence Bujold Alain Mawashi Protective Clothing, Inc Croteau Dominique Revision Eyewear Inc Cadapeau Norbert THALES ANGENIEUX Campbell Matthew Harris Corporation Carr Phil Strategic Review Group Carson Clay Raytheon Canada Limited Cayouette Richard Martello Defence Security Consultants Inc Cervinka Alexandre Newtrax Technologies Inc Charlebois Scott Cherkaoui Soumaya Universite de Sherbrooke Christopher Scott ITT Electronic Systems Clairoux Gilles DMR a division of Fujitsu Colbert Heather CAE Compton David Colt Canada Corporation Comtois M. P. DND Connolly Peter Fidus Systems Inc Cook Trevor Thales Optronics Ltd Coomber Richard Revision Eyewear Copeman Mike R. Nicholls Distributors Inc Corriveau Robert CIPI-Canadian institute for Photonic Innovations Couillard Denis Ultra Electronics TCS Couture Nathalie Industrie Canada Coxford Tom Senstar Corporation Croghan William Rockwell Collins Crossman Danny PSP Inc Croteau Dominique Revision Eyewear Curie Philippe Exensor France Page 81 of 159
    • Participants at the Soldier Systems C4I/Sensors Workshop Name: Last First Organization Dabrowski Sue Mannarino Systems & Software Inc. D'Anjou Richard CGI Darling Marie Rockwell Collins Davis Gregory BAE Systems Dec Albert BAE Systems Decoste Roch DND Deegan Michael Boeing Delorme Luc A. Communications Research Centre Canada Deters Ralph Dept. of Computer Science / Univ. of Saskatchewan Detombe John ADGA Group Diefenderfer James L-3 Communication Systems-West DiNardo George Larus Technologies Corporation Dion Bruno CMC Electronique, Esterline Dionne Capt. A. DND Dixon Anthony Peerless Garments LP Dore Steve IBM Dosani Shazmin Strategic Review Group Downing Warren DRS Technologies Canada Ltd Dudek Gregory McGill University Dufour Stephane DND Land Requirements Duguay Dan Industry Canada Dupuis Marc-Andre Rheinmetall Canada inc Dwyer Brendan Australian Army STANREP Edwards Eric Xiphos Technologies Inc Egery Robert Valley Associates Group Eisenhardt Dan Recon Instruments Eklund Mike University of Ontario Institute of Technology Elagizi Bill L-3 Communications Electronic Systems El-Sheimy Dr. Naser University of Calgary Emery George J. Strategic Review Group Emond Laura Industrie Canada Fakih Adel U. Waterloo Feliziani Giulio SelexGalileo S.p.A. Ferguson John Strategic Review Group Findlay Dave TORONTO REGION RESEARCH ALLIANCE Page 82 of 159
    • Participants at the Soldier Systems C4I/Sensors Workshop Name: Last First Organization Fisher Geoffrey R. LOGISTIK UNICORP INC Fleming Barry DND Fleurant Aude-Emanuelle Technopôle Defence & Security Fortin Marc-Antoine Ecole de Technologie Superieure Fotia Sam ACOA Fullick Andrew Cobham Defense Communications Gabiot Julien IREQ Gagnon Francois Ecole de Technologie Superieure Gagnon Claire DRDC Georgaras Konstantinos Industrie Canada Gerkema Adrian CAE Professional Services Godin Michael CGI Goergaris Stamati computer vision and robotics system's Goodall Chris Alastair Ross Technology Centre Gordon Eileen Strategic Review Group Grant Kim Raytheon Canada Limited Gray Mark Industrie Canada Haddad Emilie MPB Communications Inc Hall Fraser Recon Instruments Harris Paul DRDC Harrison Ronald BAE Systems Hartman Leo CSA Hassaine Fawzi DRDC Hayes Kevin National Research Council Heffner Kevin Pegasus Simulation Services Heydari Shahram S. University of Ontario Institute of Technology Hill Ian NRC Hoag Mr. S. DND Hoemsen Ray Red River College Page 83 of 159
    • Participants at the Soldier Systems C4I/Sensors Workshop Name: Last First Organization Hoffman Joy Rockwell Collins, Inc Hu Cheng NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation Huard Mariane DRDC Huber Dr. Kris Array Systems Computing Inc. Hung Benjamin Array Systems Computing Inc. James Jeremy Collaborative Robotics Inc Jonassen Hans Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace AS Jones Stephen T. Rockwell Collins Kan Adir Elbit Systems Kassouf Marthe IREQ (institut de recherche d'Hydro-Quebec) Kellett Matthew DRDC Kelly John rockwellcollins Kessler John ITT Kevser Dr. Taymaz DND Khakhanov Yuri Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies Knight Darren Lockheed Martin Kogut Bob The O‘Gara Group Koniz Ronald Gentex Lachapelle Dominic Groupe CTT Lafond Eric CRC Lamont Louise Communications Research Centre Land William ICx Technologies Landry Rene ETS Lange Christian Canadian Space Agency Langevin Pierre DND Laou Philips Defence R&D Canada Lapierre Marc DGLEPM/QETE Larmor Jean-Louis LUXELL TECHNOLOGIES Inc Larose Stephanie Univalor Lavigne Marc Valley Associates Lawrence Chris Canadian Police Research Centre Lefebvre Vivier NRC Lefrancois Sylvain Sagem Page 84 of 159
    • Participants at the Soldier Systems C4I/Sensors Workshop Name: Last First Organization Lemelin C. DND Lemieux Claudette Affaires étrangères et Commerce international Canada LePoidevin Darren DND Lesage Francois DRDC Leungh Henry University of Calgary Levesque Jacques Materiel Group, NDHQ Levesque Jerome DRDC CORA Liu Edward Thales Canada Lo David DND Lopez Damian Thales Canada Lurz Patricia Harris Corporation Lutes John Lyngar Eivind Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace Lypps Brian CAE MacDonald Mark ING Engineering MacKenzie James L-3 MacLennan Charles CFN Consultants Magierowski Sebastian University of Calgary Maheux J. DRDC Makris Aris Allen-Vanguard Mannarino John Mannarino Systems & Software Inc. Marceau Jocelyn DND March Brian Kaycom Inc Marchildon Alain ImmerVision Martin Guy computer vision and robotics system's Mastalski Tony Cobham Defense Communications May Roger Saft America Inc McConnell Gregory Cross Match Technologies Canada McCuaig Mathieu Advantech McDonald Mike Dell Canada Inc. McHugh Cathy Senstar Corporation McKoy Rocky Cantec-Systems Meakin Mike InnUVative Systems Inc. Page 85 of 159
    • Participants at the Soldier Systems C4I/Sensors Workshop Name: Last First Organization Meliot Sebastien Consoltex INC Merle Dr. Philippe G. DND Merry David Insight Technology Incorporated Michalska Ms. M. NSERC Michaud Francois University of Sherbrooke Michaud-Shields Max DND Mison Ron Mitchell Ian Instro Precision Limited Moore Daniel Rockwell Collins Morose Bob RFID Canada Mouysset Laurent ETS Mrad Nezih DRDC-DND Nakaza Edward Strategic Review Group Nelson Troy Red Ball Internet Nerat Emerson Purelink Technology, inc Nerguizian Vahe Ecole de Technologie Superieure Newman Eric General Dynamics Canada Ltd Nikonorova Elena Nimelman Menachem MDA Nimmo Geoff Industrie Canada Noete Mark SED Systems Nokovich David Cross Match Technologies Noureldin Dr. Aboelmagd Royal Military College of Canada O'Brien Bernie R. Nicholls Distributors Inc O'Neil Laurence General Dynamics Canada Page Tim CADSI Pageau Gilles DND Palmer Patrick CAE Paquet Ron bulzi communications, PR firm for Sonomax Technologies Paradis Stephane DRDC Valcartier Parent Andre NRC-IMS Parker Michael MDS Systems Parslow Alan Deep Vision Inc. Parsons Bob Page 86 of 159
    • Participants at the Soldier Systems C4I/Sensors Workshop Name: Last First Organization Perreault Marie-Josee computer vision and robotics system's Perron Denis Revision Eyewear Perron Jean-Philippe Industrie Canada Pich Cornell General Dynamics Canada Plante Ghislain Chief of Land Staff / Director Land Requirements 2-8 Poole Richard L-3 Communications Powell Craig ICx Technologies Provencher Louis Gestion Univalor Prudhomme Lcol Michel DND Quéau Yannick Technopôle Defence & Security Quintin Marc Conseil national de recherches Canada Ramirez-Serrano Alex University of Calgary Rancourt Etienne Canada Economic Development for the Quebec Regions Reedel Gary MDA Ricard Benoit RDDC Valcartier Riendeau Sylvain IREQ (institut de recherche d'Hydro-Quebec) Robinson John Electro-Optical Systems L3 Rochefort Pierre Cirrus Rodi Colleen Visiontec Systems Romano Paul Thales Canada Romeo Paul ADGA Group Ross George National Research Council Rothschild Dr. Henri Precarn Rousseau Marcel SolaCom Technologies Inc Roy Claude RDDC Roy Nathalie DRDC Rozumovich Eugene 3DTAC Inc Ruane William AVANCE Russo Jason Strategic Review Group Sampson Sammy Black Coral Inc Sandron Litizia Peerless Garments LP Sarkissov Souren Quantum-Laser Schelsak Mr. J. CRC Semeniuk Kevin Allen-Vanguard Technologies Inc Page 87 of 159
    • Participants at the Soldier Systems C4I/Sensors Workshop Name: Last First Organization Senske Randall 2kPlus IS Consulting Inc Senske Brian 2kPlus IS Consulting Inc Sevigny P. DRDC Sheitoyan Jean-Marc Mawashi Protective Clothing, Inc Simard Steve computer vision and robotics system's Sinai Dan University of Western Ontario Singh Paul Corcan/Correctional Service Of canada Skene Dave L-3 Electronic Systems Stergiopoulos Dr. S. DRDC Stewart Jef AirBoss-Defense Stojanovic Ljiljana DND - DLCSPM Stroup Adam US Army International Technology Center-Canada Sylvain Capt. Olivier DND DLR 5-7-2 Tang Kevin Raytheon Canada Limited Teed Brenton Colt Canada Corporation Terry Bernadette British High Commission Tessier Dominic Groupe CTT Thibault Marc Gestion Marc Thibault Inc Tindall Dan Ultra Electronics Tactical Commnication Systems Tomanelli Francesca Thales Optronics Canada Torfin Mrs. S. USMC Trask Brett MDA Halifax Tremblay Simon computer vision and robotics system's Tremblay Lionel CSA Tscissons Tim Ontario Center of Excellence Turcotte Gilles Thales Optronics Canada Underhill Major E.L.M. DND Vallee Pierre evison Eyewear Inc Van Ham Claude L-3 Electronic Systems Vandenbroucke Jack-Eric ETS Vandeventer Terrence Sagem Page 88 of 159
    • Participants at the Soldier Systems C4I/Sensors Workshop Name: Last First Organization Vandeweerd Helena Tulmar Vezina Dr. G. DRDC Vidal Charles ING Engineering Vincent-Herscovici Jesse MITACS Inc. Voli Alessandro Selex Galileo Walsh Bud Thales Waterman Donald Global Marketing & Strategic Development Webber Justin Vxsim Webster Neil Biopeak Weight John JPOM Inc. Wensley Craig SEA (Group) Ltd Williams Alan Cobham Surveillance Winship John GENTEX Wong Doug Allen-Vanguard Wong Dr. F. DRDC Woodliffe Elizabeth DND-DRDC Valcartier Wright Neil General Dynamics Canada Xiao Qinghan DRDC Zelek John S. University of Waterloo Zhulego Vladimir G. Russian Research Center "Kurchatov Institute Zlotnik Zev Elbit Systems Page 89 of 159
    • D. C4I Working Session 1 Participant Input Page 90 of 159
