Department of National Defence
Defence Research and Development Canada
Industry Canada
November 25, 2010
Soldier Systems T...
Page ii of 122
Acknowledgements
The Department of National Defence (DND), Defence Research and Development Canada
(DRDC), ...
Page iii of 122
Table of Contents
Executive Summary..........................................................................
Page iv of 122
2.3 USMC Approach to Soldier Burden, Mr. D. Tack (Humansystems
Inc. Rep. USMC MERS Project)...................
Page v of 122
Breakaway Session 2. System Optimization: Solutions, Enabling Technologies,
Processes and Tools................
Page vi of 122
Appendixes
A. Workshop Agenda.................................................................................
Page vii of 122
Executive Summary
This report describes the Soldier Human and Systems Integration Workshop held in
Gatinea...
Page 8 of 122
Human and Systems Integration Workshop and
the SSTRM
The Soldier Human and Systems Integration Workshop was ...
Page 9 of 122
Human and Systems Integration Workshop and the Roadmap
Soldier Human and Systems Integration was the
sixth w...
Page 10 of 122
The Workshop Process
To achieve its goal, the workshop followed a carefully designed, four-step process
(Fi...
Page 11 of 122
Introductory Presentation Abstracts
Note. Complete workshop presentations are provided in Volumes 2 and 3 o...
Page 12 of 122
5
CapstoneReport&ActionPlan
Development Phase Activities
05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09...
Page 13 of 122
Soldier Systems TRM Update, LCol. M.A. Bodner (DRDC)
Outlines army capability
concepts and land systems,
an...
Page 14 of 122
Page 15 of 122
1. Exploring Operational Space: Key
Deficiencies and Priorities
This chapter provides abstracts of presenta...
Page 16 of 122
1.2 Human and Systems Integration: Lethal and Non Lethal, Maj. B.
Gilchrist (DBRT 5-5)
Provides an overview...
Page 17 of 122
Demonstration of Soldier Equipment/Usage by Mr. Douglas
Palmer and Canadian Forces Personnel
A highlight of...
Page 18 of 122
Introduction to the Demonstration
The demonstration was designed to provide the workshop audience with insi...
Page 19 of 122
The Action—Close With and Destroy the Enemy
The infantry's role is to close with and destroy the enemy—a ta...
Page 20 of 122
Action 4—Movement into the vehicle
Returning from the wood line, the soldiers demonstrated how they re-ente...
Page 21 of 122
The Plenary Debrief—Integration Issues Observed
After viewing the demonstration and interacting with the so...
Page 22 of 122
Observation 5. Integration and compatibility of the equipment
 The communications system doesn't seem to f...
Page 23 of 122
Observation 10. Human thermoregulation issues
 Enhanced thermoregulation (heat/cold management) was raised...
Page 24 of 122
Weight/volume
Load carriage
Mobility vs Protection
Power
Consumption
Nature
Anthropometrics
Soldier – Vehic...
Page 25 of 122
Chapter 2. Exploring Functional Space: Related
H&SI Challenges
This chapter provides abstracts of workshop ...
Page 26 of 122
Page 27 of 122
2.2 Soldier Equipment/Vehicle/Communications Integration
Requirements, Mr. M. A. Rochon (DSSPM-10-4-4)
Prov...
Page 28 of 122
2.4 Luncheon Speaker: Dr. E. S. Redden (ARL), Advanced Interfaces for
Dismounted Warfighters
Describes the ...
Page 29 of 122
2.5 Challenges of Soldier Protection Integration, Mr. S. Boyne
(DRDC Toronto)
Provides an overview of the
c...
Page 30 of 122
2.6 Requirements for Enhancing Soldier Perception, Situation
Awareness and Cognition, Mr. D. Tack (Humansys...
Page 31 of 122
2.7 Soldier System Integration Challenges and Issues: An Industry
Perspective, Mr. W. Downing (Industry Rep...
Page 32 of 122
2.8 ICee-Wiki Update, Mrs. M. Huard (IC-DND)
Describes the Innovation,
Collaboration and Exchange
Environme...
Page 33 of 122
Breakaway Session 1. Key Challenges for Human and Systems
Integration Themes
The goal of the first breakawa...
Page 34 of 122
Figure 3. The Human and Systems Integration Themes
Theme 1 – Physical Integration on the Soldier
 Soldier ...
Page 35 of 122
Seating Plan for Breakaway Session 1
Each table in the room was
labelled with one of the three
themes that ...
Page 36 of 122
Plenary Report Back for Breakaway Session 1
When the participants had
completed the Breakaway
Session 1 tas...
Page 37 of 122
Figure 4. Breakaway Session 1 Plenary Report Back
3. Soldier burden
 One of the challenges is related the ...
Page 38 of 122
Figure 6. Technical-Functional Challenges Identified by Workshop Participants
During Breakout Session 1
The...
Page 39 of 122
Homework Instructions
After Breakaway Session 1, before ending the first day of the workshop, participants
...
Page 40 of 122
3. Exploring Solution Space: Enabling
Technologies, Processes and Tools
This chapter describes the "stickie...
Page 41 of 122
Presentation Abstracts
3.1 Challenges and Tools for Effective Soldier System Integration,
Mrs. L. Bossi (DR...
Page 42 of 122
3.2. The Role of Biomechanics in Effective Soldier System Integration, Dr.
J. Stevenson (Queen's University...
Page 43 of 122
3.4 Decision Aids for Soldiers, Dr. D. Bryant and Dr. J. Hollands (DRDC
Toronto)
Defines combat identity (C...
Page 44 of 122
3.5 Soldier-Vehicle Integration: A TTCP Approach, Dr. M. Ducharme
(DRDC Valcartier)
Provides an overview of...
Page 45 of 122
Breakaway Session 2. System Optimization: Solutions, Enabling
Technologies, Processes and Tools
The second ...
Page 46 of 122
Figure 7. The Shift to a Horizontal View of Capability Optimization
Instructions for Breakaway Session 2
Th...
Page 47 of 122
Figure 8. The Challenge List for Step 1 of Breakaway Session 2
Figure 9. The Table for Step 4 of Breakaway ...
Page 48 of 122
Plenary Report Back for Breakaway Session 2
When the participants had
completed the Breakaway
Session 2 tas...
Page 49 of 122
Figure 10. Breakaway Session 2 Plenary Report Back—Potential Solutions and
Related Enabling Technologies
Ta...
Page 50 of 122
Figure 10. Breakaway Session 2 Plenary Report Back—Potential Solutions and
Related Enabling Technologies
 ...
Page 51 of 122
Figure 10. Breakaway Session 2 Plenary Report Back—Potential Solutions and
Related Enabling Technologies
 ...
Page 52 of 122
4. Exploring R&D Space: Focus Areas and
Potential Collaborations
This chapter provides abstracts of the lun...
Page 53 of 122
ICee Contest Winner Presentation Abstracts
Following are abstracts of presentations made by workshop partic...
Page 54 of 122
4.3 Software Solutions for NVG ENVG Integration, Mr. G. Martin,
Robotics and Computer Vision System Integra...
Page 55 of 122
4.5 Knee Stress Release Device (K-SRD™), Mr. M. Rittenhouse,
B-TEMIA
Provides a corporate overview
of B-TEM...
Page 56 of 122
Breakaway Session 3: R&D Focus Areas and Potential
Collaborations
The third breakaway session
addressed the...
Page 57 of 122
Figure 11. Sample Breakaway Session 3 Output Form
Page 58 of 122
Plenary Report Back from Breakaway Session 3
When the participants had
completed the Breakaway Session 3
ta...
Page 59 of 122
R&D Focus Area 1. Smart Clothing/Uniform
Description System connectivity/intelligent textiles/conformal con...
Page 60 of 122
R&D Focus Area 2. Improved Situation Awareness
Description Information management and distribution for impr...
Page 61 of 122
R&D Focus Area 3. Smart Vest Concept
Description A modular vest with a better interface.
Tables 19
Relevant...
Page 62 of 122
R&D Focus Area 4. Multifunctional materials
Description Materials that can perform a range of functions (e....
Page 63 of 122
R&D Focus Area 5. A common, cross-platform, human/machine interface
Description A common, cross-platform, h...
Page 64 of 122
R&D Focus Area 6. Anthropometric data collection
Description Anthropometric data collection capability—CAD ...
