Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap
            Workshop 2:
    Power/Energy and Sustainability

       Vancouver, Septembe...
Acknowledgements
The Department of National Defence (DND), Defence Research and Development
Canada (DRDC), and Industry Ca...
Table of Contents
Abstract...................................................................................................
3.5      Review of the Visioning Workshop Results – Phil Carr, The Strategic Review
             Group Inc. .................
6. Working Session 4: Collaborations and Projects .......................................... 56
     6.1      Project Defi...
Figure 5. The Workshop Agenda ........................................................................ 19

Figure 6. Major...
Abstract
The Power/Energy/Sustainability workshop, held in Vancouver in September, 2009, was
the first of a series of tech...
Part II. The Workshop Presentations provides abstracts of the presentations made by
industry, DND, and others at the works...
Part I. Workshop Context, Process, and Agenda
______________________________________________________________________

This...
1.     Power/Energy/Sustainability and the Soldier
       Systems TRM
This report describes the activities and results of ...
1.2    Power/Energy/Sustainability's Place in the Roadmap
As noted, the Power/Energy/Sustainability (referred        Figur...
It was noted early in this workshop that, in pursuing soldier modernization, most other
countries explored all areas of so...
1.3    Tools for Collaboration – ICee Database and Wiki, and
       Roadmapping Software
A key to the success of any techn...
Figure 3. The Industry Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee)
                                    Home Page




The...
2.     Workshop Process and Agenda
The goal of the Power, Energy, Sustainability workshop was to identify projects in the
...
Four working sessions were conducted, during which participants addressed specific
questions and issues related to power a...
Page 17 of 77
Figure 4. The Workshop Process

                                                                   Presentations:
        ...
2.5         The Workshop Agenda

                              Figure 5. The Workshop Agenda

Day 1 – September 21, 2009 (...
14h15 – 14h30   Briefing on Power Architecture Options, Control and Management,
  2                             Mr. C. Lem...
14h00 – 14h15
4                          Briefing on Integration/Joint Project Opportunities, Mr. P. Carr

           14h1...
Part II. Workshop Presentations
______________________________________________________________________

This part of the r...
3.     Workshop Presentation Abstracts
To augment the knowledge and expertise that participants brought to the workshop,
i...
and long term. Includes a list of Power/Energy/Sustainability Technical Sub-Committee
members and an overview of the works...
growth and significant submarket opportunities.

                                                     Describes the roles ...
3.5     Review of the Visioning Workshop Results – Phil Carr, The
        Strategic Review Group Inc.
Describes the object...
Figure 6. Major Turmel in Battle Gear




                                        To illustrate the amount
               ...
3.7    Capability Requirements in a Soldier Context – Ed
       Andrukaitis, DRDC
Provides background on energy as a
criti...
centralized, and mixed – and their pros and cons. Concludes with a description of the
desired end state for a soldier-syst...
3.10 Industry Collaboration & Exchange Environment Tool
     (ICee) – Vincent Ricard, Defence Support Contractor
     DSSP...
3.11 Energy Storage, Portable Batteries, State-of-the-Art
     Overview – Dr. Ian Hill, NRC
Provides a brief background on...
3.13 Energy Harvesting – Dr. Max Donelan, CSO, Bionic Power
                                      Describes human power as...
3.14 E-Textile Power Distribution Electrically Conductive
     Textiles, State-of-the-Art Overview – Dr. S. Swallow,
     ...
3.15 Update on Photovoltaics and CIPI (Luncheon Speaker) –
     Robert Corriveau, President & CEO, CIPI
Provides an overvi...
Discusses the Canadian Solar
Industry Association, the industry,
and research at universities.
Describes the CIPI (Canadia...
Part III. The Working Sessions: Participant Input
         and Results
___________________________________________________...
4.      Working Sessions 1-2: Drivers and Products
This chapter describes the goals, process, and results of the first two...
Figure 7. Working Session 1Handout – Power/Energy Visioning




 As a starting point for Working Session 1, participants w...
Working Session 1 Results

Participants               Some Drivers and Gaps Identified in Working Session 1
identified a r...
4.2    Working Session 2: Devices or Products
Following additional presentations 3.8 and 3.9, a second working session was...
Figure 8. Working Session 2. Product/Device Worksheet




        Each table of participants filled out a Product/Device W...
Figure 9. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheets for each of
                           Ten Tables of Participants

  ...
Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet
                                  Participant Table #3
                         ...
Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet
                                  Participant Table #4

                        ...
Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet
                                     Participant Table #5

                     ...
Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet
                                                 Participant Table #6

         ...
Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet
                                           Participant Table #7

               ...
Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet
                                          Participant Table #8

                ...
Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet
                                   Participant Table #9

                       ...
Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet
                                                  Participant Table #10

       ...
Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet
                                    Participant Table #11

                     ...
5.      Working Session 3: Technologies – Stickies
        on "The Wall"
Day 2 of the workshop started with additional pre...
Figure 10. Working Session 3: Participants at "The Wall"




Participants mapping power and energy technologies for the so...
5.2    Results: Focus Technology Areas Identified
Figure 11. Working Session 3 Results Table, shows how the stickies were ...
Projected Development Timeframe (Years)                                                Areas of Focus
                    ...
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report
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SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability, Volume 1 - Report