    • E. C4I Working Session 2 Participant Worksheets This appendix provides the detailed participant input from the worksheets completed during the first C4I working session. This is the input that was used to generate the summary information in the body of this report. (See Figure 6. C4I Challenges Determined from Breakaway Session 2—Summary of Participant Responses.) The input is organized into these theme areas: 1. Communication 2. Human Interfaces 3. Geo-location 4. Integration 5. Interoperability 6. Security Page 91 of 159
    • Theme 1: Communication ( 2 tables reporting) Theme vision elements  Every soldier has to be connected with their respective section, section leaders, and the backbone network  Solutions must meet the demand  Resources available should be considered Key Functionalities  Have access to any real time information requirements (i.e. such as position location; enemy; supply; OP status; control measures; friendly activities)  Need for an audio fashion of auto-translation of local language  Imagery  Need for an informal way of communicating (organic – external)  Information assurance (avoid over crowded E.M. spectrum)  Classes of service & prioritization  Rely on a 24/7 communication  Instantaneous allocation of bandwidth on demand and the importance that message formatting be compatible with NATO, or even interoperable among allies  Different bandwidth and ad-hoc to various groups at all levels of command  A cross domain solution which would consider secret and unclassified information  Expected range for COI (10km – 15km, etc.) and WPAN Technical Challenges/Drivers  Human interface  Future display of those technologies  Operating environment  Compatibility with current equipment  Weight  Absence of an access mechanism u/e of users and the fact that prior technological investment is required  Missing a hidden node function  Jamming  Self interference under all environment conditions.  Underlined OTAZ (Reset for radio), OTAR, and SWAP Other Barriers Policy Other comments DND should consider the range extension The engineering was more important than the design, while acknowledging that there might be a gap between the day it is designed and the user generation. Page 92 of 159
    • Theme 2: Human Interfaces Overall, three tables worked on Human Interfaces Theme vision elements  Importance for human interfaces to be ‗intuitive‘, comfortable (or unobtrusive – easy to carry), and easy to use (cognitive and physically)  Reception and the sending of battlefield information: not only this information should go through an interface that senses and filters, but the soldiers should be able to provide such information without any overload and in a timely fashion. Key Functionalities  Short term: 2D map with red  Health status of the soldier  A centralized system and blue force tracking  Equipment status control on weapon annotations, markers, and  Viewing of images, in order to  Covert operation is waypoints in terrain locate UAV‘s / to have a visual suggested  Medium term: 3D version of of the area / to have a visual  Multiple sensory inputs the above functionality from other soldiers  Longer term:  Importance of visual, audio, Immersive/augmented and tactical customization reality display overlaying the real world Technical Challenges/Drivers  Resolution  Power limitations  Configurability to any  Lag  Low weight inputs  Environmental security  Data transmission  Realizing at the same  Light spillage  Bandwidth time that SWAPS  Cost-effectiveness  Equipment hygiene  Size  Heat MGT/signature  Power  Weight  Power processing  Attention  Power  Satellite connectivity  Bandwidth  Protocols  Visual overload  Connectivity  To have a common  Jamming/detection interconnected network  Bandwidth  Information overload  Prioritization of information Other Barriers N/A Other comments N/A Page 93 of 159
    • Theme 3: Geo-location ( 1 table reporting) Theme vision elements  Overlapping of information on graphical map  Use a common language  Share info with coalition partners Key Functionalities  audible-visual-tactile component  Non-GPS connection  Need for multiple source of geo-location  The ability to publish technologies that are integrated + information transmission coming from enemy coordinates (sight) using trigger mounted targeting system Technical Challenges/Drivers  Power  Bandwidth  Prioritization  Switching  Cost  Weight  Range  Security  Adaptability  Ergonomics Other Barriers N/A Other comments N/A Page 94 of 159
    • Theme 4: Integration (1 table reporting) Theme vision elements  The soldier systems should be integrated at multiple levels from the individual to the command Key Functionalities  Efficient HMI (considering  Information fusion  Modularity controls and displays) Technical Challenges/Drivers  Easy reconfiguration  Availability of power  Cost  Interface standards  Bandwidth  Weight  Power distribution  Volume  Single use devices  Different generations of users Other Barriers N/A Other comments Participants wanted to make sure that the evolution of the theme would incorporate a training ease dimension to lead to a technology turn over. Page 95 of 159
    • Theme 5: Interoperability (2 tables reporting) Two tables worked on this theme. Theme vision elements  Seamless aspect of communication and cooperation in their vision definition Key Functionalities  Radio system/device must  Harmonized transparent  Technology agnostic, have multi-function abilities exchange systems mission independent, (leads to a challenge related to Conceptualized as and simplistic security) harmonized exchange, and  Responsive/timely  Configurable different than a configuration  Allow soldier to communicate standardized exchange) over a large distance Technical Challenges/Drivers  Communication overload  No technical challenges  High degree of  Power consumption were mentioned. confidence is needed  Size  Security  Bandwidth  Overload of data Other Barriers N/A  Politics  Need to keep pace with  Policy change  Soldier acceptance  The importance to avoid obsolescence with previous technologies Other comments One table focused on section platoon, while the other incorporated all necessary partners. NATO should provide direction/standards Page 96 of 159
    • Theme 6: Security (1 table reporting) Theme vision elements  The transparency of the user must meet the requirements  Security must rely on a seamless interoperability with adequate protection. Key Functionalities  Simple access control to  Need for intrusion detection  Seamless interoperability support the need and response (domestic, coalition, JIMP) Technical Challenges/Drivers  Lack of federated IDM  The maturity of technology  The maturity of technology system at the DSS level at the DSS level  Power  Weight  Accreditation Other Barriers  Security policy N/A N/A  Common understanding of the definition of simple access central Other comments N/A Page 97 of 159
    • F. C4I Working Session 3 Participant Stickies— the Challenges The details of the solutions proposed during working session 3, and their related technologies, are listed in the tables below. This information is summarized graphically in the body of this report (see C4I Breakaway Session 3: C4I Technologies/Solutions). The technical challenges for which solutions are proposed are: 1. Denied Signal Environment 2. Detecting and Overcoming Jamming/Spoofing 3. Effective Language Recognition 4. Inability to Configure C4I Devices to Context (Functional) 5. Inability to Scan and Use a Range of Frequencies 6. Inability to Configure C4I Devices to Context (Cross-domain, Interoperability, Security) 7. Lack of Standards/Agreed Guidelines 8. Lack of UI Configurability/Usability 9. Overcoming Infection/Comfort-related to C4I Equipment 10. Over-reliance on Technology Solutions (No longer training the fundamentals) 11. Poor Bandwidth/Capability Management 12. Poor Signature Management 13. Power/Energy Limitations 14. Spectrum Availability 15. Lack of High Performance User Interface Characteristics Page 98 of 159
    • 1. Technical Challenge: Denied signal environment Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 For radio comms (in different Multi-channel radio e.g. 1 channel for denied 2015 environments) use of lower environment (low frequency and low frequency bands suited to bandwidth) and 1 channel soldier radio. (TRL 6) such environments 2 Vision system on a low Tech1: Computer vision (TRL 5) 2 2015 power embedded device Tech2: Highly Parallel, low power, RISK embedded systems (TRL 5) 3 Line of site laser based 2015 send/receive capability? Fiber Optic Tether? 4 High divergence/wide angle Transmitter= laser + holographic diffuser 2015 free space optical receiver array of APDs and optical filters (TRL communications (FSOC) 7) 5 Redundant connectivity on 2015 single product 6 MANET with breadcrumb Tech1: Wireless Networking 2015 * capability. All vehicles become wireless Tech2: Cognitive radios nodes and soldiers can deploy repeaters and mini Tech3: Power Management UAV/aerostats that act as wireless repeaters. Tech4: Vehicles as mobile Servers large data storage and processing capability to offload bandwidth requirements on smaller portable radios. Tech5: Peer to peer networking Page 99 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. Tech6 Distributed, wireless cloud processing to improve cross cueing of sensors and comms to better cover gaps 7 Satellite systems for BIOS, DUB-RCS, VSAT, Antennas (TLR 6) 2015 smaller than USAT antennas possibly using a larger teleport antenna 8 Multi UAV network as an Tech1: multi robot swarms 2015 intelligent relay system for short-range communications. Tech2: enhanced power for mobile devices Tech3: network/communication standards (TLR 7) 9 Store and forward approach Distributed mailboxes with time stamped 2015 for non-perishable data messages - only those generated during (messages, overlays, blackout are retrieved (TRL 2) reports) so that it is delivered as soon as connectivity is re- established. 