Page 65 of 122
R&D Focus Area 7. Virtual simulators
Description Virtual simulators
Tables
Relevant R&D
 Ability to link u...
Page 66 of 122
R&D Focus Area 8. Exoskeleton
Description Exoskeleton
Tables
Relevant R&D
 Resolve power portability - pow...
Page 67 of 122
R&D Focus Area 9. A business ecosystem
Description A business ecosystem to create standards and enable inte...
Page 68 of 122
5. Soldier Systems TRM Next Steps
This chapter provides an abstract of the closing presentation by LCol. Bo...
Page 69 of 122
Developing the Roadmap
The content of the workshop, the briefings and input from the Human and Systems
Inte...
Page 70 of 122
A. Workshop Agenda
Soldier Human and Systems Integration Workshop
Tuesday, September 21
7h30 – 8h00 Registr...
Page 71 of 122
14h30 – 14h40 Breakaway Session (1) Instructions, Mr. P. Carr
14h40 – 15h00 Coffee Break
15h00 – 16h00 Brea...
Page 72 of 122
B. List of Participants
Last Name First Name Title Company
1 Beaudoin R. (Bob) Vanguard Magazine
2 Boone Pa...
Page 73 of 122
Last Name First Name Title Company
26 Galasso Robert S. Prospice Consulting
27 Gaumond Claude Groupe medica...
Page 74 of 122
Last Name First Name Title Company
53 Manuel Christopher Sierra Nevada Corporation
54 Masse Marc DRS Techno...
Page 75 of 122
Last Name First Name Title Company
79 Tchagang Alain NRC
80 Tchaplia Ilya ITS Electronics
81 Trask Brett MD...
Page 76 of 122
C. Breakaway Session 1 Participant Input: Key
Challenges by Theme
This appendix contains the detailed parti...
Page 77 of 122
1. Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants
What follows is a compilation of the contents of the worksh...
Page 78 of 122
Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1)
Table 6, Theme 2—Psychological/Cognitive...
Page 79 of 122
Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1)
Table 7, Theme 3—External Integration
Is...
Page 80 of 122
Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1)
Table 8, Theme 1—Physical Integration
Is...
Page 81 of 122
Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1)
Table 10, Theme 3—External Integration
I...
Page 82 of 122
Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1)
Table 16, Theme 1—Physical Integration
I...
Page 83 of 122
Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1)
Table 18, Theme 2—Psychological/Cognitiv...
Page 84 of 122
2. Stickies Content from Workshop Participants
Theme 1—Physical Integration
1. Improving system characteriz...
Page 85 of 122
2. Improving tools and processes (physical)
Technical Challenge Solution description Related Technologies
T...
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Sstrm hsi workshop report november 25, 2010

  1. 1. Department of National Defence Defence Research and Development Canada Industry Canada November 25, 2010 Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Workshop 6: Soldier Human and Systems Integration Gatineau, Québec, September 21-22, 2010 Volume 1. Report
  2. 2. Page ii of 122 Acknowledgements The Department of National Defence (DND), Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), and Industry Canada (IC) would like to acknowledge the contributions and support provided by the IC Special Events team that organized the Soldier Human and Systems Integration workshop venue, logistics, and accommodations; the Human and Systems Integration technical subcommittee and co-chairs and the Executive Steering Committee for sharing their time and expertise; The Strategic Review Group (SRG) Inc., for facilitating the workshop; and the participants from across Canada, the United States, and abroad, who contributed to making the workshop a success. Special thanks to those who presented at the workshop, for sharing their time, energy, and knowledge. In addition, many thanks to the Canadian Forces Directorate of Armoured Vehicle Program Management for providing a LAV 3 vehicle, to Mr. D. Palmer and Captain A. Dionne of the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR-5), the Canadian Forces rifle section from the Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa, and the light armoured vehicle driver from the Régiment de Hull, who provided an demonstration of the challenges associated with integrating human and systems components of the soldier system in a combat situation.
  3. 3. Page iii of 122 Table of Contents Executive Summary..........................................................................................vii Human and Systems Integration Workshop and the SSTRM..........................8 About the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap....................................................8 Human and Systems Integration Workshop and the Roadmap.................................9 The Workshop Process ..........................................................................................10 Introductory Presentation Abstracts........................................................................11 Opening Remarks, Mr. T. Elliot, DG IC; Dr. D. Reding, DG DRDC Toronto; Mr. L. Garland (TSC Industry Co-Chair)..............................................11 Workshop Program and TRM Background, Mr. G. Nimmo (IC) .......................12 Workshop Process, Mr. P. Carr (Strategic Review Group Inc.)........................12 Soldier Systems TRM Update, LCol. M.A. Bodner (DRDC) .............................13 1. Exploring Operational Space: Key Deficiencies and Priorities ..............15 Presentation Abstracts ...........................................................................................15 1.1 Future Soldier System Capability Areas: H&SI Requirements and Challenges, Maj. J. Herbert (DLR5-6) ..................................................15 1.2 Human and Systems Integration: Lethal and Non Lethal, Maj. B. Gilchrist (DBRT 5-5).............................................................................16 Demonstration of Soldier Equipment/Usage by Mr. Douglas Palmer and Canadian Forces Personnel ............................................................................17 The Cast of Characters ...................................................................................17 Instructions for Observing the Demonstration..................................................17 Introduction to the Demonstration....................................................................18 The Action—Close With and Destroy the Enemy.............................................19 Chapter 2. Exploring Functional Space: Related H&SI Challenges.............25 Presentation Abstracts ...........................................................................................25 2.1 Introduction to Workshop Themes and Physical Ergonomics and Integration Challenges, Mrs. L. Bossi (DRDC Toronto) ........................25 2.2 Soldier Equipment/Vehicle/Communications Integration Requirements, Mr. M. A. Rochon (DSSPM-10-4-4)..............................27
  4. 4. Page iv of 122 2.3 USMC Approach to Soldier Burden, Mr. D. Tack (Humansystems Inc. Rep. USMC MERS Project)...........................................................27 2.4 Luncheon Speaker: Dr. E. S. Redden (ARL), Advanced Interfaces for Dismounted Warfighters .................................................................28 2.5 Challenges of Soldier Protection Integration, Mr. S. Boyne (DRDC Toronto)...............................................................................................29 2.6 Requirements for Enhancing Soldier Perception, Situation Awareness and Cognition, Mr. D. Tack (Humansystems Inc.)..............30 2.7 Soldier System Integration Challenges and Issues: An Industry Perspective, Mr. W. Downing (Industry Rep, TSC Speech)..................31 2.8 ICee-Wiki Update, Mrs. M. Huard (IC-DND).........................................32 Breakaway Session 1. Key Challenges for Human and Systems Integration Themes .........................................................................................33 Themes for Breakaway Session 1 ...................................................................33 Seating Plan for Breakaway Session 1............................................................35 Instructions for Breakaway Session 1..............................................................35 Plenary Report Back for Breakaway Session 1................................................36 Detailed Results of Breakaway Session 1 .......................................................38 Homework Instructions....................................................................................39 3. Exploring Solution Space: Enabling Technologies, Processes and Tools..................................................................................40 Stickies on the Wall Exercise..................................................................................40 Presentation Abstracts ...........................................................................................41 3.1 Challenges and Tools for Effective Soldier System Integration, Mrs. L. Bossi (DRDC Toronto) .............................................................41 3.2. The Role of Biomechanics in Effective Soldier System Integration, Dr. J. Stevenson (Queen's University) .................................................42 3.3 Virtual Simulations for Soldiers: Concepts and Applications, Dr. F. Bernier (DRDC Valcartier)..........................................................42 3.4 Decision Aids for Soldiers, Dr. D. Bryant and Dr. J. Hollands (DRDC Toronto)...................................................................................43 3.5 Soldier-Vehicle Integration: A TTCP Approach, Dr. M. Ducharme (DRDC Valcartier)................................................................................44