  1. 1. Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Workshop 2: Power/Energy and Sustainability Vancouver, September 21-23, 2009 Volume 1: Report Department of National Defence Defence Research and Development Canada Industry Canada November 17, 2009
  2. 2. Acknowledgements The Department of National Defence (DND), Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), and Industry Canada (IC) would like to acknowledge the contributions and support provided by the IC Special Events team that organized the Power/Energy Sustainability workshop venue, logistics, and accommodations; Technôpole Defence and Security (TDS); the Soldier Systems TRM Power/Energy/Sustainability Technical Subcommittee and the co-chairs, for sharing their time and expertise; the National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, which provided workshop participants with a tour of their facilities; The Strategic Review Group Inc, which facilitated the workshop; and the participants from across Canada, the United States, and abroad, who contributed to making the workshop a success. Special thanks to those who presented at the workshop, for their time, energy, and knowledge. ii
  3. 3. Table of Contents Abstract................................................................................................................vii Executive Summary .............................................................................................vii Part I. Workshop Context, Process, and Agenda ................................................. 9 1. Power/Energy/Sustainability and the Soldier Systems TRM ........................ 10 1.1 About the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) ............................ 10 1.2 Power/Energy/Sustainability's Place in the Roadmap .................................. 11 1.3 Tools for Collaboration – ICee Database and Wiki, and Roadmapping Software ...................................................................................................... 13 2. Workshop Process and Agenda ................................................................... 15 2.1 Tour of the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation ........................................ 15 2.2 Presentations ............................................................................................... 15 2.3 Working Sessions ........................................................................................ 15 2.4 Workshop Results ........................................................................................ 16 2.5 The Workshop Agenda ................................................................................ 19 Part II. Workshop Presentations ........................................................................ 22 3. Workshop Presentation Abstracts ................................................................ 23 3.1 Welcome, Opening Remarks & Soldier Modernization Effort – LCol. M.A. Bodner, Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) ....................................................... 23 3.2 Soldier Systems TRM Rationale and Governance – Geoff Nimmo, Industry Canada ........................................................................................................ 24 3.3 Positioning to Meet Future Soldier Modernization Effort Opportunities – Chummer Farina, Director General IS-ADMB, Industry Canada................... 24 3.4 Day 1 Program, Process, and Deliverables – Phil Carr, The Strategic Review Group Inc. .................................................................................................... 25 iii
  4. 4. 3.5 Review of the Visioning Workshop Results – Phil Carr, The Strategic Review Group Inc. .................................................................................................... 26 3.6 Integrated Soldier System Project – Major Bruno Turmel, DLR 5-6 / ISSP, DND ............................................................................................................. 26 3.7 Capability Requirements in a Soldier Context – Ed Andrukaitis, DRDC ....... 28 3.8 Architecture: Manage Your Power Before it Manages You – Claude J. Lemelin, DSSPM, DND ................................................................................ 28 3.9 System Integration of Power and Energy: State-of-the-Art Overview – David Cripe, Rockwell Collins, Inc. ......................................................................... 29 3.10 Industry Collaboration & Exchange Environment Tool (ICee) – Vincent Ricard, Defence Support Contractor DSSPM, DND ..................................... 30 3.11 Energy Storage, Portable Batteries, State-of-the-Art Overview – Dr. Ian Hill, NRC ............................................................................................................. 31 3.12 Energy Systems Fuel Cells, State-of-the-Art Overview – Dr. G. McLean, Angstrom Power .......................................................................................... 31 3.13 Energy Harvesting – Dr. Max Donelan, CSO, Bionic Power ......................... 32 3.14 E-Textile Power Distribution Electrically Conductive Textiles, State-of-the-Art Overview – Dr. S. Swallow, Intelligent Textiles Limited ................................ 33 3.15 Update on Photovoltaics and CIPI (Luncheon Speaker) – Robert Corriveau, President & CEO, CIPI ................................................................................. 34 Part III. The Working Sessions: Participant Input and Results ........................... 36 4. Working Sessions 1-2: Drivers and Products .............................................. 37 4.1 Working Session 1: Needs or Drivers........................................................... 37 4.2 Working Session 2: Devices or Products ..................................................... 40 5. Working Session 3: Technologies – Stickies on "The Wall" ......................... 52 5.1 Mapping the Technologies ........................................................................... 52 5.2 Results: Focus Technology Areas Identified ................................................ 54 iv
  5. 5. 6. Working Session 4: Collaborations and Projects .......................................... 56 6.1 Project Definition and Participation .............................................................. 56 6.2 Results: Six Technology Projects/R&D priority areas for Collaboration ........ 58 6.2.1 Power/Energy Standards Future Project........................................... 58 6.2.2 Connectors Project ........................................................................... 59 6.2.3 Storage (Batteries) Project ............................................................... 60 6.2.4 Integrating Power Sources Project ................................................... 61 6.2.5 Fuel Cells Project ............................................................................. 62 6.2.6 Electro-Textiles Project..................................................................... 63 7. Next Steps .................................................................................................... 64 7.1 Developing the Collaborative Power/Energy Projects .................................. 64 7.2 Sharing Knowledge with the ICee Database and Wiki .................................. 64 7.3 Upcoming Workshops .................................................................................. 64 Appendixes A. List of Workshop Participants ....................................................................... 66 B. The Strategic Review Group Inc. Facilitators ............................................... 72 C. Power/Energy Mindmaps ............................................................................. 73 List of Figures Figure 1. Power/Energy's Place in the Roadmap ................................................ 11 Figure 2. Power/Energy's Place in the Soldier SystemError! Bookmark not defined. Figure 3. The Industry Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) Home Page.......................................................................................... 14 Figure 4. The Workshop Process........................................................................ 18 v