10 Micro, accurate, intelligent Advancement of accelerometer and gyroscope 2015 transmitters. Size must be size and cost reduced while maintaining accuracy of the larger systems 11 Advanced server Visual optic, volumetric sensing, mm wave 2015 technologies radar 12 Cognitive radios that can 2015 switch to another frequency when jammed 13 Millimetric radio Waveforms Software definable radios (TLR 4) 2015 Page 100 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 14 Enhanced deployment of Relay Communication Channels (TLR 6) 2015 portable relays 15 Equipment to adapt to other Communications, Antennas, transmission, 2015 communications means network technologies 16 Magnetic wave Antennas, amplifiers etc 2020 communications 17 Micro UAV based network Flapping Wings 2020 following COA 18 Use radio signal for data IP based radios or RF to IP radios (TLR 9) 2020 propagation when dead air 19 Prevent limited line of site Communication relay by micro-UAV (TLR1) 2020 contacts in cluttered terrain 20 Lithospheric waves Signal to vibrations/seismic waves converter 2020 propagation (TLR 2-3) 21 Intelligent (stearable) RF modulation, efficient DSP 2020 antennas 22 Extra booster added to GPS's positioning devices, special software to 2020 communications device communicate with other devices when operating in a known dead signal area. Special satellites. 23 A continued operation in all Improved inertial/dead reconning systems 2020 environments (TLR 4) 24 Signal repeater integrated Tech1: Mobile Ad-Hoc network (TLR 3) 2020 * with communication terminal Tech2: Smart on frequency amplifier/repeater (TLR 3) Page 101 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 25 Every soldier is a Computers doing triangulation to track 2 2020 retransmition node (for soldiers. Returns "Roc k" dropped outside of comms and for location. denied environment. Droppable 26 Transmit signal at an entirely Very Wide Range SDR wide range of frequencies. Assume at leats one sucessfuly penatrates the barriers 27 Allow Target localization Use of different satellites on one targeted and within shorter ranges (1 phased info differential (TRL 8) meter) 28 Allocation of spectrum to suit Spectrum allocation - cross layering with MAC different classes of services and routing 29 Middleware that provides Service oriented architecture various services Page 102 of 159
    • 2. Technical Challenge: Detecting and overcoming jamming/spoofing Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps * frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Sense jamming frequency , Satellite with frequency scanning to send out 2 2015 * use DSA dynamic spectrum multiple frequencies - user's interface also access to locate non scans blocked/jammed spectrum 2 Use of SAASM GPS Micro DAGR/micro GRAM by Rockwell Collins 2015 embedded in system with embedded DRM module (TLR 8-9) and augmented with embedded DRM solution and any sensor fusion/position update available 3 Cognitive radio Frequency agile transceivers 2015 * 4 Assured Tech1: Improved military radios/GPS 2015 communications/blueforce tracking Tech2: automatic crypto-key distributions (TRL 6) 5 Emitter receiver radar Radar see through wall 2015 6 Radio with wideband pick powerful and small DSP/FPGAs, switchable 2015 and choose capabilities RF front-ends (TLR 2) similar to DSL modems (often with water filling algorithm) 7 Enhanced Authentication Biometric screening 2015 techniques? E-password (personal) or biometric authentication 8 Increase power output on Jamming technology evolves at the same 2015 use of physical link speed as anti-jamming connection Page 103 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps * frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 9 Selectiveness of the volume RFID TAC perform selective secure and quick 2015 and location for data data processing without collision processing instead of simultaneous communications 10 MEMS adaptive phase array, MEMS, micro electronics (TLR 2) 2015 anti-jamming digital processors 11 Advance jam resistant signal Advanced jam-resistant encoding algorithms, 2015 encoding, wide band wide band frequency hopping radios (TLR 7) frequency hopping 12 Software enabled radio and (TRL 6) 2015 dynamic spectrum allocation 13 Radio/device with built-in Satellites with special signals for friendly signals 2 2020 search for hostile signals 14 ENGR solution. Current low 2020 need that will increase over time 15 Nano robot with sensors RFI in the cloth, interactive Page 104 of 159
    • 3. Technical Challenge: Effective language recognition (including language/cultural AI) Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps * frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 IPhone has an application NLP - Natural Language Processing (TRL9-9) 3 2015 that recognizes song title. 2 AI learning - machine adapts Genetic algorithms/machine learning (TRL 4- 2 2015 itself to the specific user 5) preferences/personal differences. 3 Icon/symbology graphic designers. Cognitive recognition. 2015 development (i.e. more graphics, less text) 4 Some automatic translation Microsoft word speech recognition sw, 4 2015 4 capabilities already exist but combined with some more specialized they could be improved and automated translation (TRL 5) specialized to the specific domain (infantry troops) 5 Text-to-speech, speech-to- natural language processing/understanding 3 2015 text, translation language identification, speech processing (TRL 7) 6 speech recognition of a Tech1: speech recognition 2 2015 * limited vocabulary + automatic translation Tech2: Automatic AI translation (TRL 5) 7 Commercial translation COTS translation software. COTS voice 4 2015 4 context sensitive databases. recognition algorithms (TRL 8) COTS voice recognition algorithms 8 Universal language Voice/Language recognition software (TRL 5). 4 2015 4/* recognition translator 9 Ability to provide translation SW + PC program 2015 in seamless fashion Page 105 of 159
    • Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps * frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 10 look to commercial solutions commercial domain 2015 11 Speech to text of speech to not known: perhaps audio background noise 2 2015 Icon graphic algorithm filter algorithms (perhaps similar technology in (ability to transfer info to TV closed captions world. non-combattants). Speech to text for reports + returns (force to force) 12 Universal communication Tech1: Voice recognition (TRL 6) 2 2020 Tech2: automatic translation (TRL 3) 13 Complete database on Software development (TRL 3) 4 2020 4 language & cultural efficient software 14 Better certified intelligent Compact high-speed processing unit (TRL 3- 3 2020 algorithms 4) 15 Automatic conversion of 2020 human language to standard machine language and back (TRL 2) 16 Off the shelf solutions will google translator type with application similar allow a better update rate to Iphone. with supported languages and enhanced features. 17 Use of graphics and further development of mapping symbology international symbology to strandardization. communicate - new development for basic exchange of info vice text or speech. Page 106 of 159
    • 4. Technical Challenge: Inability to configure C4I devices to context (functional) Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Data centric security Tech1: Public key infrastructure 2015 architecture based on authentication and labelling Tech2: Encryption algorithm of information objects Tech3: Software quality assurance (TLR 5) 2 User interface should Mixed initiative interfaces (TLR 4-5) 2015 automatically be adjusted to the current C2 task to be done by providing appropriate decision support functionalities 3 Configure device to switch Radios already exists, just need further R&D 2015 from secure to non-secure 4 Self, mission roles and time Tech1: Select biometric entry + roles cross 2015 phase appropriate automatic reference database (TLR 4) configuration Tech2: Additional soldier sensor fusion to * adapt configuration (presented Info + CTLS) to subsystem/user (TLR 6) 5 Automatic identification of Tech1: Automatic interpretation of written text 2015 similar situations Tech2: case based reasoning (TLR 4-5) 6 User serviceability of 2015 functions at soldier level. Very flexible system management Page 107 of 159
    • Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 7 Data-centric architecture - 2015 * allows device interfaces to Standards, security, interoperability (TLR 6) configure based on exchange of objects described by metadata so devices can auto-configure as the situation requires 8 Intelligent data fusion. Part of 2020 the problem is that it is relatively easy to get more info, but more info will just overload the user 9 User devices recognizes the Artificial intelligence based on user profile, 2020 type of info required and better system design, software design (TLR 3) adapts the type and quality of info as situations evolve 10 Make content and context (TLR 3) 2020 * based which can be accepted and certified by the NSAs at NATO Page 108 of 159
    • 5. Technical Challenge: Inability to scan and use a range of frequencies Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 No new technology needed 2015 2 Increased compression Standard format approval (TRL 6) 2015 scheme for image data exchange. All Tx is data: voice image text 3 Adaptive, configurable direct Tech 1: Wide band analog-Digital converters 2015 RF sampling Tech 2: Adaptive filtering and decimation 2 Tech 3: wide band antenna (TRL 7) 4 Radio with wideband Powerful, small & affordable DSPs & FPGAs. 2015 waveform capabilities Suitable wideband RF front-ends (TRL 2) (OFDM, DSSS, FHSS, VWB)* & smart interference detection/avoidance algorithms (*Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing; Direct sequence spread spectrum; Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum; Ultra Wide Band; Digital Signal Processor; Field Programmable Gate Array) 5 Real time full band scan Tech 1: Fast filter selection or adaptation 2 2015 (TRL 8) Tech 2: Special waveform (TRL 2) 6 Agile electronics / wideband OAC/AOC converters, electronics capable 2015 viewing – flexible RF filters Page 109 of 159
    • Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 7 Radios with multi-band Digital links that auto scan 2015 operating i.e. L/S/C/ETC 8 SDR + Wideband RF head High Speed A/D 2015 9 RFID TAC multi-channel RFID TAC words with UHF, UWB, Wi-Fi, LF, 2015 technology working with any etc. frequency 10 Regular communication Tech 1: BW + Radio Freq. Control 2 2020 driver with capability to provide wide spectrum of Tech 2: IP commonality freq. in both secure and non secure mode 11 Cognitive / software define Beam forming antennas, automatic tuneable, 2020 radios. front ends. High power DSPs, Miniaturization of RF parts, etc. Better user of existing spectrum / use of white spaces 12 Adaptive radio Adaptive radio frequency 2 2020 * 13 Flexible Awd + combined SW Provide new Awd/SW solution while defining a * that operates in all larger freq. range. environments. WW. Page 110 of 159