  5. 5. Page v of 122 Breakaway Session 2. System Optimization: Solutions, Enabling Technologies, Processes and Tools.......................................................................................45 Instructions for Breakaway Session 2..............................................................46 Plenary Report Back for Breakaway Session 2................................................48 Detailed Results of Breakaway Session 2 .......................................................51 4. Exploring R&D Space: Focus Areas and Potential Collaborations........52 Luncheon Speaker .................................................................................................52 4.1 Luncheon Speaker: Overview of the Strategic Aerospace and Defence Industrial Program (SADI), Mr. M. A. Blais (IC-ITO)...............52 ICee Contest Winner Presentation Abstracts..........................................................53 4.2 Infantryman Communication Interface (ICI), Mr. A. Poirier, Rheinmetall Defence............................................................................53 4.3 Software Solutions for NVG ENVG Integration, Mr. G. Martin, Robotics and Computer Vision System Integration ..............................54 4.4 Human Performance Centered Engineering, Mr. J. Johnson, SantosHuman......................................................................................54 4.5 Knee Stress Release Device (K-SRD™), Mr. M. Rittenhouse, B-TEMIA..............................................................................................55 Breakaway Session 3: R&D Focus Areas and Potential Collaborations..................56 Instructions for Breakaway Session 3..............................................................56 Plenary Report Back from Breakaway Session 3.............................................58 Results of Breakaway Session 3 .....................................................................58 5. Soldier Systems TRM Next Steps................................................................68 SSTRM Next Steps and Workshop Closure, LCol. M.A. Bodner (DRDC) ...............68 Developing the Roadmap.......................................................................................69 Sharing Knowledge with the ICee Database and Wiki ............................................69
  6. 6. Page vi of 122 Appendixes A. Workshop Agenda........................................................................................70 B. List of Participants ........................................................................................72 C. Breakaway Session 1 Participant Input: Key Challenges by Theme ............76 D. Breakaway Session 2 Participant Input: System Optimization Solution: Enabling Technologies, Processes and Tools............................................111 List of Figures Figure 1. Soldier Human and Systems Integration and the Soldier Systems TRM............................................................................9 Figure 2. The Workshop Process........................................................................10 Figure 3. The Human and Systems Integration Themes.....................................34 Figure 4. Breakaway Session 1 Plenary Report Back.........................................36 Figure 5. Example of Technology Roadmap Brainstorming Sticky .....................39 Figure 6. Technical-Functional Challenges Identified by Workshop Participants..........................................................................38 Figure 7. The Shift to a Horizontal View of Capability Optimization ....................46 Figure 8. The Challenge List for Step 1 of Breakaway Session 2 .......................47 Figure 9. The Table for Step 4 of Breakaway Session 2.....................................47 Figure 10. Breakaway Session 2 Plenary Report Back—Potential Solutions and Related Enabling Technologies ...................................48 Figure 11. Sample Breakaway Session 3 Output Form ......................................57
  7. 7. Page vii of 122 Executive Summary This report describes the Soldier Human and Systems Integration Workshop held in Gatineau, Québec, in September, 2010—the sixth in a series of workshops held as part of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmapping (SSTRM) initiative. The Introduction, Human and Systems Integration Workshop and the SSTRM, provides an overview of the roadmap, places the human and systems integration workshop in the context of the roadmap, describes the workshop goal and process, and includes abstracts of introductory presentations made at the workshop. Chapter 1, Exploring Operational Space: Key Deficiencies and Priorities, provides abstracts of workshop presentations focusing on the deficiencies and priorities associated with human and systems integration and the Canadian soldier. It also describes a demonstration presented by Canadian Forces personnel to illustrate those deficiencies and priorities. Chapter 2, Exploring Functional Space: Related H&SI Challenges, provides presentation abstracts related to workshop themes and challenges. It also describes breakaway session 1, a roundtable discussion during which workshop participants refined their understanding of the challenges from the perspective of three workshop themes. Chapter 3, Exploring Solution Space: Enabling Technologies, Processes and Tools, provides additional presentation abstracts and describes breakaway session 2, during which workshop participants brainstormed on solutions to the challenges, and related technologies for overall system optimization. Chapter 4, Exploring R&D Space: Focus Areas and Potential Collaborations, provides abstracts for the luncheon speaker and for ICee contest winner speakers. It also describes breakaway session 3, during which workshop participants identified collaborations for addressing solutions to integration and soldier systems needs. Chapter 5, Soldier Systems Next Steps, describes the next phases in the SSTRM process. Appendixes provide the workshop agenda, a list of participants, and detailed participant input from breakaway sessions 1 and 2.
  8. 8. Page 8 of 122 Human and Systems Integration Workshop and the SSTRM The Soldier Human and Systems Integration Workshop was held in the Château Cartier Hotel in Gatineau, Québec, September 21-22, 2010, as part of the development phase of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmapping (SSTRM) initiative. About the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap The Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap project is a unique industry-government collaboration that applies roadmapping principles and processes to develop a comprehensive knowledge-sharing platform and identify emerging technology priorities in support of the Canadian Forces Soldier Modernization Effort. Participation in the Soldier Systems TRM is free and voluntary and open to Canadian and international manufacturing, services, and technology-based companies of all sizes, and to researchers and other experts from academia, government, and not-for-profit research organizations from Canada and around the world. The focus of the Soldier Systems TRM—the soldier system—is defined within NATO as the integration of everything the soldier wears, carries and consumes for enhanced individual and collective (small unit) capability within the national command and control structure. It centers on the needs of the dismounted soldier, who is often away from the supply network, and must be self-sufficient for up to 72 hours. The overarching goal of the Soldier Systems TRM is to understand how today's technology—and tomorrow's—might contribute to a superior soldier system that increases capacities and operational effectiveness for the individual soldier in the five NATO capability areas of Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence (C4I); Survivability; Mobility; Lethality; and Sustainability. The Soldier Systems TRM exercise is governed by an Executive Steering Committee made up of government and industry representatives, and includes technical subcommittees dedicated to each capability area. For information about any aspect of the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap project, visit http://www.soldiersystems-systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca
  9. 9. Page 9 of 122 Human and Systems Integration Workshop and the Roadmap Soldier Human and Systems Integration was the sixth workshop held as part of the development phase of the Soldier Systems TRM. (Figure 1. Soldier Human and Systems Integration Workshop and the Soldier Systems TRM). The goals of the workshop were to:  identify/validate future soldier capability requirements  identify/validate related technical/functional challenges  identify/prioritize enabling/emerging technologies, R&D focus areas and collaboration opportunities. Human and Systems Integration Theme Areas To help focus this effort, three human and systems integration themes were identified: 1. Physical Integration on the soldier. Internal physical integration. 2. Perceptual/Cognitive Integration on the soldier. Internal psychological integration. 3. System Architecture and Interoperability. External integration. During parts of the workshop, tables were labeled with these themes, giving participants the opportunity to sit at tables consistent with their primary areas of expertise and interest. Figure 1. Soldier Human and Systems Integration Workshop and the Soldier Systems TRM 4b). Technical Workshop: Sensors 1. Visioning & Future Capabilities 2. Technical Workshop: Power/Energy/Sustainability 3. Technical Workshop: Weapons: Lethal & Non-Lethal 4a) Technical Workshop: C4I 5. Technical Workshop: Survivability/Sustainability/ Mobility 6. Technical Workshop: Human & Systems Integration Roadmap Integration Capstone Report Information/feedback sessions
  10. 10. Page 10 of 122 The Workshop Process To achieve its goal, the workshop followed a carefully designed, four-step process (Figure 2. The Workshop Process): 1. Explore operational space to define the problem 2. Explore functional space to identify challenges 3. Explore solution space to define potential solutions/technologies and system optimization 4. Explore S&T and R&D space to identify potential collaborations to build solutions This report summarizes the presentations and breakaway sessions associated with each step in the process. It follows the structure of the workshop agenda (Appendix A. Workshop Agenda). Figure 2. The Workshop Process
  11. 11. Page 11 of 122 Introductory Presentation Abstracts Note. Complete workshop presentations are provided in Volumes 2 and 3 of the workshop documentation. The presentations are also available in the ICee tool on the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap web site: http://www.soldiersystems- systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca and on the web site of the Strategic Review Group: http://strategicreviewgroup.ca/ Opening Remarks, Mr. T. Elliot, DG IC; Dr. D. Reding, DG DRDC Toronto; Mr. L. Garland (TSC Industry Co-Chair) The workshop was opened, and participants welcomed, by Mr. Tim Elliot, Director General, Industry Canada; Dr. Dale Reding, Director General, DRDC Toronto; and Mr. Laurin Garland, of Vernac Ltd., Industry co-chair of the Human and Systems Integration Technical Sub-committee of the Soldier System Technology Roadmap, representing industry. These speakers emphasized the importance of the Soldier Systems TRM as a vehicle for promoting collaboration among the many stakeholders in the realm of the soldier system, and welcomed and thanked those attending for their participation. Comments included:  A recognition by Mr. Elliot of the innovative nature of the Innovation and Collaboration Exchange Environment (ICee), the first public-facing Wiki of the Government of Canada  The acknowledgement by Dr. Reding that the SSTRM is a way to support Canada's soldier modernization effort by helping converge on future soldier systems capability needs and the requisite supporting technologies, stimulate and forecast technological developments, and provide the structure around which planning and coordination of technical planning can take place  The observation by Mr. Garland that the SSTRM is a true collaborative effort by industry, government and academia that is rare, and that promises concrete results