  6. 6. Figure 5. The Workshop Agenda ........................................................................ 19 Figure 6. Major Turmel in Battle Gear ................................................................. 27 Figure 7. Working Session 1 Handout – Power/Energy Visioning....................... 38 Figure 8. Working Session 2. Product/Device Worksheet .................................. 41 Figure 9. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheets for each of Ten Tables of Participants .................................................................... 42 Figure 10. Working Session 3: Participants at "The Wall" ................................... 53 Figure 11. Working Session 3 Results Table ...................................................... 55 Figure 12. Working Session 4: Areas Identified for Project Development ........... 57 Figure 13. Power Sources/Generation Mindmap ................................................ 74 Figure 14. Power Connectors Mindmap.............................................................. 75 Figure 15. Power/Energy Management Mindmap ............................................... 76 Figure 16. Energy Consumption Devices Mindmap ............................................ 77 vi
  7. 7. Abstract The Power/Energy/Sustainability workshop, held in Vancouver in September, 2009, was the first of a series of technical workshops associated with the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) project. The project brings together representatives of industry, government, and academia to address the needs of the Canadian soldier of tomorrow. This report describes the importance of power, energy, and sustainability in the context of the soldier system. It outlines the workshop process and agenda, provides abstracts of the workshop presentations, and describes the workshop's four working sessions, which resulted in the identification of six collaborative projects for further development in the areas of power and energy standards, connectors, storage (batteries), power-source integration, fuel cells, and electro-textiles. Executive Summary This report describes the purpose, activities, and outcomes of the Power/Energy/ Sustainability Workshop held in Vancouver, BC, September 21-23, 2009. The workshop was the first in a series of technical workshops associated with the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) initiative, and follows the Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop held earlier in the year. Part I. Workshop Context and Process introduces the Soldier Systems TRM – a unique industry-government collaboration that applies roadmapping principles and processes to build shared knowledge and identify technology opportunities in support of the Canadian Forces Soldier Modernization Effort. It defines the soldier system as the integration of everything the dismounted soldier wears, carries, and consumes for enhanced operational capability for domestic and expeditionary operations. Part 1 also places the Power/Energy/Sustainability workshop in the context of the overall Soldier Systems TRM process, and explains why power was chosen as the focus of the first "technical" workshop. It describes the tools provided for collaboration among roadmap participants, including the Industry Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) online database and Wiki, and roadmapping software. And it outlines the process followed during the workshop. vii
  8. 8. Part II. The Workshop Presentations provides abstracts of the presentations made by industry, DND, and others at the workshop. It provides a link to the website where the presentation decks are available for download. Part III. The Working Sessions: Participant Input and Results describes the four working sessions conducted during the workshop. The working sessions led participants through a process of defining goals, drivers, gaps, and challenges related to the soldier system; identifying possible products or devices to address those challenges; and narrowing the focus to the most promising key areas. The workshop culminated in the definition of six projects for further, ongoing collaboration and development in the area of power/energy/ sustainability and the soldier system:  Power/Energy Standards  Power/Energy Connectors  Power/Energy Storage (Batteries)  Integrating Power Sources  Fuel Cells  Electro-Textiles viii
  9. 9. Part I. Workshop Context, Process, and Agenda ______________________________________________________________________ This part of the report:  Describes the Power/Energy/Sustainability Workshop in the context of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap  Outlines the process followed during the workshop  Provides abstracts of the workshop presentations Page 9 of 77
  10. 10. 1. Power/Energy/Sustainability and the Soldier Systems TRM This report describes the activities and results of the Power/Energy/Sustainability workshop held in Vancouver, B.C., September 21-23, 2009, as part of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) initiative. This was the second in a series of planned workshops, and follows the Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop held earlier this year and described in a separate report available from Industry Canada. 1.1 About the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) The Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap (TRM) is a unique industry-government collaboration project. It is designed to apply roadmapping principles and processes to develop a comprehensive knowledge-sharing platform and identify technology opportunities in support of the Canadian Forces Soldier Modernization Effort. Participation is free and voluntary, and open to Canadian and international manufacturing, services, and technology-based companies of all sizes, as well as researchers and other experts from academia, government, and not-for-profit research organizations from Canada and around the world. The focus of the Soldier Systems TRM – the soldier system – is defined within NATO as the integration of everything the soldier wears, carries and consumes for enhanced individual and collective (small unit) capability within the national command and control structure. It centers on the needs of the dismounted soldier, who is often away from the supply network and must be self-sufficient for up to 72 hours. The overarching goal of the Soldier Systems TRM is to understand how today's technology – and tomorrow's – might contribute to a superior soldier system that increases operational effectiveness for the individual soldier in the five NATO capability areas of Command and Control (C4I), Survivability, Mobility, Lethality, and Sustainability. The Soldier Systems TRM exercise is governed by an Executive Steering Committee made up of government and industry representatives, and includes a technical sub- committee dedicated to each technology area of focus. For information about any aspect of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap project, visit http://www.soldiersystems-systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca Page 10 of 77
  11. 11. 1.2 Power/Energy/Sustainability's Place in the Roadmap As noted, the Power/Energy/Sustainability (referred Figure 1. Power/Energy's to in this document as ―power and energy,‖ or simply Place in the Roadmap ―power‖) workshop is one in a series of workshops conducted or planned for locations across Canada 1. as part of the development phase of the Soldier Visioning & Future Capabilities (Held in June 2009) Systems TRM (See Figure 1. Power/Energy's Place in the Roadmap). 2. Technical Workshop: Although each workshop in the development phase Power/Energy/Sustainability focuses on a different area of the soldier system, all are part of a highly inter-related, ongoing process, with "cross fertilization" of ideas encouraged and 3. Technical Workshop: expected. Guided by their respective sub- Weapons: Lethal & Non-Lethal committees, activities will continue in each key area throughout the development phase of the roadmapping process and beyond. 4. Technical 5. Technical What's more, although the roadmapping process Workshop: Workshop: development phase is finite, its goal is to help put in C4I Sensors place collaborative efforts and projects that will continue to address Canadian Soldier Systems 6. Technical Workshop: needs into the future as the TRM moves into its full Survivability/Equipment/Clothing implementation phase. & Footwear/Load Carriage Why power/energy first? 7. Technical Workshop: Within the Soldier Systems TRM, power refers to Human & Systems Integration electrical power. Power was chosen as the topic of the first of the "technical" workshops associated with the roadmap because power is a primary driver and enabler of other soldier-level capabilities. 8. Essentially, electrical power will be a component Roadmap Integration affecting almost every aspect of the soldier system. Page 11 of 77