    • 6. Technical Challenges: Inability to configure C4I devices to context (cross-domain, interoperability, security) Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Develop a software Small lightweight translator computer (TLR 3- translator for data exchange 4) between dismounted, mounted C.F., NATO groups etc. 2 Multi domain, multi level MILS/CDS data terminals communication capability 3 Need to evolve and Smart push information exchange * elaborate interest mechanisms - publish and subscribe using management solutions notification. For example the OMG - DDS beyond geospatial indexing standard should be evaluated as a possible to include other filtering and candidate IEM. Work in the US at the Naval prioritization mechanisms post-graduate school (NPS) on smart push technology is relevant - see VIRT (valued Information at the Right Time)(TLR 6) 4 Standards for software Service oriented architectures UML, SysML embedding and integration 5 Use of common interfaces Develop low power WPAN. Security is not as in commercial compromised due to range limitations technology. Use of wireless technologies. 6 Develop IA Crypted Key JANUS MCM by Rockwell Collins with management policy for S to turnstile CDS (TLR 8/9) TUI, vice versa use MILS crypto solution within system with crypto bypass for management of black data passed on may then be formatted for desired interoperability Page 111 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 7 Ability to subscribe to Meta data tagging standards. Cross-boundary info/intel produced by OGDs (domain) guards. Search engine (next and Allies and engage using generation) chat or other means 8 Authentication of C4I devices Exploitation of biometric data (TLR 7) 9 Data centric systems Standards, functional configuration (TLR 6) Architecture. Renditions of objects allow for effective exchange with layered security for a high level of granularity and flexibility in configuration. 10 Ability to move in, out, Software defined system through networks seamlessly. Ability to move between modes of TPT seamlessly, Ability to EMPL VEHS as RRB 11 Bi-directional "data diodes" Tech1: Context parser for structured data to link between secret Hi and (TLR 6-9) TUI/SBU radio/data links that accommodate security Tech2: Data packet keyword parser for level matching and data digitized VOX and Free text (TLR 5-6) bridging 12 Artificial Intelligence Data Mining/neural networks 13 Automated projection of Artificial Intelligence , simulation, machine * team member position/action learning (TLR 5-6) Page 112 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 14 Perform field trials to clearly (TLR 5) identify all different contexts, define, selectable defaults for each context (OP'r selectable); add additional configurations for OP'r based on user trials 7. Technical Challenge: Lack of standards/agreed guidelines Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Commercial standards Situation awareness + mapping (TRL 6) 2011 available cap/capan/georss/oasis/mas as adopt or modify 2 Make best use of available Information systems. 3 2015 commercial standards 3 Increased use of industry Publish standards and ontologies currently in 2015 * standards and open use in operational systems architecture 4 Open Source Approach 2015 * (standard) 5 Common Functions – Processors smart displays 2015 * Scripted functions, visuals, audio, text, and images Page 113 of 159
    • Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 6 Standards creation & Xml, 2525c/App6b, 802.11*, C-BML 2015 agreement on data management, symbology for soldiers, interoperability 7 Adoption of commercial Xml, c#, 80211N, Bluetooth 3 2015 standards where possible e.g. xml, c#, 80211N, Bluetooth 8 Use or augment existing Ethernet, USB, Firewire for communications 3 2015 commercial or industry standards vs. creating new military standards 9 Development of standards, Jc3iepm (from the MIP) to be extended to 2015 understanding what we are support soldier systems (PDAs) or tablets talking about several (TRL 4) standards 10 Technology life cycle Product life cycle management, business 2015 modeling tools/standards process modeling uml/sys ML, model-based system engineering 11 Use metadata based Interoperability, security (TRL 6) 2015 * repository to harmonize ―objects‖ to be exchanged with or without standards dependence 12 Need industry participation Non or what standards already exist and are 2015 * and emphasis on need. relevant (TRL N/A) Need to draw a link in the sand. 13 The use of international Crossmatch is an extremely flexible company 4 2015 4/* standards (EBTS) modeling their products to soldiers needs. 14 Use less energy Optimization sources code 2015 Page 114 of 159
    • Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 15 International N/A 4 2015 4 Alliance/Committee to determine the bases for standard 16 Agreed, but the real lack is 2015 commonality amongst users 17 Systems Integration Make ethernet firewire wireless usb wifi all 2015 hardware abstraction lawer TCP/IP for com. links 18 Use of Stanag 4586 and/or Uav, ugc, usv device (TRL 4) 2015 JAUS for ISR assets beyond unmanned systems (e.g. tower mounted cameras, traffic cams, etc.) 19 Publish a format of expected Sdp protocol belongs to sip (voice example) 2015 data from a soldier, example ―x,y‖ platoon name make it an open standard 20 Wiki-standard-pedia 2 2015 21 NATO Interoperability Existing agreements and efforts that are 4 2015 4 Consensus decisions that currently underway should enable future provide global collaboration standardization of C4I tools. 22 Create new group including TRL 2 2015 industries and university researchers 23 Industry engagement with Wiki, tele-presence 2 2015 policy developers and when regular, on-going meetings Page 115 of 159
    • Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 24 Adopt industry + already W4c, ITU 2 2015 available standards as much as possible. Participate in standards bodies 25 Communicate between International standards 4 2020 4 countries and military groups (from top to fringe) 26 Adopt industry standards N/A (TRL 3) 2 27 Need to elaborate a digitized The coalition-battle management language is representation of tasks and an emerging standard that addresses this orders to support exchange need (TRL 3) between soldiers and soldiers and C2 systems and soldiers and robots 8. Technical Challenge: Lack of UI configurability/usability Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps * frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Projector-based augmented Augmented reality computer vision 2015 reality display capable of mimic devices 2 Protection glasses / Micro-projection system (TRL 5) 2015 Read wanted display that does not mase the field of view of the user Page 116 of 159
    • Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps * frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 3 One system - on set of XML? Similar to web based designs and 2015 equipment configurable for selection of user preference EA level of user ie Rifleman, Sect. leader, PI and Coy CMD. Ability to turn on/off data displayed. Enable a MSN Vice hinder it. 4 Better training provided to Flexible displays. 2015 subject. Better understanding of the problem to be addressed. More powerful PDA/portable laptops to help. 5 Danger: Restricted uses to Use enable/disable function + layered on/off 2015 avoid software hang up in a display. real time environment. 6 Better HFI design HFI - Man Machine Interface 2015 7 Configure device as per user Touch pad easy interface for military apps. 2015 preference (TRL 8) 8 Partner with commercial Adapt to interface standards which users will 2015 leaders in user interface (i.e. be familiar with from previous exposure. Apple, Ubisoft) to devise soldier interface rather than re-invent the wheel. 9 Allow for UI to "learn" its Utilized in Mercedes + high end vehicles 2015 user machine learving. (TRL 8). 10 Use of flexible display within OLED & printable electronics 2020 uniform. 11 have intuitive systems - thought generated control interface + machine 2020 machine model itself to the learning (TRL 4) human; not vice-versa Page 117 of 159
    • Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps * frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 12 Hand held devices - Human factors R+D-develops new 2020 scale/tailer multiple approaches to display information to meet windows/including text + cognitive requirements. imagery) to reduced screen size. 13 Difficult - std GUI Usability analysis - SW Development. 2020 * design/evaluation/cognitium, walkthium, heuristics) 14 Development role/context Development of AI content of C4I to perform 2020 * based GUI for C4I coarse GUI adjustment with operator fine adjustment (TRL 7) 15 Software input/display Software Development interfaces 16 Ongoing support of R&D in Also affects #9 high-prof UIs (TRL 6) this area. Page 118 of 159
    • 9. Technical Challenge: Overcoming infection/comfort-related to C4I equipment Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps * frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Garment integration Smart Textiles that would incorporate the C4I 2015 functionalities. 2 Bone conducting vibrator Hearing protection that cancels out high 2015 frees up soldier ears for impulse noise; but allows soldier to hear (TRL situational awareness 7+) 3 Ear canal/in-ear and over- Tech1: Ear canal vranning/moulding 2015 ear combination headsets - technologies for individual fit in-ear devices combined comms/hearing (TRL 6-7) protection Tech2: Head side/shape 3D scanning 2 database. DND database available (P. munic DRDC did the work) not available to industry! Key for developing 5-95% headset fit. 4 Antibacterial materials (ear 8 nanotechnologies. Silver nanoparticles in 2 2015 plugs) solution. 5 Develop device (headset) headset tech. 2 2015 that controls noise level - low noise up and loud noise down, voice (Form Fitting) 6 Apply accepted industry TRL 6 2015 style guides (e.g. windows) as much as possible to increase operator familiarity, reduce training, ease operation under stress 7 Use of antennas made from Deposit of electroconductive yarns to form 2015 electroconductive yarns. irregular shapes. Would reduce weight from antenna. Page 119 of 159