  12. 12. Page 12 of 122 5 CapstoneReport&ActionPlan Development Phase Activities 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 10/1109/10 Human/SystemsIntegration (Gatineau,Sept21-22,2010) Launch Oct. 09 Web Collaboration Tool (ICee): Technologies & Capability database PPE(Ottawa) C4I/Sensors(Montréal) WeaponsEffects(Toronto) Power/Energy(Vancouver) Visioning(Gatineau) Kick-off(Ottawa) TRMConsolidationWorkshop CloseupEvent 2011 01 02 03 04 5 CapstoneReport&ActionPlan Development Phase Activities 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 10/1109/10 Human/SystemsIntegration (Gatineau,Sept21-22,2010) Launch Oct. 09 Web Collaboration Tool (ICee): Technologies & Capability database PPE(Ottawa) C4I/Sensors(Montréal) WeaponsEffects(Toronto) Power/Energy(Vancouver) Visioning(Gatineau) Kick-off(Ottawa) TRMConsolidationWorkshop CloseupEvent 2011 01 02 03 04 4 Functional Objective / Technical Challenge (Where to Put the Bar and When?) Future soldier needs (Performance requirements) OverallSystemPerformance Time Technology progress Current Gap Perf. Excess ? Today Cycle 1 Cycle 2… Cycle n Future Needs Perf. Growth Baseline Performance Parameter (e.g. Bandwidth)Performance Parameter (e.g. Bandwidth) Real Gap 4 Functional Objective / Technical Challenge (Where to Put the Bar and When?) Future soldier needs (Performance requirements) OverallSystemPerformance Time Technology progress Current Gap Perf. Excess ? Today Cycle 1 Cycle 2… Cycle n Future Needs Perf. Growth Baseline Performance Parameter (e.g. Bandwidth)Performance Parameter (e.g. Bandwidth) Real Gap Workshop Program and TRM Background, Mr. G. Nimmo (IC) Defines and provides an overview of the technology roadmapping process. Describes other Canadian roadmapping experiences. Outlines the Soldier Systems TRM Project, including its objectives and the roles of industry/academia and government. Describes the overall TRM phases, including the current Development Phase. Outlines Development Phase activities and schedule. Workshop Process, Mr. P. Carr (Strategic Review Group Inc.) Outlines the workshop objectives. Describes the workshop process. Asserts that workshop success means discussion, contribution, collaboration, creativity, interest and curiosity. Presents a definition for functional objective/technical challenge.
  13. 13. Page 13 of 122 Soldier Systems TRM Update, LCol. M.A. Bodner (DRDC) Outlines army capability concepts and land systems, and refers to the future security environment. Describes the Canadian Soldier Modernization Effort (Army of Tomorrow, Army of the Future concepts). Defines the soldier system as everything that a soldier wears, carries, consumes, or otherwise uses to optimize and sustain his tasks and performance (cognitive/physical/social) in all operational environments. Explains the "system of systems" approach and challenges. Provides highlights of earlier workshops: Power & Energy; Soldier Lethal and Non-Lethal Weapons; C4I-Sensors; Soldier Survivability, Sustainability, Mobility. Outlines capability trade-offs, and the hard problem of balancing all aspects of the soldier system to generate a holistic solution that maximizes soldier effectiveness.
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  15. 15. Page 15 of 122 1. Exploring Operational Space: Key Deficiencies and Priorities This chapter provides abstracts of presentations that focused on Human and Systems Integration deficiencies and challenges, and describes a demonstration presented by Canadian Forces personnel to illustrate integration deficiencies and challenges. Presentation Abstracts 1.1 Future Soldier System Capability Areas: H&SI Requirements and Challenges, Maj. J. Herbert (DLR5-6) Describes the tasks the Canadian soldier is called on to perform. Outlines the mission of the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR). Describes soldier system requirements, the soldier of today, the challenges associated with meeting capabilities. Describes the ISSP Networked Soldier. Presents a vision for soldier system integration. Emphasizes the need for human testing of systems. Introduces the soldier demonstration that follows, using Canadian Forces personnel to illustrate key integration challenges and human factors.
  16. 16. Page 16 of 122 1.2 Human and Systems Integration: Lethal and Non Lethal, Maj. B. Gilchrist (DBRT 5-5) Provides an overview of lethal and non-lethal weapons effects future requirements related to human factors and systems integration. Explains why non- lethal effects are needed, and describes the "escalation of force continuum capability gap." Describes small arms in current use, and outlines the SARP 2 project to modernize or replace most small arms. Emphasizes the need to reduce weight and to provide power to the system.
  17. 17. Page 17 of 122 Demonstration of Soldier Equipment/Usage by Mr. Douglas Palmer and Canadian Forces Personnel A highlight of past Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap workshops has been a series of demonstrations by Canadian Forces personnel illustrating the challenges associated with performing combat missions using currently available equipment. At the Human and Systems Integration Workshop, the demonstration involved a dismounted section in partial battle gear exiting a LAV 3 armoured vehicle, performing a number of manoeuvres, and returning to the vehicle. The Cast of Characters The demonstration was lead by Mr. D. Palmer of the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR 5) Soldier Systems Section, and a member of the Project Director Team for the Integrated Soldier System Project. Mr. Palmer spent 42 years in the Canadian Forces, most of them the Infantry. The soldiers participating in the demonstration were:  A rifle section from the Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa. Two of the soldiers have seen service in Afghanistan  A LAV 3 driver from Le Régiment de Hull, who has done a tour of duty in Afghanistan The vehicle used for the demonstration was a LAV 30140 provided by the Directorate of Armored Vehicle Program Management. In addition to the soldiers used in the demo, this vehicle normally has a commander and a gunner, which were not part of this demo. Instructions for Observing the Demonstration The workshop participants were asked to keep in mind two questions while observing the demonstration: 1. Name one human/system integration issue that was not mentioned in the demonstration. 2. Which integration issues or deficiencies do you think are the most important to the soldier system? Participants were told they would have an opportunity to provide their answers during a plenary debriefing session following the demonstration.
  18. 18. Page 18 of 122 Introduction to the Demonstration The demonstration was designed to provide the workshop audience with insights into the human factors aspects of the soldier as a weapon platform within the dismounted infantry. Along with the associated presentations, it addressed the first part of the four-step workshop process, exploring the operational space, and providing a capability recap and demo to identify key deficiencies and priorities. To prepare the audience for the demo, it was pointed out that they would see:  Basic load and equipment configurations for four Canadian Forces roles: Commander, C9 Gunner, M203 Gunner, and rifleman  The soldiers would be divided into two four-man assault groups in an eight person section It was also pointed out what the audience would not see, and would need to remember:  The weight, volume, and power demands of the rifle section when combat loaded (for the demonstration, not all of the usual equipment was included)  The demand for increased tactical-level individual and team performance in complex terrain that is a result of a detailed understanding by the soldier of: o What the commander wants to accomplish o The situation that the soldier is being exposed to o The ability to conduct target acquisition rapidly and accurately  The fact that, while equipment is designed to accommodate 95% of the population, the expectation is that 100% of the population will be required and capable of deploying and using all weapons and equipment
  19. 19. Page 19 of 122 The Action—Close With and Destroy the Enemy The infantry's role is to close with and destroy the enemy—a task that places individuals in direct contact with the enemy, where close combat is likely. To illustrate a typical infantry mission, the demonstration was divided into seven sub- demos, with the action becoming more intense and dynamic over time. Action 1—Vehicle dismount into extended line In this part of the demo, the rear door of the armoured vehicle was lowered, and the soldiers:  Dismounted from the vehicle, orienting themselves toward the enemy (the vehicle is always oriented with the enemy in front)  Made appropriate observations of the surrounding area  Took up fire positions, spacing to reduce casualties from enemy fire or IEDs  Began verbal communication about, and coordination of, their mission Action 2—Movement into single file to wood line In this part of the demo, the soldiers oriented themselves toward a line of woods, where the enemy was thought to be positioned. This illustrated:  The type of all-round observation conducted by the soldiers on an ongoing basis  The continued spacing to reduce casualties  The ability to engage targets to either side of the soldiers  Ongoing communication and coordination via verbal and hand signals Action 3—Movement in extended line over open ground The soldiers then moved toward the enemy position, illustrating how very exposed soldiers are in this type of operation. In the process, they continued to demonstrate the all-round observation, spacing, ability to engage on left or right, and communication and coordination activities that began when they first left the vehicle.