  12. 12. It was noted early in this workshop that, in pursuing soldier modernization, most other countries explored all areas of soldier needs, leaving the power component to the very end of the exercise. This led to an impasse—as they progressed, they identified incrementally a kit of equipment that had so many ―new‖ capabilities that they could not possibly be powered by a device carried by the soldier. In an effort to build on those experiences, the Soldier Systems TRM discusses the technologies needed to explore developments in power technologies first. As with all of the technical workshops, the Power and Energy theme will be readdressed at the Roadmap Integration Workshop. Page 12 of 77
  13. 13. 1.3 Tools for Collaboration – ICee Database and Wiki, and Roadmapping Software A key to the success of any technical roadmapping initiative is ensuring easy collaboration among its participants. For the Soldier Systems TRM, two tools – a database/Wiki (ICee), and roadmapping software – will be used to do this. The Industry Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) The Industry Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) is an online database of information relevant to soldier systems to which participants can contribute, and a Wiki that enables online networking, communication, and contribution to the roadmapping process on an ongoing basis. (See Figure 3. Industry Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) Home Page.) The ICee is open to all who wish to participate in the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap. It is a single tool that includes password-protected sections for communicating restricted, sensitive information meant for a specific selected audience. 1.4 Roadmapping Software Industry Canada is in the process of acquiring roadmapping software that will enable it to foster and track the collaborations and progress of the Soldier Systems TRM, and share the information with all participants in the process. It will allow to capture over time the link between the elements (i.e. capabilities, products, technologies, projects, resources) that constitute a TRM. Information about the software will be posted on the Soldier Systems TRM website when it becomes available. Page 13 of 77
  14. 14. Figure 3. The Industry Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) Home Page The Industry Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee) is an online database of information relevant to soldier systems to which participants can contribute, and a Wiki that enables online networking, communication, and contribution to the roadmapping process on an ongoing basis. Page 14 of 77
  15. 15. 2. Workshop Process and Agenda The goal of the Power, Energy, Sustainability workshop was to identify projects in the areas of power and energy that are relevant to the Soldier System and that can be the focus of further collaboration and development. To achieve this goal, the workshop followed a carefully designed process (Figure 4. The Workshop Process, on page 17) and Agenda (Figure 5. The Workshop Agenda, on page 18) that included presentations and working sessions leading to the defining of concrete projects for which participants could "sign on" for further participation. 2.1 Tour of the NRC Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation On the optional first day of the workshop – which preceded the presentations and working sessions – about 35 participants attended a tour of the National Research Council (NRC) Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation (IFCI) (http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/ifci- iipc/index.html). They visited IFCI labs and were given the chance to ride in fuel-cell powered vehicles. 2.2 Presentations During the second and third days of the workshop, presentations by DND, industry, and other participants provided background on the roadmapping process, aspects of the soldier system in Canada and abroad, and state-of-the-art overviews on various aspects of power, energy, and sustainability in the soldier system context. Abstracts of the presentations are provided in Chapter 3, Presentation Abstracts. The presentation slide decks are available at http://www.strategicreviewgroup.ca/soldier- systems-technology-roadmap/sstrm-power-energy-sustainability-technical-workshop/ 2.3 Working Sessions They were designed to facilitate discussion at each table and to elicit input from workshop participants. Specific questions were provided as a framework for the discussions, and the results were recorded and discussed. Page 15 of 77
  16. 16. Four working sessions were conducted, during which participants addressed specific questions and issues related to power and the soldier system. Each session built on the results of the preceding session. The goals of the sessions were to: 1. Identify the needs and drivers of the necessary technology associated with Soldier system power/energy requirements, and the gaps and challenges associated with those needs and drivers 2. Identify possible products to address the gaps and challenges 3. Identify the technologies needed to develop the identified products 4. Define actual projects related to power/energy/sustainability and the Soldier System for further collaboration and development While structured, the working sessions also provided the flexibility to think innovatively about addressing these issues. A plenary debrief followed each session, during which participants shared the results of their discussions. The working sessions are described in Chapters 4-6. 2.4 Workshop Results The cumulative result of the presentations and working sessions was the identification of six collaborative projects designed to address the issue of Power/Energy within the soldier system:  Power/Energy Standards  connectors  Storage (Batteries)  Integrating Power Sources  Fuel Cells  Electro-textiles A sign-up sheet accompanied each project description, and participants who were interested in pursuing the projects were asked to sign up for them. The projects, and the participant lists, are described in Chapter 7. Page 16 of 77
  17. 17. Page 17 of 77
  18. 18. Figure 4. The Workshop Process Presentations: Working Session 1. Needs/ Roadmapping and the Drivers Soldier Systems TRM To discuss and confirm the drivers of Soldier System power/energy Presentations: requirements Power/Energy and the Soldier System Working Session 2. Products Working Session 1. Needs and Drivers The To discuss possible products that workshop would address the gaps and process challenges Presentations on followed a Power/Energy and the recognized Soldier System logic used to develop Working Session 3. Technology Technologies Working Session 2 Products Roadmaps To discuss the technologies required to develop the identified products, and the time horizons of those technologies Working Sessions 3-4. Presentations on Power/Energy and the soldier system Working Session 4. Collaborations/Projects Working Sessions 3-4. To discuss potential collaboration Technologies and Projects opportunities to crack the identified technologies Collaborative Technology Projects to Pursue Page 18 of 77
  19. 19. 2.5 The Workshop Agenda Figure 5. The Workshop Agenda Day 1 – September 21, 2009 (Optional) 1hr30 – 4h30 Visit to the NRC Fuel Cell Institute 18hr – 20hr Networking Dinner Day 2 – September 22, 2009 7h45 – 8h30 Registration (Continental Breakfast) 8h30 – 9h00 Welcome and Opening Remarks & Introduction of Technical Sub- 0 Committee members, LCol. M.A. Bodner (DND) 9h00 – 9h15 Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Overview, Mr. G. Nimmo (IC) Overview 9h15 – 9h35 Participation in Soldier Systems TRM: Positioning to Meet Future Soldier Modernization Effort Opportunities, Mr. C. Farina (IC) 9h35 – 9h50 Day 1 Program, Process and Deliverables Mr. P. Carr 9h50– 10h20 Coffee Break 10h20 – 10h50 Return on Visioning Workshop, Mr. P. Carr 10h50 – 11h10 Today‘s Soldier Power Situation and Future ISSP Power and Weight 1 Requirements, Maj. B. Turmel (DND) 11h10- 11h30 Power/Energy & Sustainability: Capability Requirements / Soldier Context/ Energy Consumers-Demand Dr E. Andrukaitis (DND, DRDC Atlantic) Needs 11h30 – 12h15 Breakaway Roundtables Session 1: Capability goals, drivers, challenges and gaps for various scenarios/missions 12h15 – 13h30 Lunch (not provided) and Networking 13h30 – 14h15 Report Back (Plenary) Session 1, Mr P. Carr Page 19 of 77