    • Priority Time (from Solution Description Technologies # Reps * frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 8 Swappable foam earplugs Ergonomics antimicrobial/fungal - 2015 (disposable) with anti- commercialized for t-shirt, socks, etc. (TRL 9). microbial and anti-fungal properties. Antiseptic wipes. Use soft materials inside ear that are shaped/ergonomic. 9 Intégrer directement les Intégrer des capteurs MEMS dans les 2015 capteurs dans les tissus des vêtements. vêtements. 10 System in a box. Miniaturization of electronic, 2015 radio/CPV/Display all in the same box (TRL 5). 11 Human factor engineering. Integrated woven vest-body armor head gear. 2015 (TRL 7) 12 Prevent ear Audition by in durting mech. vibrations in the 2015 discomfort/infections due to jaw bone (TRL 6) headsets. 13 Hearing - antimicrobial Chloramides - syringe to inflated 2015 * conformal ear plug perhaps air inflatable ear plug. 14 Wireless systems low power wireless (communication) - conductors fabrics 15 Custom Fitting - Self Nano-Technology. 2 - decontaminating materials Page 120 of 159
    • 10. Technical Challenge: Over-reliance on technology solutions (no longer training the fundamentals) Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Ensure personnel can Good basic training, technology should 2 2015 perform their tasks without enable, not cripple technology (maps + compass, range finding, hand signals etc.) 2 Using simulation to train for Add-ons to existing services games (e.g. 2015 different technologies in the VBS2) (TLR 6) same environments (e.g. map/compass vs. blue force tracking in same environment) 3 Use commercially available Interface between commercial games platform 2015 gaming technology to train and military C2 soldiers to sue military equipment 4 Adopt tools role/phase + Enabling tools (display, Avoid, etc.) to auto- 2015 Resource option - basic train users based on task (TLR 7) training + Structure 5 Dual-use devices (e.g. Likely requirements based - SOR needs to 2015 holographic weapons that define objective to threshold capabilities on a have a fixed iron sight on top device for dual use. in event prism is damaged). 6 Define basic principles of the Training of fundamentals (TLR 9) 2 2015 equipments (maps, and compass navigation, light and electromagnetic waves introduction) 7 Introduction in education Education System 2020 system - easy to train but likely hard Page 121 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 8 Drive a combat team with a Dismounted soldier simulator (DRDC computer generated forces Toronto) - use it more (TLR 9) (one SAF, for example) and play war-gaming. Use same for pre-mission brief to do what-if scenarios 9 Training at appropriate Wiki (self learning/sharing) level/ongoing continuous in various modes developed in consultation with user (soldiers); and are appropriate technology 10 Prior to provide training to (TLR 1) the soldier with advanced technology the soldier should be educated in the basics and trained in that area. 11 Use of training methods that In addition to the current and future training, 2 date back to the old days use fundamental training using basic weapons where soldiers did not have and war scenarios (TLR 8) access to sophisticated equipment 12 Built-in software for training Software development on fundamental underlying skills 13 Continue to train the basics (TLR 9) to provide necessary understanding. User application will evolve 14 New code of cognitive New application on Apple iPhone solution for training new generation of soldiers 15 Fundamental shift in training Focus on more general approach to training 2 operations. Build better, (vs. unit-specific while teaching "offline" simpler UI interface alternatives. Page 122 of 159
    • 11. Technical Challenge: Poor bandwidth/capacity management Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Increase Spectrum efficiency MIMO Technologies/more efficient modulation, 2 2015 computer algorithmes 2 Mission based management 2015 of RF resources 3 Better frequency detection optimization algorithms with robust cost 2015 * and allocation functions (TLR 6) 4 Better compression, Network monitoring dynamic priority based 2015 * optimized code at low-level allocation (TLR 8) monitor, allocate, throttle users, change resolution 5 Make some soldiers wireless 2015 access points, allowing I/P COTS wireless routers and access point (TLR communication when in 7) close proximity permitting relay to headquarters 6 Use centralized DSA, Hubs (TLR 8) 2015 infrastructure at a teleport 7 Policy- based, dynamic software definable radios (TLR 5) 2015 network management 8 Tactical area aerial Tactical micro UAVs, improved MANET 2015 * rebroadcast and advanced solutions matched to SWRs (TRL 6) managed mesh networks 9 Make use of infrastructure (TLR 6) 2015 free 3G mobile phone technology - leverage power of COTS road maps etc. to deliver military capacity Page 123 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 10 Send only the required Data synch guard, use of geo-tagged 2015 information, thus limiting the information - get what concerns soldier (TLR bandwidth requirements 7) 11 Use efficient Use of packaged data units (PDUs) - a form of 2015 packaging/compression of compression XML being used with CIEM (TLR data to limit bandwidth 9) requirements 12 Software defined radios MPLS, SW defined radios (TLR 6) 2015 combined with capacity management solutions 13 Better planning for end user The art of getting a consensus among working 2015 system use. Adherence to groups well developed standards. 14 Smart applications adapting 2015 to available radio connectivity 15 Process and compress data Artificial intelligence (TLR 5) 2 2015 at one service 16 Radio that has a capacity to Multi-band, ad hoc networking radio (TLR 7) 2015 transfer video to all members over a range of up to 100 m without passing connectivity due to physical instances. 17 Algorithm needed to Geographical approximation algorithms 2015 automatically determine center of mass of an organization based on locations of elements 18 Define meta data for heavy OLAP technology (TLR 9) 2015 information sources and publish meta data on the net instead of raw data. Page 124 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 19 Frequency planning and Frequency management and planning 2015 management for related software zone 20 Frequency reuse, TX at Cell phone frequency reuse techniques, 2015 minimum power, better training on bandwidth management control of information needed to be transmitted to end user 21 Increase available bandwidth New communication technology that overcomes 2020 on communication devices bandwidth issues (TLR 1) 22 Automatic bandwidth Artificial Intellect (TLR 5) 2 2020 allocation with cross reference 23 Dynamic spectrum allocation, MIMO, better processing power 2 2020 Adaptive channel aggregation, adaptive radios, adaptive modulation 12. Technical Challenge: Poor signature management Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Soldiers are not stealthy; Electro textiles, ultrasonic PAN (Personal 2015 they wear camouflage vests Area Network), cabling (TRL 9) but blast out RF. Use 2010 Emission Control (EMCON) and wired PAN. 2 Display dimming capability 2015 Page 125 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. (smart/automatic) 3 Display technology that does Display technology based on an infra-red 2015 not produce visible light (TRL 6). signature 4 Real time signature database 2015 database 5 Algorithm fractal pattern Using to analyze digital imagery + from 2015 * mapping satellite and find of a target. identification application awareness 6 Improved, low weight New Material developments 2015 shielding alternatives 7 Tool for squad/platoon to Tool also becomes a detector for enemy RF 2015 check their RF emissions emissions prior to a mission 8 IR: The use of a new RF Power management & brainstorming 2020 * material already address this technique. signature reduction: RF; This is inevitable and must be controlled through emission control & RF power management & brainstorming. 9 NVG viewable PDA screen Dual view display nvg/naked eye; Covert 2020 Display Technology 10 ANR type solution - Apply Sense signature and broadcast "noise" 2020 ANR type solution to other canceling waveform. types of electromagnetic ENERGY 11 Electromagnetic emissions Magneto - inductive technologies. 2020 control systems Page 126 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 12 Direct optical Laser rangefinder, target locators with covert * Communications at Video communications (TRL 6). rate. 13 Visual Display that is visible Digital fused visible & near IR and possibly * in low light - high light - and thermal technologies near IR without the user constantly making adjustments. 14 Smelling sensor Fire Security System identification to target and pine point. 15 Use of more efficient power Phare-shifted resource converters increase supplies and CPU cards. power supply efficiency (TRL 9). 16 (relating to IR) Reduction of Reduction of power consumption of system power consumption and and improved finishing techniques/progresses development of low radiation (TRL 5). finishes. 17 Auto correcting to minimize Sensors to autocorrect power output. power output to stay connected vice high power low power settings. Page 127 of 159