  20. 20. Page 20 of 122 Action 4—Movement into the vehicle Returning from the wood line, the soldiers demonstrated how they re-enter the vehicle, continuing to engage in all-round observation, and handing off observation responsibilities as they enter the vehicle one-by-one. Coordination and communication continued as before. Action 5—Dismount to assault line The soldiers then exited the vehicle again, and demonstrated an alignment designed to use firepower to the front of the vehicle and engage the enemy as a section, covering ground and engaging in close combat. Action 6—Room clearance The soldiers split into two groups to demonstrate entering and clearing a room. The rooms were represented by areas marked on the parking lot where the demonstration occurred. This illustrated:  The need for speed and good technique and tactics  The areas of responsibilities of the different soldiers  The need for continued communication and coordination Action 7—Demonstration of individual roles Finally, the soldiers made clear the different roles associated with the preceding actions:  An eight person section, make up of Sergeant, Master Corporal, and six corporals or privates  Two assault groups of four persons (Sergeant and three corporals or privates)  Within each assault group, a Commander, C9 Gunner, M203 Gunner, and Rifleman Interaction with observers Following the demonstration, the soldiers made themselves available to answer questions and explain various pieces of equipment to the workshop participants. The vehicle was also available to examine.
  21. 21. Page 21 of 122 The Plenary Debrief—Integration Issues Observed After viewing the demonstration and interacting with the soldiers and equipment, the workshop participants returned to the meeting room to answer the questions they had been given: 1. Name one human/system integration issue that was not mentioned in the demonstration. 2. Which integration issues or deficiencies do you think are the most important to the soldier system? What follows is a summary of observations shared by participants during the debrief. Observation 1. Communications integration and coordination  Observed the need for communications integration and coordination among the soldiers and between the soldiers and the vehicle  The vehicle driver and soldiers use separate communications systems Observation 2. Customization  There was a lot of customization going on—soldiers customizing the kit they take on operations  The backpacks the soldiers were carrying were light relative to the kit actually carried in battle, which would make it even more difficult to exit and enter a vehicle Observation 3. Situation awareness  Having spoken to all eight soldiers about deficiencies, the comment about situation awareness (SA) kept coming up  The level of SA provided will need to be adjusted to minimize information overload, and SA is not meant to be used during close-combat action Observation 4. Low visibility for driver and commander  Visibility for the driver and commander is limited  It takes time to transition from darkness to bright sunlight or heavy fog  Noted that there is a screen inside the vehicle to show what the driver sees outside the vehicle
  22. 22. Page 22 of 122 Observation 5. Integration and compatibility of the equipment  The communications system doesn't seem to fit well with the rest of the equipment  Additional ammunition is needed but can get in the way  Best arrangement of equipment on the soldier is not trivial and is subject to personal preferences  Compatibility issues mainly raised for the gas mask which is not fully compatible with the communications system (Putting on the mask means losing the communications system, and resorting to hand signals) Observation 6. Lack of communication/education  Soldiers could be better informed about the equipment development/acquisition process, i.e., explaining why decisions are made  Need to better inform soldiers and get them more involved in feedback/decisions about equipment Observation 7. International considerations  Canada rarely deploys as a single force, but is integrated with NATO and others  What are the interoperability capabilities among different NATO forces? Different equipment, different ammunition Observation 8. The soldier as sensor  The soldier is the main sensor system out there  Integration of remote sensors, unmanned systems, would significantly reduce the risk and lower the workload on the soldier Observation 9. Soldiers vs. police and first responders  The soldier kit doesn‘t seem as much state-of-the-art as police and first responders' kit  Little things can make big differences—e.g., gloves that don't allow easy use of equipment, a holster that is not optimal for operations, a load-carrying vest that works  Some of these minor deficiencies noted may be addressed easily and at low cost  The equipment display didn‘t appear to be as fully integrated as it could be
  23. 23. Page 23 of 122 Observation 10. Human thermoregulation issues  Enhanced thermoregulation (heat/cold management) was raised as an important issue, especially heat stroke prevention and cold management Observation 11. The tactical vest  Limitations of current vest for carrying more equipment  Carrying 10 mags of ammunition in actual operations means less space for other components  Need the ability to snap equipment components into place Observation 12. No knee or elbow protection  The soldiers were not wearing knee and elbow protection  It was raised that knee pads are part of the current kit, but were not worn during the demo  Need to have a solution that stays in place and permits the soldier the flexibility to reach all equipment Observation 13. More gear means less mobility  The soldiers didn't wear everything they could possibly have in the demo—for example, no night-vision binoculars, no illuminator (TAG IR) for night ops that shows position  Soldier equipment solutions are always adjusted to its mission. Close combat night operations are the most demanding situations where more equipment is needed  Need to bear in mind that the more equipment a soldier carries the less mobile the soldier becomes Observation 14. Different sensors from different companies  Part of the problem is that different sensors come from different companies, each with their own IP, which limits full integration  Need to define good interface standard  Need to find ways enabling all the different sensors to work together Observation 15. Accessibility of sensors  Sensors are only good if the soldier can reach them and use them  Optimal sensors location is critical
  24. 24. Page 24 of 122 Weight/volume Load carriage Mobility vs Protection Power Consumption Nature Anthropometrics Soldier – Vehicle Interoperability Communications Target Detect-Discriminate-Inform-Prosecute Soldier Demo – Key Integration Challenges Weight/volume Load carriage Mobility vs Protection Power Consumption Nature Anthropometrics Soldier – Vehicle Interoperability Communications Target Detect-Discriminate-Inform-Prosecute Soldier Demo – Key Integration Challenges Observation 16. Kudos for including a vehicle in the demonstration  Kudos for including a vehicle in the demonstration, so that it was more realistic  Vehicles are used well in support of the soldier—e.g., for power and other functions—and need to be considered with the soldier system. They are not just for loading and carrying, but provide support in many ways  What additional ways could the vehicle be used to support the soldiers once they had exited? Conclusions The feedback received from the participants during the plenary session is coherent with the integration challenges identified by the Army: weight/volume; power; anthropomentrics; soldier- vehicle interoperability; and target detection, discrimination, information, and prosecution. In addition, workshop participants went beyond these basic challenges to describe other points and challenges during the plenary.
  25. 25. Page 25 of 122 Chapter 2. Exploring Functional Space: Related H&SI Challenges This chapter provides abstracts of workshop presentations that focused on Human and Systems Integration challenges. It also describes Breakout Session 1. Key Challenges for Human and Systems Integration Themes. Presentation Abstracts 2.1 Introduction to Workshop Themes and Physical Ergonomics and Integration Challenges, Mrs. L. Bossi (DRDC Toronto) Defines the multidisciplinary field of Human and Systems Integration (HSI). Presents a model for considering the soldier as a system. Introduces the workshop HSI themes:  Physical Integration on the soldier  Perceptual/Cognitive Integration on the soldier  System Architecture and Interoperability. Outlines the physical ergonomics and integration challenges faced.