  20. 20. 14h15 – 14h30 Briefing on Power Architecture Options, Control and Management, 2 Mr. C. Lemelin (DND) 14h30 – 14h45 Briefing on the Integration of Power and Energy, Mr. D. Cripe (Rockwell Collins) Products 14h45– 16h00 Breakaway roundtables session 2: Products and sub-systems: space, needs, performance goals, challenges, gaps 14h45 - 15h15 Coffee available 16h00 – 16h30 Report Back (Plenary) Session 2 and Wrap-up of Day 1 Workshop, Mr P. Carr 16h30 – 17h00 Collaboration Tool (ICee) Training Session Day 3 – September 23, 2009 7h45 – 8h30 Registration (Continental Breakfast) 8h30 – 8h45 Opening Comments, Overview of Day 2 Content and Process, Mr. P. Carr 8h45 – 9h05 Briefing on Energy Storage – Batteries, State-of-the-art Overview, Dr. 3 I. Hill (NRC) 9h05 – 9h25 Briefing on Power Generation – Fuel Cells, State-of-the-art Overview, Ged McLean (Angstrom) 9h25-9h45 Briefing on Power Generation/ Energy Harvesting – Electro- Mechanical Devices, State-of-the-art Overview, Mr. M. Donelan (Bionic Power Inc) Technologies 9h45-10h05 Briefing on Power Transmission/Connection and Electro Textiles, Dr. S. Swallow (Intelligent Textiles Limited) 10h05– 10h30 Coffee break 10h30 – 12h00 Breakaway Roundtables Session 3: Technology options through concept mapping (a.k.a. mindmap), readiness, challenges, gaps 12h00 – 13h30 Lunch (not provided) and Networking 12h55 – 13h25 Guest Speaker: Photovoltaics Projects within CIPI Mr. R. Corriveau Can. Inst. For Photonics Innovation, 13h30 – 14h00 Report Back (Plenary) Session 3 and Introduction to Session 4, Mr. P. Carr Page 20 of 77
  21. 21. 14h00 – 14h15 4 Briefing on Integration/Joint Project Opportunities, Mr. P. Carr 14h15– 16h00 Breakaway Roundtables Session 4: Collaboration Opportunities Addressing Capability, Products, and Technology Gaps Projects 15h00 - 15h30 Coffee available 16h00 - 16h45 Report Back (Plenary) Session 4, Mr. P. Carr 16h45 – 17h00 Wrap-up, TRM Next Steps, and Concluding Remarks, TSC industry co-chairs, and LCol. M. Bodner and M. P. Carr Page 21 of 77
  22. 22. Part II. Workshop Presentations ______________________________________________________________________ This part of the report provides abstracts of the presentations made at the workshop. The presentation decks are available in their entirety:  In Volume 2. Slide Decks, of the Power/Energy and Sustainability Workshop documents  At The Strategic Review Group Inc. website: http://www.strategicreviewgroup.ca/soldier-systems- technology-roadmap/sstrm-power-energy-sustainability- technical-workshop/  Using the ICee-Wiki tool: http://soldiersystems-systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca They will also be available on the Soldier Systems TRM site: http://soldiersystems-systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca/eic/site/sstrm- crtss.nsf/eng/home Page 22 of 77
  23. 23. 3. Workshop Presentation Abstracts To augment the knowledge and expertise that participants brought to the workshop, industry and government stakeholders presented information about the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap, about various aspects of Canadian Soldier Systems thinking and requirements, and about the soldier‘s future needs. This chapter provides abstracts of these presentations. The slide decks for the presentations are available at: http://www.strategicreviewgroup.ca/soldier-systems- technology-roadmap/sstrm-power-energy-sustainability-technical-workshop/ 3.1 Welcome, Opening Remarks & Soldier Modernization Effort – LCol. M.A. Bodner, Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) Welcomes workshop participants and introduces key DND players. Provides background on Soldier Systems history, technologies, domains, rationale, and related initiatives. Outlines objectives and roles of industry and government, and explains what the roadmap is not. Makes clear that the Soldier Systems TRM is not part of the procurement process, but a collaborative effort by DND, industry, academia and others to better understand and respond to the needs of the Canadian soldier of the future. Provides a soldier-centric Canadian Forces vision for 2028 in the context of the framework of the Army of Tomorrow and existing modernization efforts. Discusses the roadmap timeframe and related projects. Defines a Soldier System and describes current work on soldier systems in NATO and around the world. Explains future soldier systems challenges, describes DRDC programs, and introduces the subject of Power and Energy and the Advance Soldier Adaptive Power (ASAP) Technology Demonstration Project (TDP). Concludes with description of the benefits of the Soldier Systems TRM to the Forces, DND, and the Government of Canada in the short, mid, Page 23 of 77
  24. 24. and long term. Includes a list of Power/Energy/Sustainability Technical Sub-Committee members and an overview of the workshop agenda. 3.2 Soldier Systems TRM Rationale and Governance – Geoff Nimmo, Industry Canada Defines technology roadmapping (TRM) and provides examples of Canadian experience with roadmapping. Describes the Soldier Systems TRM, including its status, key stakeholders, organization and governance. Includes a list of Executive Steering Committee members, an outline of the Soldier Systems TRM phases and process, and overviews of the workshop flows, project enablers, the present situation, and a draft schedule for upcoming Soldier Systems TRM workshops. 3.3 Positioning to Meet Future Soldier Modernization Effort Opportunities – Chummer Farina, Director General IS- ADMB, Industry Canada Explains the need to understand and prepare for the future, including key capability needs and areas of opportunity. Summarizes increases in soldier-level technical investment over the past 50 years, and emphasizes that soldier modernization investments will continue to grow. Outlines multiple global modernization efforts and markets, and forecasts steady global Page 24 of 77
  25. 25. growth and significant submarket opportunities. Describes the roles various government organizations designed to address the need for innovation in this area. Includes an overview of future Canadian soldier modernization elements, implementation approach, and a summary of the benefits to industry and economic competitiveness of early engagement and collaboration in this process. 3.4 Day 1 Program, Process, and Deliverables – Phil Carr, The Strategic Review Group Inc. Outlines the objectives of the Workshop in the areas of missions, capabilities, and technologies. Describes the process the workshop will follow, including presentations on soldier's needs and related areas of technology, group discussions, reporting back to all participants, and compilation of the results in a report. Explains the purpose, process, and products of the four working session discussions that will take place during the workshop. Points out that this workshop is part of a larger exercise that includes workshops on related subjects. Provides initial instructions to workshop participants. Page 25 of 77
  26. 26. 3.5 Review of the Visioning Workshop Results – Phil Carr, The Strategic Review Group Inc. Describes the objectives of the Visioning and Future Capabilities Workshop held in Gatineau, June 16- 17, 2009, which focused on Energy/Power and Sustainability, C4I Sensors, Survivability, and Lethal and Non-lethal weapons at the level of the dismounted soldier. Results were compiled in a Vision and Future Capabilities report. Describes the type of information gathered, and how it will be used to inform this and subsequent workshops. 3.6 Integrated Soldier System Project – Major Bruno Turmel, DLR 5-6 / ISSP, DND To illustrate the amount and weight of some of the gear a soldier must carry, Major Turmel made his presentation dressed in battle gear (See Figure 6. Major Turmel in Battle Gear). Provides an overview of the Soldier System Vision and the soldier of today, tomorrow, and the future. Describes deficiencies based on lessons learned in the field. Explains the need for power on operations, and provides an overview of the power components used on operations. Emphasizes the need to control the weight the soldier must carry. Includes information about power distribution and the power and data infrastructure, as well as the availability of power and the need for graceful degradation of power in the field. Page 26 of 77
  27. 27. Figure 6. Major Turmel in Battle Gear To illustrate the amount and weight of the gear carried by a soldier in the field, Major Turmel gave his presentation dressed in battle gear. Participants were invited to examine the equipment following the presentation. (Photo: Mark Gray, Industry Canada) Page 27 of 77