    • 13. Technical Challenge: Power/energy limitations Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Device that converts motion Permanent rare-earth magnet generating a 2015 info electric current which current when the magnetic flux cuts through a would then charge the coil. (TRL 5) system battery (ies) & lower energy consumption. 2 Very high density power Micro hydrogen fuel cell (TRL 6). 4 2015 4 source and cloat-embedded power distribution. 3 Integrated Power/Data Bnsg Intelligent textiles, universal connector, energy 4 2015 4 smart power management. harvesting + storage 4 Reduce power usage with RFID TAC technology keeps devices silent 2015 not keeping communication, and sleepy till selective activation performed. location, etc. devices active all time. 5 Use energy efficient signal Low power processors, low power algorithms 2015 processing algorithms combined with low power. 6 For night vision/thermal 2015 imaging /fuzzed - need power demand < 3 watts max. 7 Use other than regular AA LiSOCL7 batteries: same shape as AA 4 2015 4 batteries batteries, more energy. 8 Lower consumption devices. ongoing product improvements 2015 9 1 single power source Portable fuel-cells + smart energy dispatcher. 4 2015 4 w/distribution (smart) system (TRL 7) to dispatch energy "on- demand". Page 128 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 10 Wider use of renewable Photo elements (TRL 8). 2015 sources of energy 11 Low power, low energy Develop high efficiency manet waveform not 2015 waveforms based on beaconing. 12 (Referring to power as More efficient higher energy density portable 4 2015 4 computational power) - batteries (voltage). Development of faster DSPs/FPGAs/GPPs. 13 Higher degree of soldier 2015 system hw-integration ¿ phone type of common unit for the soldier. 14 No one solution. May require Li Battery, solar, bio-mech generation and 4 2015 4/* a combo of syst. to sustain capacitors + to store defined energy level. syst. operability for defined periods/missions. 15 New micro electric Solar panel technology. Micro-pump power 2015 integration. Innovative generation. (TRL 2-3). software management. Self Power generation. 16 Use of thermal energy to Integrating thermoelectrical materials within 4 2015 4 generate electrical energy. uniform. 17 Energy harvesting from 2015 other devices + wearable systems. 18 Dynamic re-allocation of Reconfigurable FPGA chips based on sensed 2015 smaller amount of resources environment (TRL 7). based on available signals ¿ universal configurable channels. Page 129 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 19 Build solar + kinetic 2015 capabilities into soldier uniforms to charge power sources (TRL 2). 20 Integrated (clothing, Robust protective film for cells. 2015 equipment, etc.) solar cells and docking stations to either recharge or slowdown batteries consumption 21 Adaptive communications, Communications electroniks 2015 reduce power to necessary level based on SNR 22 Energy harvesting Solar cells, flexible panels (textiles). 2 2015 photovoltaïque. 23 Integrate multiple devices Software defined radio instead of 2 different 2015 into a single product to radios. reduce total power requirements. 24 Provide common power Establish low voltage supply / ability to 2015 source that will complete the storage energy + to be self contained. mission apps for 24, 48,72 or more hours 25 Use of novel 2015 triggering/cueing technologies with unattended sensors to minimize power usage. (TRL 4). 26 Explore new technologies Replacement of Lithium to lighter efficient 2015 power energy retainers (TRL 7). 27 Longer lasting batteries power manager, energy storage cell. 2015 Page 130 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 28 Combination of improving Non-battery - motion harvest systems CPU 2015 * technology - chemical manufacturing. (TRL 6). battery - Bio-Kinetic - Low Power Computing 29 Cooperative beam forming 2015 to extend radio range - utilize all radio's within squad to generate extended range/directionality. (TRL 4). 30 Develop aggressive power Aggressive power mgmt (see newtrax) 2020 management techniques for technologies approach to power management. comms & sensors designed into as many systems as possible. 31 Further reliance on natural Energy storage capabilities. Wireless 2020 * sources for generating electricity generation. (TRL 3). energy (solar, wind, etc.). Use of wireless electrical devices for battery recharge. 32 New battery and/or energy Beam forming 2020 generation capability 33 New photo voltaic material New material development + (organic). Photo 2020 * for improved efficiency voltaic organic material. (TRL 2). battery solar cell. 34 Better batteries or energy Chemistry, fuel cells, solar 4 2020 4 sources 35 Avoir une source d'énergie Les piles à combustibles à hydrogène (TRL 2020 portable et légère 4). Page 131 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 36 Profile where / how power is Power management tricks used in mobile 2020 * used and how / where power devices + semi-conductor industry. is lost - wasted (do you need 10W radio far 1km range segmentation). Smart Power management (on- demand power throttling) - power management in cell phones + MP3 players are very much on-demand type. What energy you don't use are shutted down. 37 Micro nuclear energy reactor Possible? Nuclear fusion? TRL 3. 2020 * 38 Smart Power solutions that self monitoring power circuit. 2020 know when to provide power. 39 Combination of improving Non-battery - motion harvest systems CPU 2015 * technology - chemical manufacturing. (TRL 6). battery - Bio-Kinetic - Low Power Computing 40 Cooperative beam forming 2015 to extend radio range - utilize all radio's within squad to generate extended range/directionality. (TRL 4). 41 Miniaturization Power sources improvement - higher energy 2020 density. 42 For night 2020 vision/thermal/fuzzed - need sleep model - instant on. 43 Energy harvesting solar cell, piezoelectric 2 2020 44 Bared-in energy Electro-textile that charge up with movement 4 2020 4 recuperation system. (TRL 1). Page 132 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 45 New Power source, such as Fuel cell, wireless power (electromagnetic 4 2020 4 power cell. radiation). 46 Movement harvesting Piezoelectic fibers or embedded in uniform. 4 2020 4 energy 47 Alternative energy source, Functional material like piezoceramics 2020 * solar or biochemical sources nanotechnologies. (TRL 4). energy harvesting from motion or residual heat. 48 Personal nuclear energy 2020 pack. 49 Alternative sources Mechanical generation (from soldier 2020 * (other than batteries) such movement) to charge batteries (TRL 3) as energy harvesting. 50 Lighter, last longer, rapidly 2020 rechargeable, low cost, environmental friendly. 51 Harvesting Human Kinetic Efficient harvesting of kinetic energy. - Energy 52 Kinetic power generation Refrigeration, electrical (TRL 1). from soldier movement. Thermal power generation from soldier heat. 53 Continuing miniaturization of Improved battery technology. Ad hoc 4 - 4 components. networking. (TRL 8). 54 Power harvesting from - walking or from curyload system movement. Micro generator engine. Page 133 of 159
    • 14. Technical Challenge: Spectrum Availability Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Opportunistic use of the Uncontiguous bandwidth waveform for 2 2015 spectrum example: OFDM based (TRL 8) 2 Prioritizing users according 2015 to agreed on protocols, could be updated as situation changes, remotely managed 3 Data image compression Energy efficient high speed processor (TRL 7- 2015 9) 4 Increased GARDR (RMS) Tech 1: Increased sampling rate with lower 2015 bandwidth modulations with power longer high rate spreading codes Tech 2: Wider antenna with LNA Tech 3: Greater dispreading gain 5 Multi radio system on each 2020 soldier simultaneous 6 DSA Radios. Better Miniaturization of RF and Filter parts 2020 compression 7 Increase spectral efficiency MIMO – Multiple Input Multiple Output 2020 * of new radios 8 Not technology: Military has 2020 to pay for use of frequency space in competition with the civilian word 9 Opportunistic use of radio Highly adaptive radio (cognitive) with 2 2020 spectrum to increase frequency + bandwidth agility (TRL 3) bandwidth availability – dynamic spectrum access, need real time spectrum mg. Page 134 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 10 Implementation of new Spread spectrum 2020 modulation techniques 11 Automatic spectrum New miniature pf components radio signal 2 2020 allocation dynamic spectrum processing changes 12 Automated spectrum ‗hole‘ SDR with dynamic spectrum ‗hole‘ seek + 2020 management capture capability-non-disruptive (TRL3) 13 In war time, interferers can Direction finding ESM (TRL 9) be shot down (remember day 1 in Baghdad and what the F-117 did), artillery, air force can all destroy unwanted emitters as required 15. Technical Challenge: Lack of High Performance User Interface Characteristics Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 design of brdw: trackball, noise reduction, dynamic audiosensors, H.R. 2015 board headset, a radio screens sensors 2 Requires a 2015 * "Definition/Requirements Identification" from users to enable industry to develop. 3 Improve human factor Following the iphone application sdk 2 2015 software buil & engineering metaphor. (TRL 7) Page 135 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 4 Intuitive, easy-to-use, easy Design for usability user trials, involvement, 2015 to learn UIs. best practices (e.g. iphone). (TRL 9). 5 See through display Tech1: Variable light transmission (TRL 4). 2015 Tech2: Free form lens design (TRL 4). 6 Adaptive user interface Artificial intelligence, machine learning 2015 based on location, situation algorithms. and user skills 7 Engage video game 2015 software developers (TRL 4). 8 Install a lightweight camera Sensors toward CMOS. Target 2015 * (wide dynamic range) on detection/recognition. (TRL 4). helmet or eyewear 9 Multi-modal interface No hands or hands optional controllers. (TRL 2015 capability 3). 10 New devices that are like an New software for ease of configuration. 2 2015 * i-phone that allows easy control of interface GUI. 11 Direct manipulation graphic HTMLS, WebGL, Wikis, Web 2.0. 2015 environment. 12 New tablets PC need to be more efficient batteries and less power 2015 made more robust, and have consuming tablets (should exist in R&D labs). less power consumption. 13 Defined UI requirements. Optical interface, tactile interface. 2015 * 14 See through HMD visible at Digital display (OLED) + begun splitter + 2 2015 night and in bright sunlight micro-shutter (MEMS) instantly adjustable. (TRL 4). Page 136 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 15 Utiliser des UAV pendant les 2015 opérations des soldats pour faire une map avec les positions des soldats. (TRL 6). 16 Use COTS handheld device IPhone, Ipad. (TRL 7). 2 2015 with custom applications for military. 17 Sunglasses (ballistic) with pre-distorted digital projection display that 2 2020 projected display on back corrects for glass curvature + eye tracker and side of sunglasses that are computer to align projected display with distortion free and aligned to natural FOV (TRL 3) normal vision. 18 Multiple interface modalities Tech1: soldier personal embedded network 2020 (sound, vib. visual, text, (TRL 4). video) embedded in cloat aud equipment. Tech2: Laser display Tech3: Flexible rollable OLED display * 19 bidirectional neural interface Related neura sciences... standards! (TRL 3). 2020 * to soldier (so it can receive data, like commands, and control devices and send data) 20 Adaptive trained soldier Warfighting simulator. Each soldier should go 2020 system based on game through a trainer which will define his profile. simulator The way he fights, etc. Once done, his profile is loaded in a database, automatically loaded when he log himself on a system (TRL 3-4). 21 Increased S.W. video cameras, TI etc. + software devel. and 2 sophistication to load of UI behaviour theory (TRL 5). i.e. Facial recognition, behaviour recognition, etc. Page 137 of 159