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  27. 27. Page 27 of 122 2.2 Soldier Equipment/Vehicle/Communications Integration Requirements, Mr. M. A. Rochon (DSSPM-10-4-4) Provides an overview of the Soldier Modernization Program and integration requirements. Describes key goals for C4I, power, communications, position generation, and battle management. Describes current and future solutions for a rifleman personal network. Emphasizes the need to enhance all aspects of soldier capabilities, reduce cognitive load, minimize user intervention, and minimize weight and volume. 2.3 USMC Approach to Soldier Burden, Mr. D. Tack (Humansystems Inc. Rep. USMC MERS Project) Describes the Marine Expeditionary Rifle Squad (MERS) mission. Outlines MC- LEAP, the Marine Corps Load Effects Assessment Program. Discusses the marine burden, program aims, and the LEAP data cloud, which includes dimensions of weight, stiffness, and bulk. Describes the "design light" initiative. Provides overview of sensor integration and hearing protection.
  28. 28. Page 28 of 122 2.4 Luncheon Speaker: Dr. E. S. Redden (ARL), Advanced Interfaces for Dismounted Warfighters Describes the ways that displays are used. Provides examples of advanced displays, including multifunction displays (MFDs). Describes displays currently used, and lessons learned from them. Introduces helmet-mounted displays, and potential problems with them. Discusses fused night-vision goggles, including urban enhanced night vision goggles (UENVG). Discusses conformational displays, including flexible displays and tactile displays. Introduces see-through displays, including augmented reality displays. Notes that civilian technology offers examples to learn from and leverage. Concludes that:  the dismounted warfighter is the most difficult customer for displays  as technology advances, today's failures may be tomorrow's successes  displays should be chosen based on mission requirements, echelon level, and environmental considerations  human factors considerations and experimentation are critical for effective display design
  29. 29. Page 29 of 122 2.5 Challenges of Soldier Protection Integration, Mr. S. Boyne (DRDC Toronto) Provides an overview of the challenges associated with soldier equipment integration, weapon integration, equipment integration (including packs, helmets, and other items), and vehicle integration. Makes the case for a modular approach to integrating all elements of the soldier system. Provides example of a modular approach to integrating protection and sensors in the soldier helmet.
  30. 30. Page 30 of 122 2.6 Requirements for Enhancing Soldier Perception, Situation Awareness and Cognition, Mr. D. Tack (Humansystems Inc.) Explains what situation awareness is, and why it is important. Provides a picture of the anticipated future battlespace, with net-enabled weapons, netted fires, adaptive dispersed operation, a dismounted role, and night operations. Describes the forms that situation awareness can take, and how situation awareness needs can vary. Explains why human and system integration is important for situation awareness systems. Describes ways to enhance visual, auditory, and tactual senses. Emphasizes that effective situation aware is very complex.
  31. 31. Page 31 of 122 2.7 Soldier System Integration Challenges and Issues: An Industry Perspective, Mr. W. Downing (Industry Rep, TSC Speech) Provides an overview of the future soldier. Describes challenges facing the soldier, including rapidly changing technologies, the need for integrated systems, and the need to manage the equipment lifecycle. Outlines the needs, including integrated/modular systems, power, information, weight management, training, and life cycle and supply chain management. Proposes a development paradigm to follow and proposed roles for industry and the Government (Department of National Defence).
  32. 32. Page 32 of 122 2.8 ICee-Wiki Update, Mrs. M. Huard (IC-DND) Describes the Innovation, Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee), a web- based application for capturing, organizing and sharing information on future capabilities, technologies, projects, products and other items relevant to the Canadian Forces Modernization Effort used to feed the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap. Outlines recent enhancements. Makes the case for exploring and using the ICee to stay up to date with, and contribute to, the technology roadmap. Notes that there are currently over 400 users of the ICee-Wiki.
  33. 33. Page 33 of 122 Breakaway Session 1. Key Challenges for Human and Systems Integration Themes The goal of the first breakaway session was to have workshop participants discuss their understanding of key human and systems integrations issues based on the preceding presentations and on their own areas of expertise, and to provide oral and written feedback on those discussions. The breakout session addressed the second of the four steps in the workshop process: exploring functional space and identifying related human and systems integration functional and technical challenges for internal, physical/cognitive, and system architecture and interoperability (external integration). Themes for Breakaway Session 1 To ensure that all areas of integration received attention, that participants were able to focus on their areas of interest and expertise, and that each of the approximately twenty tables had participants from different sectors, the participants were asked to follow a seating plan and to focus on one of three themes that had been defined based on input from the Human and Systems Integration Technical Sub-Committee: 1. Physical Integration on the soldier 2. Perceptual/Cognitive Integration on the soldier 3. System Architecture and Interoperability For more detail about the scope of each theme, see Figure 3.
  34. 34. Page 34 of 122 Figure 3. The Human and Systems Integration Themes Theme 1 – Physical Integration on the Soldier  Soldier system Characterization (e.g., physical environment, task analyses, user characteristics)  Soldier Burden (physiology, load and volume/bulk, biomechanics)  Usability/ergonomy  Fit/form/Anthropometry  Demographics  Compatibility/Interfaces  Display and Controls Hardware  Tools and Processes Theme 2—Perceptual/Cognitive Integration on the Soldier  Soldier Burden (workload, information)  Situation Awareness  Soldier Interfaces to Enhance Perception and Cognition (from displays to decision-making tools on soldier computers)  Displays and Controls Software (GUI)  Tools and Processes  Usability  Decision aids Theme 3—System Architecture & Interoperability (External Integration)  Integration/Interoperability with Other Platforms o Vehicles o Weapon Systems o C4I Systems o Autonomous Sensors (UXV)  System Architecture o Modularity/Configurability o Adaptability o Scalability o Hardware Integration/Optimization
  35. 35. Page 35 of 122 Seating Plan for Breakaway Session 1 Each table in the room was labelled with one of the three themes that had been defined, and participants were asked to sit at a table with the theme of their choice. Participants were also asked to follow the Table Seating Rules outlined in the slide shown here. Instructions for Breakaway Session 1 Participants were given the following question to discuss at each table: What are the 5 most important functional challenges related to your Human and Systems Integration theme? What's the problem? (You can express it as a technical challenge too.) 1. E.g., Critical parameter (e.g., Balance, bandwidth) 2. What should it be (setting the bar for 2020 & 2025)? They were asked to record their answers on flipcharts, and to follow these rules:  Sit with people from other organizations  Fill the tables  Choose a leader and recorder  Write clearly  Focus on the questions  Ask facilitators for clarifications, if necessary
  36. 36. Page 36 of 122 Plenary Report Back for Breakaway Session 1 When the participants had completed the Breakaway Session 1 task, a report back (plenary) session was held to give them the opportunity to share their results verbally with the other workshop participants. The slide shown here provided guidelines for the session. What follows, in Figure 4, Breakout Session 1 Plenary Report Back, is a summary of the points made during the report back. Figure 4. Breakaway Session 1 Plenary Report Back Theme 1—Physical Integration on the Soldier (4 Tables Reporting) 1. Setting standards  Setting standards is a complex process requiring coordination  Interoperability is difficult when there is a proprietary mindset 2. Complexity and uncertainty of trade-offs  Same issue, but key label is "Complexity and uncertainty of various trade-offs"  Looked at performance vs. options—there must be a "sweet zone" where you want to find yourself  Could be balancing anything from cost, to system performance, to the complexity of the system .  No self-evident road to go down—it's a multi-dimensional problem based on complex systems  The challenge is to define overall system requirements precisely, to decide on overall trade offs
  37. 37. Page 37 of 122 Figure 4. Breakaway Session 1 Plenary Report Back 3. Soldier burden  One of the challenges is related the procurement process  Technology is moving extremely quickly, and there is a need for a more evolutionary approach to the acquisition process  Need to ensure an acquisition cycle that fits with rapidly evolving technology 4. Encumbrance: a psychological tolerance to carrying load  Challenge is resisting homeostatis—i.e., you could do all the work you want to reduce the weight of items, but the soldier will still load himself up with more stuff  Need to encourage the soldier not to overload himself. Theme 2—Perceptual/Cognitive Integration on the Soldier (2 Tables Reporting) 1. Don't forget the "human" in human factors  DND representatives at the table were treated as the customers, and asked what their issues are  The human must be in control of the information, because that is the nature of who we are  Anything we do moving forward should recognize we are humans, and the system must adapt to the human rather than the other way around  Looking forward, in 25 years, imagine having a laser on a rifle that enables you to laser anything in range; you push a button and you are given all necessary information about the target 2. Information overload  The real issue is that soldiers today are getting too much information, a lot of it contradictory, missing, or wrong, and they are overwhelmed by data and unable to glean the necessary information  Need complete information, but not overloaded  Situational awareness, eyes forward, moving ahead  The soldier can't choose what information is delivered
  38. 38. Page 38 of 122 Figure 6. Technical-Functional Challenges Identified by Workshop Participants During Breakout Session 1 Theme 1—Physical Integration 1. Improving system characterization (physical) 13. Improving socio/psychological readiness 2. Improving tools & processes (physical) 14. Enhancing/augmenting soldier perception 3. Reducing physical soldier burden (weight overload) 15. Reducing cognitive burden (information load) 4. Improving physical usability 16. Improving situation awareness/understanding 5. Improving modularity/configurability 17. Improving decision making 6. Improving fit, form, anthropometry 18. Enhancing displays/GUI 7. Improving interfaces compatibility 19. Improving human computer interaction 8. Improving body-worn equipment/sensors integration Theme 3—External Integration 9. Improving display/control hardware design 20. Improving integration with weapons Theme 2—Psychological/Cognitive Integration 21. Improving integration with C4I systems 10. Improving system characterization (psychological) 22. Improving integration with combat vehicles 11. Improving tools & processes (psychological) 23. Improving integration with autonomous vehicle/sensors 12. Reducing the effects of stressors 24. Enabling future capability growth Detailed Results of Breakaway Session 1 Following the breakaway session, the flipcharts on which participants had written their responses were collected and compiled. The results are provided in Appendix C, Breakaway Session 1 Participant Input: Key Challenges by Theme.