  28. 28. 3.7 Capability Requirements in a Soldier Context – Ed Andrukaitis, DRDC Provides background on energy as a critical combat requirement. Defines and explains the need for energy sustainability. Describes the soldier's current energy load and the drivers, such as density, power density, safety, voltage, and more, to take into account when developing power solutions. Emphasizes the need for affordability as a key driver, and outlines the power/energy scope, including sources, distribution, management, and consumption. Assesses future power demand. Describes NATO power initiatives. Lists power- consuming soldier system accessories developed in the past three decades and explains power consumption by equipment. Provides a U.S. forecast for power expenditure and its relationship to weight. Concludes with an overview of the key power- related challenges related to the soldier system. 3.8 Architecture: Manage Your Power Before it Manages You – Claude J. Lemelin, DSSPM, DND Describes the premise of the soldier modernization effort. Discusses the need to lower combat weight. Explains how the Soldier System relies on energy, and why managing consumption is critical. Provides an overview of the desired features or key drivers of a power architecture, including usability, modularity, graceful degradation, and more. Outlines the main types of architecture – distributed, Page 28 of 77
  29. 29. centralized, and mixed – and their pros and cons. Concludes with a description of the desired end state for a soldier-systems architecture. 3.9 System Integration of Power and Energy: State-of-the-Art Overview – David Cripe, Rockwell Collins, Inc. Begins with basic assumptions of a soldier systems power/energy system, including high-level power requirements and strategy. Points out that present power support is ―point based‖ rather than systematic. Describes the challenge associated with integrating power and energy, and the metrics to be considered during system design and component selection. Raises the question of what the proper mix is for power sources. Warns about the risks of overspecialization (the Panda approach) vs. generalization (the Rat approach), and the need to limit single-source dependencies. Provides an overview of the state of the art of soldier systems power and energy, and its components. Describes promising technologies that are currently in development, including projects underway in Canada, such as photoelectric, nano-thermoelectric, spintronics, J- TEC proton-membrane cells, and more. Presents a vision for the next 5-to-7 years for soldier systems power and energy development: power/energy development should provide the future network soldier with self- sufficiency without re-supplying for the mission duration (increased energy efficiency and minimum weight added). Page 29 of 77
  30. 30. 3.10 Industry Collaboration & Exchange Environment Tool (ICee) – Vincent Ricard, Defence Support Contractor DSSPM, DND Describes the online database and Wiki tool for promoting collaboration for the Soldier Systems roadmap. Provides an overview of the tool's purpose and basic concept. Defines and describes the main components: the password- protected ICee Database for collecting key information; and the ICee Wiki where online collaboration takes place. Presents an online demonstration of the tool to workshop participants. Describes user roles, documentation, and support. Lists advantages for users. Provided link to the online tool: http://soldiersystems-systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca and instructions for getting started. Notes that participation in the online community is an important key to the success of the Soldier Systems TRM. Online training is available at the web site. Notes:  It was announced at the workshop that the ICee tool would be officially launched on October 7, 2009.  The ICee training environment was available for participants to try out during the workshop: "My experience in using the ICee Tool has been very positive. ICee will be of great help for sharing information and connecting its users' ideas and companies." Kevin Tang, Principal Engineer, Raytheon Canada Ltd. Page 30 of 77
  31. 31. 3.11 Energy Storage, Portable Batteries, State-of-the-Art Overview – Dr. Ian Hill, NRC Provides a brief background on portable batteries and defines the scope of the present discussion. Explains why energy storage is essential to the dismounted soldier, and the role that batteries play in providing it. Outlines constraints for soldier-level application, such as weight, safety, and cost, and describes selected systems currently in production. Describes what is being done in this area in Canada. Concludes with a vision for portable batteries and the Soldier System over the next 5-7 years, and a table showing the capacity and energy densities of a range of batteries. 3.12 Energy Systems Fuel Cells, State-of-the-Art Overview – Dr. G. McLean, Angstrom Power Describes fuel-cell technology process and advantages. Outlines passive and active- design fuel-cell system configurations. Discusses fuel options for passive and active designs. Describes system alternatives for dismounted soldier applications. Outlines constraints on fuel-cell technology. Concludes with an overview of the state of the art of fuel-cell systems, an overview of what is being done in Canada, and a vision for the next 5-7 years of fuel- cell technology development. Page 31 of 77
  32. 32. 3.13 Energy Harvesting – Dr. Max Donelan, CSO, Bionic Power Describes human power as an attractive energy source. Outlines its limitations. Provides an overview of the state of the art of energy- harvesting techniques, including lightning packs, self-winding wristwatches, and SRI shoe energy harvesting. Describes what is currently being done in Canada. Emphasizes the importance of linking the technology to the dismounted soldier, keeping in mind mission duration, range, weight, logistics, and cost. Describes constraints, such as soldier comfort and performance, mission scenario, device power output, and soldier power requirements, to be considered in the soldier-level application of energy harvesting. Concludes with a vision of energy-harvesting technology development for the next 5-7 years, and of additional R&D needed in this area. Page 32 of 77
  33. 33. 3.14 E-Textile Power Distribution Electrically Conductive Textiles, State-of-the-Art Overview – Dr. S. Swallow, Intelligent Textiles Limited Explains why power distribution is essential to the dismounted soldier, and links the technology to the soldier. Points out that a centralized power supply allows higher energy- density power sources to be used, guarantees greater efficiency of energy usage, but results in many interconnecting wires and cables. Describes issues associated with wires and cables, including fatigue breakage, bulkiness, lack of redundancy, discomfort for the soldier, and more. Describes constrains to consider in a soldier-level application of e-textiles, such as robustness, connector considerations, human factors, and more. Provides an overview of the state of the art of e-textiles. Describes the work currently being done in Canada. Offers a vision for the next 5- 7 years for e-textile development, focusing on a "system of systems" layered USB network. Page 33 of 77
  34. 34. 3.15 Update on Photovoltaics and CIPI (Luncheon Speaker) – Robert Corriveau, President & CEO, CIPI Provides an overview of photovoltaics, the Canadian photonic industry, photovoltaics in Canadian universities, and the Canadian Institute for Photonic Innovations (CIPI). Forecasts increasing solar photovoltaic demand, and predicts it will surpass $100B by 2013. Provides a solar PV module cost breakdown and describes US venture capital investments in clean energy for 2006-07 in the areas of biofuel, solar, fuel cells, batteries, and smart grids. Outlines the efficiency of solar cells. Shows the technology development process for solar energy and investment opportunities. Describes a photovoltaic concentrator solution. Page 34 of 77
  35. 35. Discusses the Canadian Solar Industry Association, the industry, and research at universities. Describes the CIPI (Canadian Institute for Photonic Innovations) network, the history of ten projects, and photovoltaic projects supported by CIPI. Introduces the TEN (Technology Exploitation and Networking) program, IPA (Innovative Photonic Applications) program. Emphasizes the need for partnership to continue progress. Page 35 of 77