    • Priority # Time (from Solution Description Technologies Reps* frame BS 4 - * and 4s) * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 22 Display C4I Symbology on See trew tech. real scans. 23 Optical detectors - multiple - Optical communication (ad hoc). (TRL 3). * immaterial so no wire links necessary (to torso CPV) between sensor weapon etc. 24 Not technical - procedural. Require access to soldier user community for voice of customer exercise. Has been done before in Canada for Sam5. Page 138 of 159
    • G. Sensors Working Session 2 The details of solutions proposed and their related technologies are listed in the tables below. The column repetition (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have identified more than once to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. The technical challenges for which solutions are proposed are: 1. UAV Weaponization 2. Increasing Bandwidth 3. Enabling Brain to Sensor Control 4. Improving Configurable User Interfaces 5. Enabling High-Performance User Interface 6. Increasing Sensor Resolution 7. Managing Multiple Autonomous Vehicles 8. Developing Multifunction Sight 9. Enhancing Power Availability and Endurance 10. Developing Power/Data Interface to Weapon 11. Processing Multiple Input Signals/AI 12. Enabling Different/Intermittent Communications 13. Improving Signature Management 14. Enhancing Signal Processing and Security Standards 15. Developing Technologies to Enable Devices Recovery Page 139 of 159
    • 1. Technical Challenges: UAV Weaponization Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Time Priority frame * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Smaller and different weapons 2015 UAVs that understand that it has a weapon 2 Self propelled munitions that do GPS not impact flight of UAV Tx + Rx data and video 3 Ceaseless ammo (40-50% I4 multifunction sight/fire control 2015 lighter) system requires new gun, combine with electronic fire Also better for infantrymen control for precision 4 Careful pick of weapon strap Weapons development now them on 5 Permit self selective destruction 2015 of loitering munitions + other UAVs without authorization 6 UAV battery punctures self Power/energy 2015 before crashing into enemy camp Page 140 of 159
    • 2. Technical Challenge: Increasing Bandwidth (to improve multi-band resolution) Time Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Priority frame * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Synthetile – Vectorize 2015 background algorithm 2 High Speed electronics D-A Crew Sensor Systems 2015 conversion, High speed image processing 3 Saleable/Adaptive BW wireless Compact hi Frequency 2015 Link w/Low power/short range Transmitter electronics for weapon to soldier 4 Spread Spectrum/broadband 2015 RF Encoding for secure communications Higher communications frequency transceivers 5 Dual/multi-band optics and Lower pitch micro-bolometers 2015 weapon sights 2 I + NIR + SWIR + LWIR 6 Utilize, for short distances with COTS UWB devices requiring 2015 wideband technology, and low power/size higher order modulation for high BW short distance communications between sensor and receiver 7 Don‘t bother, too much data Data ->information 2015 already – extract information on board and send as a pulse only when absolutely necessary 8 Radio Frequency Monolithic Microwave 2020 Communication at 50 Ghz with integrated circuit Ghz BW Page 141 of 159
    • Time Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Priority frame * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 9 Soldier to Soldier and Soldier to Master Slave or bandwidth on * communications center transmit demand priority handling 3. Technical Challenge: Enabling Brain to Sensor Control Time Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Priority frame * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Use all faculties - touch, voice, Voice recognition, dense force movement sensors, smart sensor filters 2 Helmet with EEG type sensors Phase 1 Tech to use 2020 brainwaves to control prosthetic limb Phase 2 tech to turn on/off switch 3 Algorithm data 2015 processing/compression 4 Thinking to control digital Vyborg 2020 objects control functionality Neuroscience Bioengineering 5 Lightweight sensor to control Medical field 2020 weapons systems and to monitor inputs Page 142 of 159
    • 4. Technical Challenge: Improving Configurable User Interfaces Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 All sensors (personal) feed to Eye touch screen iPhone type 2020 central processing which can technology but which move display and transmit selected icons with motion of users eyes. information Sense and track focus of attention and movement 2 Focus interface on data user 2015 wants and allow it to be organized into layers based up on priority or context and provides a ―moving} filter to display 3 Provide AI in C4I to interrogate Development of AI, algorithms 2015 terrain, movement, and and fusion of data instruction to configure HCI without operator input 4 Strategic system architecture, open well engineered standards, continuous maintenance/upgrade 5 Reduce user data access time Data (numeric) mostly sent for by iconic graphical user upwards analysis interfaces 6 Multi modal interface providing Data fusion access to different levels of Preference handling granularity of info based on mission needs Modal interface Page 143 of 159
    • 5. Technical Challenge: Enabling High-Performance User Interface Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Provide imagery to the eye Holographic imagery/heads up 2020 without impacting night vision or display field of view 2 Intuitive user configurable LCD, OLED, Bone speakers, weapon centric fused data haptic feedback display, contextual controls 3 Self training, self guiding STANAG 4586 interoperability 2015 operation interface leveraging standard existing & intuitive controls (e.g. JAUS interoperability standard 4CE control station SW) 4 Experience from video gaming 2015 * industry to uncluttered the graphical display and to improve learning curve 5 Use glove type interface to New gaming gloves 2015 control payloads 6 Finger motion detector Biometric sensors 2015 Eye motion detector Noise synthesizer Voice/sound recognition 7 User interface is where all Integration technologies and an sensor input is integrated – interface standard and protocol needs to communicate with current and future sensors Page 144 of 159
    • 6. Increasing Sensors Resolution Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Un cooled /cooled detectors InGaAs detectors with smaller pixel pitch 2 New fabrication technology of SWIR, MWIR, LWIR 2020 sensors, high speed Fused Imaging sight/system electronics, D-A conversion 3 Adaptable zooming, automatic New lens technology 2015 target acquisition, light sensitive New material for screens screen 4 New High Density solid state New fab process 2015 detectors, detector stitching 5 Digital image fusion High resolution Displays 2020 approaching photo cathode resolution Signal processing algorithms 6 Foveal systems – wide FOV Accomplished with optics – 2020 with high resolution only where wide angle objective for SA and the operator is looking telephoto tied to eye tracker plus digital stitching of images 7 Requires materials and MEMS, uncooled E-O Sensors structures of higher sensitivities e.g. micro/nano structures and advanced E-O materials (e.g. InGaAs etc.) 8 Multi sensors in multi-static Sensor fusion configurations (multiple input, multiple output concept) Page 145 of 159
    • 7. Technical Challenge: Managing Multiple Autonomous Vehicles Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Coordinated autonomous flight, 2015 in band remote programmable control 2 Simple icon (map) based Signal jamming prevention, 2015 interface which gives the PDA/tablet interfaces, User vehicles position on a map – interface design, Integration of when selected, control/view is different vehicle control into one switched to the second vehicle platform 3 Software development and Track file software and 2015 improvement to C4I software algorithms enabling multi sensor fusion 4 Vehicular algorithm interactive Autopilot 2015 5 Advanced UI (e.g. 4CE control Stanag4586 Interoperability 2015 station) with operation queuing standard and self guiding corrective JAUS Interoperability standard actions; interoperability standards 6 Artificial Intelligent system/tech Collaborative surveillance 2020 systems Data fusion 7 Universal controls, mission Autonomous control systems configurable aggregate Computer situational displays, semi autonomous awareness functions 8 Cooperation between those Artificial intelligence in 2015 vehicles autopilots/decision making 9 If they are autonomous they Data -> Information (perceptive 2015 can manage themselves, self capability) and situational awareness 10 Some mission autonomy – soft 15,2, 9.10,14 2020 challenge algorithm Page 146 of 159
    • Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 11 Swarm theory Artificial intelligence 2020 12 Self coordination of ‗swarm‘ MANET, AI, MIMO 2020 through message exchange to complete tasks. Automation/AI 13 Develop waypoint navigation GPS interaction with alerts to operator if Transmit data to operator irreconcilable issues arise 14 Automated coordination of a Artificiel intelligence, team of autonomous vehicles augmentation, position based on mission intent and estimation, planning localization 8. Technical Challenge: Developing Multifunction Sight Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Common optical chain for main Composite material to be 2020 spectral sight developed to refract multi- spectral 2 2 Modular day/night + multi Microelectronic fusion of I 2020 spectral sight elements (with SWIR, Thermal Tech camera output and data input Compact lightweight glass/optic capabilities) elements 3 Multiple detectors and IR 2020 electronic zoom 4 Quickly identify moving object Algorithm/processing power 2015 within sight and to zoom it Page 147 of 159
    • Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 5 Fuse thermal (for human Micro bolometer or InSb + 2015 detection) with visual -> SWIR electron bombardment CCD detector for ID and situational awareness 6 Long range (500 m to 2 Km) SWIR scope + laser illuminator 2015 target id at night (both CW + gated) 7 Incorporating (fusing) multiple Optical material that work in the sensors in a module design that SWIR, MWIR and digitization can be integrated on a single optical path 8 Enable confirmation of target Laser range finding 2015 location and capability to ―hand Pointing (digital magnetic off‖ targets to others for compass) confirmation/engagement GPS + Communications network 9 HUD with multi input box NVG, IR, laser range finder, 2015 capable of lasting long hours GPS 10 Modular plug and play VSB, near-field induction 2015 architecture with common and optional blocks 11 Networking of distributed Networking radios and 2015 sensor via section radios and weapons STA system transfer of data into sight in integration operator accepted format 12 Integration of current Miniaturization of components 2015 technologies 13 Nanotechnology – based Mew materials, development, 2020 optical materials that allows processing methods for high waveleband specific pixel density self assembling fabrication in same substrate technologies 14 High resolution sensors 2020 Low power cooling Wideband optics (visible through IR) Page 148 of 159
    • 9. Technical Challenge: Enhancing Power Availability and Endurance Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 New rechargeable batteries or Chemical cell technology 2015 energy storage device – long life recharcheable 2 Light weight fuel cell to replace Fuel cells 2015 Lion battery integrated with prop motor to generate FC pumps. Extended flight duration, reduces weight 3 Multi function platform replacing RFID, RTLS, TAC 2015 50-60% of single technologies 4 Low RPM high output ratio rotor Aeronautics 2020 turns from reaction torque of vertical prop. Wing is reconfigurable to swept-wing flying wing for high speed 5 Reduced electronic geometries Energy recovery systems (sub-micro) uncooled sensors, intelligent power management 6 Combination of improved batter Nano meter manufacturing 2015 chemistry – solar – low power Chemical engineering electronics 7 For fixed wing make battery the Research into higher energy 2 2015 shape of the wing and easily density batteries detachable for recharging 8 Energy harvesting form Placing photovoltaic cells in 2015 Photovoltaic cells textile substrates 9 Power management chips with Circuit design and low-volume 2015 programmability manufacturing methods 10 More efficient power sources Miniaturized thermo-electric 2020 and thermoacoustic generators/sterling engines Page 149 of 159
    • Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 11 Smart power, power cell Battery research 2 2020 reduction 12 Smaller size, increased solar 2020 amperage rechargeable 13 Inductive or conductive physical USB, Bluetooth, inductive interface power Wireless data transmission standards 14 Micro fuel cell - battery is not Micro fluidics as energy dense. Power source to replace in UAV applications and soldier portable power 10. Technical Challenge: Developing Power/data Interface to Weapon Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 Wireless connection between Low range high throughput data 2020 soldier and weapon communications using magnetic induction 2 NATO STANAG resolution on 2015 power data rail 3 Wired to wireless integrated 1 Robust integrated in-textile 2015 power/data exchange via sling cabling (sling) + future transceiver (see tech 2) 2 Inductive power transfer + inductive power transfer Interface Page 150 of 159
    • 11. Technical Challenge: Processing Multiple Input Signals/AI Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 1 High/fast data processing Collaborative Surveillance 2020 electronics/computing systems Neural network 2 MTI and video MTI; operator Positional technology (GPS selectable declutter, data fusion etc.) algorithms 3 Fuse multiple signals of Machine learning - AI 2015 different types and quantities and make sense of them 4 Sequential processing with high Wireless communication grid 2015 speed and low energy within RFID RTLS Technology consumption 5 Redundant info and image We already use redundant 2015 enhancement from multi edge information in video spectral sources compression 6 Algorithm design matched to Algorithm design, generation of 2015 threaded or vector processor new concepts for data fusion architectures and filtering 7 Dynamic model-based Standard data format, 2015 * representation of environment interoperability and situation 8 High speed, compact Digital; senso/EI2 2015 processing unit 9 Wide-angle sight Integrating many cameras 2015 within a helmet to get 180o in front of soldier 10 Utilize core processing of C4I Development of processing 2015 System to process raw sensor techniques to sustain C4I data to reduce distributed functions and sensor processing, weight and power processing of multiple threads 11 Neural networks, quantum computing Page 151 of 159
    • Solution Description Technologies # Reps* Timeframe Priority * The column repetitions (# reps) indicates that similar technologies have been identified more than once, to create different solutions that can help solve same or different technical challenges. 12 Self sufficient data aware Priority in information handling * soldier as the main decision link 12. Technical Challenge: Enabling Different/Intermittent Communications Solution Description Technologies # Reps Timeframe Priority 1 The only reliable means of Miniature wires integrated in sensors communicating with a fabrics first then nanowire common display/processing technology module is by hard wiring them on the soldier 2 Communications that self adapt 2020 to the SA and environment 3 Multiple/dynamic Dynamic spectrum allocation 2015 communications with always Plug and play DES and connected e.g. ad-hoc or cell based multi frequency, hard wire when applicable Page 152 of 159
    • 13. Technical Challenge: Improving Signature Management (passive) Solution Description Technologies # Reps Timeframe Priority 1 Packaging for shielding and Ceramic packaging for high 2015 size reduction of all frequency electronics 14. Technical Challenge: Enhancing Signal Processing and Security Standards No discussion on this technical challenge were recorded during the breakaway session. 15. Technical Challenge: Developing Technologies to Enable Devices Recovery No discussion on this technical challenge were recorded during the breakaway session. Page 153 of 159
    • H. C4I/Sensor Mind Maps Thinking about technology in the context of the soldier system did not begin with the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap. Earlier projects include a DND project to develop mind maps showing technologies involved in the soldier system. Mind maps focusing on weapons were provided to the Soldier Systems TRM workshop participants in a handout following Day 1 of the workshop. Participants were invited to provide their feedback on the mind maps. Several participants handed in their comments, and these were compiled and retained to provide additional soldier systems information. The mind maps included in the handout, and the accompanying table and Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale, follow. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Description 1. Basic principles observed and Lowest level of technology readiness. Scientific research begins to be reported. translated into applied research and development. Examples might include paper studies of a technology's basic properties. 2. Technology concept and/or Invention begins. Once basic principles are observed, practical application formulated. applications can be invented. Applications are speculative and there may be no proof or detailed analysis to support the assumptions. Examples are limited to analytic studies. 3. Analytical and experimental critical Active research and development is initiated. This includes analytical function and/or characteristic proof of studies and laboratory studies to physically validate analytical predictions concept. of separate elements of the technology. Examples include components that are not yet integrated or representative. 4. Component and/or breadboard Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will validation in laboratory environment. work together. This is relatively "low fidelity" compared to the eventual system. Examples include integration of "ad hoc" hardware in the lab. 5. Component and/or breadboard Fidelity of breadboard technology increases significantly. The basic validation in relevant environment. technological components are integrated with reasonably realistic supporting elements so it can be tested in a simulated environment. Examples include "high fidelity" laboratory integration of components. Page 154 of 159
    • 6. System/subsystem model or Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of prototype demonstration in a relevant TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in environment a technology's demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in simulated operational environment. 7. System prototype demonstration in Prototype near, or at, planned operational system. Represents a major an operational environment. step up from TRL 6, requiring demonstration of an actual system prototype in an operational environment such as an aircraft, vehicle, or space. Examples include testing the prototype in a test bed aircraft. 8. Actual system completed and Technology has been proven to work in its final form and under expected qualified through test and conditions. In almost all cases, this TRL represents the end of true system demonstration. development. Examples include developmental test and evaluation of the system in its intended weapon system to determine if it meets design specifications. 9. Actual system proven through Actual application of the technology in its final form and under mission successful mission operations. conditions, such as those encountered in operational test and evaluation. Examples include using the system under operational mission conditions. Page 155 of 159
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