  39. 39. Page 39 of 122 Homework Instructions After Breakaway Session 1, before ending the first day of the workshop, participants were given a homework assignment that would get them started working on potential solutions to the challenges previously identified. That involved: 1. Getting 3 stickies from the facilitators. 2. Picking 3 of the challenges already discussed. 3. Filling in the blanks on the stickies to describe proposed solution, development timeframe, related technologies, technology readiness level (TRL), and key players in the area. 4. Bringing the stickies to Day 2 of the workshop. Figure 5. Example of Technology Roadmap Brainstorming Sticky To help participants fill in their 3 stickies, they were given this example of a completed sticky.
  40. 40. Page 40 of 122 3. Exploring Solution Space: Enabling Technologies, Processes and Tools This chapter describes the "stickies on the wall" exercise, which was conducted at the start of the second day of the workshop. It also provides abstracts of the presentations preceding the second breakaway session, and describes Breakaway Session 2: The Technical Challenges Stickies on the Wall Exercise Between the first and second day of the workshop, the SSTRM team identified a list of technical-functional challenges based on participant input during the first day. Before the start of the second day, staff constructed a grid on two walls of the meeting room (as shown here), with the challenges listed across the top, grouped by the three integration themes of physical, psychological/cognitive, and system architecture and interoperability. At the start of the second day, and during the first coffee break, workshop participants copied the stickies they had filled in as homework, and posted them on the grid to be used during the second breakaway session described later in this chapter.
  41. 41. Page 41 of 122 Presentation Abstracts 3.1 Challenges and Tools for Effective Soldier System Integration, Mrs. L. Bossi (DRDC Toronto) Describes the Human-System Integration (HSI) process. Outlines a process for ensuring that HSI is considered in soldier systems. Describes the Army Combat Clothing and Equipment Survey System (ACCESS) and the 1997 Land Forces Anthropometric Survey. Introduces BoSS XXI Body Scanning system, explains how it works, and compares results with the 1997 survey. Outlines the way ahead, including challenges associated with clothed anthro for workspace modelling and other anthropometry challenges, such as workspace modeling and analysis, an Advanced Personal Load Carriage System (APLCS), biomechanical modeling tools, an integrated performance modelling environment, virtual reality tools. Describes the key challenge as developing a measurement of effective soldier system integration. Discussed "A Soldier's Day Multi- media Database," designed to inform all stakeholders in R&D, materiel development, acquisition and life cycle management about the actual Canadian soldier system.
  42. 42. Page 42 of 122 3.2. The Role of Biomechanics in Effective Soldier System Integration, Dr. J. Stevenson (Queen's University) Defines and explains the importance of biomechanics for the soldier system. Describes tools for measuring biomechanics, including direct and indirect internal forces, effects at the human-object interface, motion, line of sight, and sound. Explains ergonomics. Describes using the military or Caesar (Civilian American and European Anthropometric Resource) database to aid in design. Discusses soldier system integration. Describes the ERG mission, objectives and process. 3.3 Virtual Simulations for Soldiers: Concepts and Applications, Dr. F. Bernier (DRDC Valcartier) Defines immersive virtual simulation. Describes the Virtual Immersion Laboratory (VIL), and the Gaming and Emerging Technology Laboratory (GETL). Outlines DRDC defence and security activities. Describes approaches to creating a Stressful Virtual Environment (SVE). Provides the example of medic training in a combat environment.
  43. 43. Page 43 of 122 3.4 Decision Aids for Soldiers, Dr. D. Bryant and Dr. J. Hollands (DRDC Toronto) Defines combat identity (CID). Explains decision support concepts. Outlines IMMERSIVE (Instrumented Military Modeling Engine for Research using Simulation and Virtual Environments). Describes immersive bots (robotic compute controlled entities), simulated rifle-mounted IFF. Discusses testing done, and resulting hit rates and false alarm rates. Describes current BFT (Blue Force Tracking) systems and studies.
  44. 44. Page 44 of 122 3.5 Soldier-Vehicle Integration: A TTCP Approach, Dr. M. Ducharme (DRDC Valcartier) Provides an overview of TTCP (The Technical Cooperation Program) Land TP-2. Discusses land-systems integration, and the system-of- systems approach. Describes the vehicle integration study, focusing on the integrated soldier and vehicle protection, and the networked soldier and vehicle integration. Describes the Land Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL), and the TP-2 vision in development. The 3 TTCP reports will be posted on the ICee too whenever the final versions are completed.
  45. 45. Page 45 of 122 Breakaway Session 2. System Optimization: Solutions, Enabling Technologies, Processes and Tools The second breakaway session addressed the third part of the four-step workshop process: exploring the solution space and identifying potential solutions/technologies for system optimization. The goal of the session was to brainstorm solutions and their related technologies (S&T) for an overall system optimization. For the session, participants were asked to change the lens through which overall soldier system capability optimization was viewed—that is, to shift the perspective from the vertical orientation to a horizontal view that integrated solutions across silos (figure 7).
  46. 46. Page 46 of 122 Figure 7. The Shift to a Horizontal View of Capability Optimization Instructions for Breakaway Session 2 The workshop participants were given the following instructions : 1. Review the challenge list (distributed on each table) (5 minutes) (See Figure 8). 2. Share your proposed solutions (homework stickies) (15 to 20 minutes). 3. Identify 3 to 5 new potential horizontal solutions and related technologies. 4. Summarize your answers on the table provided (See Figure 9).