  36. 36. Part III. The Working Sessions: Participant Input and Results ______________________________________________________________________ This part of the report describes the process and results of the workshop's four working sessions, which were designed to generate and focus discussion among the workshop participants. It includes:  Capability goals, and technology drivers and gaps discussed during the first working session, and possible devices to address those needs and goals that were put forward during the second working session  A Power/Energy/Sustainability for Soldier Systems concept mapping exercise designed to sharpen the focus on areas for potential collaboration, and  Six ongoing, collaborative technology development projects that emerged from the workshop based on the presentations and working session discussions Page 36 of 77
  37. 37. 4. Working Sessions 1-2: Drivers and Products This chapter describes the goals, process, and results of the first two working sessions, which were held on day 1 of the workshop. These sessions were designed to: 1. Identify and confirm the drivers of Soldier System power/energy requirements 2. Discuss possible products that would address existing gaps and challenges 4.1 Working Session 1: Needs or Drivers The first working session followed presentation 3.7, Capability Requirements in a Soldier Context. It was designed to introduce participants to the breakaway session approach, and to initiate discussion about power and energy in the soldier system context. Working Session 1 Inputs Groups of participants at about a dozen tables with 10 or more participants each, were given copies of the participant output from the Power and Energy portion of the Visioning Workshop held earlier in the year (see Figure 7. Working Session 1 Handout – Power/Energy Visioning.) and asked to address these questions: 1. Using the table as a starting point, what are the 3 main drivers of the dismounted soldier's power/energy requirements? (e.g., Weight? Form factor? Fragility? ...). Why are these particularly important 2. What are the major technology gaps/challenges related to those drivers? 3. Can you associate a timeline or horizon – 5, 10, or 15 years – to successfully overcome those gaps/challenges? Each table posted a summary of their conclusions on a flip chart. Following the session, the spokespersons of a number of tables were asked to report their observations to all the workshop participants. The flip chart sheets from all the tables were then collected for later review and analysis. Page 37 of 77
  38. 38. Figure 7. Working Session 1Handout – Power/Energy Visioning As a starting point for Working Session 1, participants were given the results of the Power/Energy output from the Soldier Systems Visioning Workshop held in June 2009. Page 38 of 77
  39. 39. Working Session 1 Results Participants Some Drivers and Gaps Identified in Working Session 1 identified a range Drivers Gaps of drivers and  weight  higher power density needed gaps in the areas  weight/energy density  standardization of sources, of power, energy,  mission time cables, connectors sustainability and  cost  power density limitations  fuel and storage capabilities the soldier  functionality in extreme environments (high/low temp)  cost system. These  power generation technologies  reusability were compiled by  power harvesting techniques  safety  manufacturability table, and used  transportability  unified power architecture as the starting  silent operation  power predictability point for defining  standardization and integration  graceful degradation control devices or  mobility  legacy compatibility products to  acceptance by the soldier  wearable power production  energy-efficient electronic address needs. equipment needed One table's Energy status/management depiction of (how much gas left in the tank?) power /energy drivers and gaps for the soldier system Alternative Energy load energy (consumption) – sources/. states/modes: stealth, storage communication Page 39 of 77
  40. 40. 4.2 Working Session 2: Devices or Products Following additional presentations 3.8 and 3.9, a second working session was held. Its objective was to discuss possible products, or devices, that would address the gaps and challenges identified in working session 1. Working Session 2 Inputs Each table was given an indelible pen and a laminated, tabloid-size chart (see Figure 8. Working Session 2: Product/Device Worksheet) with space to list devices; "domains," such as storage, generation, and harvesting; and to indicate a development timeframe – 5, 10, or 15 years. Participants at the same tables used the results of the first working session as the starting point for filling out their charts. The questions they were assigned were: 1. What product items would meet the dismounted soldier's power/energy gaps and challenges, taking into consideration the relevant drivers? 2. What "domains" of power/energy would those products address? 3. What would be the time horizon for bringing that product to the soldier? Page 40 of 77
  41. 41. Figure 8. Working Session 2. Product/Device Worksheet Each table of participants filled out a Product/Device Worksheet. The content of the worksheets follows, in section 4.4 of this report. Working Session 2 Results: Completed Power/Energy Device Worksheets Following this exercise, a number of tables reported their conclusions. The laminated charts were collected, and their contents compiled (see Figure 9. Product/Device Worksheets for each of Ten Tables of Participants.) Page 41 of 77
  42. 42. Figure 9. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheets for each of Ten Tables of Participants Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet Participant Table #1 Capability Areas Dynamic Power Mgmt and Distribution Product (Device)  signifies top three Legacy & Support Time Horizon Transmission Generation (Years) Harvesting Storage Control 5 10 15  AA Super Capacity X X   Biomass Generator X X  Hand Cranks X X X  Fuel Cells (methanol, diesel) X X X  Radio Isotopes Generator X X  * "Power Hound" Robot that follows soldier to X X  provide power (e.g., DARPA ETR system) 2D Power Sharing Device X X  Page 42 of 77
  43. 43. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet Participant Table #3 (There was no table #2 for this exercise) Capability Areas Product (Device) ( signifies top three) Transmission Generation Harvesting Time Horizon Storage Control (Years) Cost 5 10 15  Device to tell status of every battery X X  in a system  Distribution of power and connectors X  through clothing  Light weight, efficient power X  harvester for solar & wind & body Super fast charging batteries X  Wireless charging X  Light weight biofuel power generator X  Mini hydro generator X  Page 43 of 77
  44. 44. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet Participant Table #4 Capability Areas Transmission Time Generation Harvesting Product (Device) Horizon  signifies top three Storage Control (Years) 5 10 15  Power Distribution Vest X X   Power Management System X  Conformal energy storage "material" X X  Human motion X X  Vibration energy harvesting X X   Multi-fuel fuel cell X  Atomic battery X X  Page 44 of 77
  45. 45. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet Participant Table #5 Capability Areas Transmission Time Generation Harvesting Product (Device) Horizon  signifies top three Storage Control (Years) 5 10 15 Smart battery (sucks electricity and takes to device X X  needing it) Fuel cell (wheeled) Left blank Wearable recharging vest  (replace armour with prismatic cells) Non-contact/wire method of sending electricity Left blank  (in development) Bionic power – integrated to boots  (soldiers want to put them on) Chipset – power over Internet  Sit and charge (plugged in in-vehicle) (suit recharges when soldier climbs into X X X Left blank vehicle) Page 45 of 77
  46. 46. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet Participant Table #6 Capability Areas Transmission Product/Device Time Generation Harvesting ( signifies top three) Horizon Storage Control (Years) 5 10 15 Dual use for energy storage and personal protection To reduce overall weight develop dual use body armour whose X X X  internal structure can double as a dispersed energy storage device. Ditto for weapon external structure (e.g., ballistic system) Form fit AA format To develop adv bty or ultra cap capability in the AA format given X  ubiquity. Backpack recharger Make use of cbt wt already in backpack on the wt for a backpack X X  generator system device dedicated weight.  High energy density power source (rechargeable) X X blank Extended ops possible – COTS available today vs primacy AA. Bi-directional smart grid for power management X X AA format rechargeable that is smart grid compatible X X   Bio-generation from human waste (urine fuel cell) X  Autonomous power-regeneration possible. Recharge storage battery.  Autonomous kinetic energy conversion charger (i.e., armour system) X X  Autonomous dual-purpose regeneration Scavenger charger DC-DC converter charger. Take remaining batt power and transfer to X blank another batt (top up) or gang up partially used batteries) Page 46 of 77
  47. 47. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet Participant Table #7 Capability Areas Monitoring of sys components Product (Device)  signifies top three Transmission Generation Harvesting Storage Time Horizon Control (Years) 5 10 15 Rechargeable le component batteries Required for dynamic power management as described X  below with UCCC Photovoltaic Integrated PV – helmet, back pack, shoulder caps – X X  detachable unit with solar reflectors for additional power generation when stationary Field recharger (kinetic) X X  Universal charger controller converter Central monitoring and control. Central storage back up X* X X X X X  delivers as req'd or by command to external device batteries Ballistic batteries Batteries incorporated inside body armour to reduce total X  weight bulk and carrying logistics Simulator policy Program that analyzes power usage, forecasts remaining X X  power time horizon; can override, prioritize component power allocation (generates power use policies) * Central battery storage would have higher voltage to enable "charging" out to SS components on demand/automatically or by power policy enabled. Page 47 of 77
  48. 48. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet Participant Table #8 Capability Areas Transmission Body armour Time Product (Device) Generation Harvesting Horizon  signifies top three Storage Control System (Years) 5 10 15 AA form factor cable ends X  can use alkaline bats as backup to central power. "Spider" – route power from source to X X X  ???? Section-sized recharger X X X   Piezo-electric textile BDU X X + Power management by mission X X   Blast and bullet-proof battery/plates X X   Sweat to energy X +  Wrist watch that generates 20 W (arm X X + movement)  Electric eels (food to electricity) X + Page 48 of 77
  49. 49. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet Participant Table #9 Capability Areas Transmission Time Generation Product (Device) Harvesting Horizon Storage Control (Years) 5 10 15 Inductive charging system + intelligent fabric X X  for novel power + data distributor Allow the use of a smaller number of batteries The few batteries could be high power (retaining its power) Distributes power as required (magnetic induction) Controls graceful degradation Used also to distribute data to components New soldier computer combining GPS + R1 X X  Radio + Personal Radio + organic display com Uses less power (integrated systems) Lower weight Smaller footprint Organic display for easy reading but low power/high/weight Combine fuel cell PV + super capacitor X X  Optimize fuel cell power generation (constant rate) complementary solar energy Capacitor to store/disseminate energy Page 49 of 77
  50. 50. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet Participant Table #10 Capability Areas (Replenishing) Sustainability Transmission Time Generation Harvesting Product (Device) Horizon Interface Storage Control (Years) 5 10 15 Urine battery   Human ammonia fuel cell X  Ability to use the hydrogen contained in ammonia to fuel fuel cells Power switches – circuit for int X X X X X    Light weight and low frequency harvesting adapted circuitry Soldier monitoring X   To provide situational awareness to soldiers about the soldier (distress, etc.) POE USB X X   Can carry data and power Multi-function uniform X X X   Capable of protecting the soldier from elements but also of storing, generating, and harvesting energy Training (human and DPM self-learning) X    Training to soldiers to reduce waste & provide system capability realistic expectations  Dynamic power management self-training algorithm to adapt to specific user habits (good and bad) Gen (APU) vehicle grid X X    Ability to interface to outside sources --> APUs/vehicles/grid/... Page 50 of 77
  51. 51. Power and Energy Product/Device Worksheet Participant Table #11 Capability Areas Transmission Time Generation Harvesting Product (Device) Horizon  signifies top three Storage Control (Years) 5 10 15 Field recharger X X Bio-mechanical X  Kinetic X   Fabric transmission X X  TRL 7 Fairly near term – woven fabric transmission technology could be implemented to omit cabling  Textile grid system X  TRL 7 The level up from fabric transmission channels – a grid system provides multiple transmission paths  Smart controller X  TRL 5 Probably embedded within the end item manipulated by the soldier (data terminal or sensor, etc.,) Battery bank X X  Page 51 of 77
  52. 52. 5. Working Session 3: Technologies – Stickies on "The Wall" Day 2 of the workshop started with additional presentations (see 3.11 through 3.14) focusing on various aspects of power, energy, and the soldier system. These were followed by Working Session 3, described in this chapter. 5.1 Mapping the Technologies The objective of the third working session was to discuss the technologies required to develop the products or devices identified in working session 2, and the time horizons for those technologies. Participants sat in the same groups as on Day 1. Each participant was provided with two packs of sticky notes, or "stickies" – one yellow, the other red. The product categories from the first day's laminated charts were listed along one wall of the conference room, with individual cells for 5, 10, and 15 year time periods. Each person was asked to consider these questions: 1. What technologies need to be developed to produce the identified products? 2. What would be your "highest three priority" technologies? 3. What would be the time horizon for developing each technology? Each was asked to use their yellow and red stickies to: 1. Identify as many technologies as they like for as many products as they like, writing one on each yellow sticky note and placing it in the appropriate cell. 2. Use 3 red stickies to indicate the 3 highest-priority technologies. (See Figure 10. Working Session 3: Participants at "The Wall".) Following the working session, a discussion was held about the "clustering" of the identified and selected technologies. Page 52 of 77
  53. 53. Figure 10. Working Session 3: Participants at "The Wall" Participants mapping power and energy technologies for the soldier system (Photo: Mark Gray, Industry Canada) Page 53 of 77
  54. 54. 5.2 Results: Focus Technology Areas Identified Figure 11. Working Session 3 Results Table, shows how the stickies were distributed across The Wall's categories and timeframes. To reflect the relative importance of the areas in the table, red stickies were given a weighting of 2:1 compared with yellow stickies. Page 54 of 77
  55. 55. Projected Development Timeframe (Years) Areas of Focus (Based on participant input in working < -15 -- <- 10 -- <---------- 5 Years --------- sessions 1 and 2 (See chapter 4)) Mechanical Generation: Hand Crank Mechanical Generation: Other kinetic forms Multi-fuel fuel cell Conformal storage material Super fast charging battery specified. Place to store generated power Super-dense battery Other generation: Mini Hydro Other generation: Solar Other generation: Wind Other generation: Radio isotope Other generation: Biomass the bar, the greater the number of stickies posted for the area of focus in the timeframe Read the bars from top to bottom. The longer Other generation: Photovoltaic Other generation: Piezo Electric Wireless distribution Figure 11. Working Session 3 Results Table Power management and standardization Customizable power controller, distributor, sharing, allocation Distribution through clothing: electro-textile connector technology (Red stickies were given a weighting of 2 and yellow stickies a weighting of 1) Non contact distribution Areas of Focus, Development Timeframes, and Distribution of Stickies on the Wall Distribution of "Stickies" Indicating Recommended Areas of Focus for Power/Energy Projects Page 55 of 77 Transmission via internet Standard connectors Standard connection to vehicle

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