  47. 47. Page 47 of 122 Figure 8. The Challenge List for Step 1 of Breakaway Session 2 Figure 9. The Table for Step 4 of Breakaway Session 2
  48. 48. Page 48 of 122 Plenary Report Back for Breakaway Session 2 When the participants had completed the Breakaway Session 2 task, a plenary session was held to give them an opportunity to share their results verbally with the other workshop participants. The slide shown here provided guidelines for the session. What follows, in Figure 10, is a summary of the points made during the report back and later collected from each table of participants. Figure 10. Breakaway Session 2 Plenary Report Back—Potential Solutions and Related Enabling Technologies Table 1 1. Wearable power.  Use of newer technologies to allow recharge at the platoon level  Technical/functional challenges 8, 2, 5 2. Device proliferation  How to militarize existing integrated consumer applications  Technology challenges 3, 5, 16 3. Difficulty of gathering and applying field feedback.  Need to get immediate small groups of soldiers returning from deployment, specifically infantry, engineers, medics, armoured and gunners  Technology challenges 20, 21, and 22 Table 2 1. Reducing burden.  Need to save weight and integrate with fibre optical and other textile technology  Technology challenges 3, 6, and 11 2. Sensor Integration  Need standards for defining standards and minimum interoperability requirements
  49. 49. Page 49 of 122 Figure 10. Breakaway Session 2 Plenary Report Back—Potential Solutions and Related Enabling Technologies Table 3 1. Improving body worn sensors integration  Technology challenge 8  The backbone of the system will have to be a "smart skin" that will provide a physical backbone for connectivity 2. Reducing the effects of stressors  Technology challenge 12  The skin will have to provide environmental controls (e.g., for heat and cold) 3. Improving integration with C4I Systems  Technology challenge 21  The skin must be wired to a PAN (Personal Area Network) Table 4 1. Improve modularity/configurability  The vest becomes a modular system on which the soldier can connect components  The weapon is also modular, and components can connect to it 2. Improve interface compatibility  This becomes a mission-specific issue  Software should use all available information and provide details for each soldier and soldier group as to what they need for the mission  The vest and weapons must be modular enough to attach what they need for the mission Table 5 1. Need a mandated requirement for Human/Systems integration program  Best way to address all integration needs  HSI must be mandated as a key component of all projects—cuts across all processes and programs  It was done in the States, and can be done here 2. Multiple functional and technical challenges (physical)  Cut across many challenges on the physical interface, sensor integration and C4I integration  Key is to use multi-functional materials and devices 3. Multiple functional and technical challenges (optimized Human/Machine interface)
  50. 50. Page 50 of 122 Figure 10. Breakaway Session 2 Plenary Report Back—Potential Solutions and Related Enabling Technologies  Need a common, tailored, optimized soldier system human/machine interface  Would enable cutting across an enormous number of challenges Table 6 1. Improving integration with everything  Challenges 20-23--Define an integration process and project management process that gets applied to all design problems—an integration process  Integration with weapons, C4I, vehicles, sensors, and so on—a system of systems  Integrating a text bed that includes actual soldiers in the testing  From a physiological and psychological perspective, the soldier is not going to change noticeable over the next 100 years  Define those boundaries, which are independent of technology, as the start point for integration 2. Integrating HSI into the acquisition process  Need to legislate human systems integration into the acquisition process  DRDC taking the lead to develop a Human/Systems Integration lab where industry can come to get info and try out solutions with real soldiers Table 7  Smart textiles  Regroup as much as possible to think in terms of system of systems  Breathable textiles; drug-dispensing textiles; self-cleaning textiles; conductive fibres; energy-harvesting textiles; harvesting water textiles  For C4I—smart visors Table 8  Battle space situational awareness  Looked at challenges 7, 16, and 21, with a few others thrown in  Focus was on battle space, and situational awareness between the top and front line  Ability to use comms type system with filtering capability dealing with audio, text, symbols Table 9 1. Displays  Challenges 4, 5 and 7: improving physical usability, modularity, configurability and system compatibility—all intertwined  Looked at displays, and having only one display per soldier 2. User Interfaces
  51. 51. Page 51 of 122 Figure 10. Breakaway Session 2 Plenary Report Back—Potential Solutions and Related Enabling Technologies  Need to focus on user interfaces and basing them on background knowledge of how commercial companies use them.  Must be high-impact—don't need all small improvements, must be important Table 10 1. Improving interface capability  Important to be able to connect all components of system with common power source  Need unlimited connectivity  Hope military will continue to describe needs  Need to focus on connectors and standard for small, light-weight connectors 2. Reducing physical burden  Smart textiles in garments  Integration of systems 3. Improving fit/form and anthropometry  SkeletBone skin that does not lose user capabilities Table 11  Sensor integration  Need to enable modularity—to make equipment from different suppliers available  Need an industry/government standards ecosystem that would be responsible for defining standards and minimum requirements  Need to modify the procurement process –go through the process, select a short list of vendors who come close, and then choose a supplier  Related to the procurement process, need to look at a minimum threshold and some kind of point system beyond that Detailed Results of Breakaway Session 2 Following the breakaway session, the stickies and the completed tables were collected and compiled. The results are provided in Appendix D, Breakaway Session 2 Participant Input: System Optimization. Enabling Technologies, Processes and Tools.
  52. 52. Page 52 of 122 4. Exploring R&D Space: Focus Areas and Potential Collaborations This chapter provides abstracts of the luncheon presentation and ICee contest winner presentations that preceded the third breakaway session. It also describes Breakaway Session 3: Focus Areas and Collaborations. Luncheon Speaker 4.1 Luncheon Speaker: Overview of the Strategic Aerospace and Defence Industrial Program (SADI), Mr. M. A. Blais (IC-ITO) Provides an overview of the Strategic Aerospace and Defence Initiative (SADI), which was launched in April 2007 as a replacement for Technology Partnerships Canada (TPC). Describes SADI objectives, eligibility requirements, proposal assessment criteria, benefits monitoring, and repayment plans. Provides contact information. Industrial Technology Office - Overview 3 SADI Objectives  Encourage strategic R&D that will result in innovation and excellence in new products and services;  Enhance the competitiveness of Canadian aerospace, defence, space and security companies; and,  Foster collaboration between research institutes, universities, colleges, and the private sector. Industrial Technology Office - Overview 3 SADI Objectives  Encourage strategic R&D that will result in innovation and excellence in new products and services;  Enhance the competitiveness of Canadian aerospace, defence, space and security companies; and,  Foster collaboration between research institutes, universities, colleges, and the private sector.
  53. 53. Page 53 of 122 ICee Contest Winner Presentation Abstracts Following are abstracts of presentations made by workshop participants who won the ICee contest associated with the Soldier Systems and Human Integration workshop. These participants, or their organizations, posted relevant information on the ICee, were entered in a draw as a results, and won the opportunity to present at the workshop. 4.2 Infantryman Communication Interface (ICI), Mr. A. Poirier, Rheinmetall Defence Describes the need for tailored C4I solutions with a minimal set of features to address specific soldier missions. Outlines design constraints. Proposes a solution: the Soldier Communication Interface (ICI), which acts as an intelligent link between the customer GPS and radio to provide improved soldier capabilities. Describes the radio interface, solution GPS interface, power considerations, and system integration and human factor considerations.
  54. 54. Page 54 of 122 4.3 Software Solutions for NVG ENVG Integration, Mr. G. Martin, Robotics and Computer Vision System Integration Points out that no automation system is more accurate than its instrument. Describes problems associated with image fusion and night vision. Explains the high-accuracy camera calibration, software image correction, and sub-pixel edge analysis solution offered by Robotics and Computer Vision System Integration. Describes calibration performance criteria, and presents calibration results. 4.4 Human Performance Centered Engineering, Mr. J. Johnson, SantosHuman Describes the synthetic environment created by SantosHuman using soldier- centered engineering. Explains the human digital modeling used to build a unique virtual human, and the advantages of using the virtual human in a variety of testing situations. Describes VTOS, the Virtual Try-Out Space, its applications and advantages for developing a range of predictive capabilities to help improve human performance, provide crew safety, and evaluate designs.
  55. 55. Page 55 of 122 4.5 Knee Stress Release Device (K-SRD™), Mr. M. Rittenhouse, B-TEMIA Provides a corporate overview of B-TEMIA. Describes the issue of overload bearing, and the cost in terms of injury, reduced operational efficiency, and therapy and rehabilitation. Introduces the knee stress release device design to provide active support to the lower extremities, assists in gait activities, and provides additional power to the knee. Describes performance evaluation of the proof-of- concept prototype, including video of outdoor trials.
  56. 56. Page 56 of 122 Breakaway Session 3: R&D Focus Areas and Potential Collaborations The third breakaway session addressed the final stage in the workshop process: exploring the Research and Development space and identifying R&D focus areas and potential collaborations. It's goal was to have participants identify enabling technologies having the potential to address the challenges presented earlier, describe the necessary R&D efforts and identify the key players in the domain. Instructions for Breakaway Session 3 The workshop participants were given the following objective and instructions: 1. Select 2 or 3 most enabling technologies (S&T) (right column on your summary sheet from session 2) 2. Explain briefly why you chose them 3. Describe the R&D efforts that should be pursued for each enabling technology 4. Identify collaborators that could be involved in these R&D efforts They were provided with output forms on which to organize their results for the breakaway session (See Figure 11. Sample Breakaway Session 3 Output Form.)
  57. 57. Page 57 of 122 Figure 11. Sample Breakaway Session 3 Output Form
  58. 58. Page 58 of 122 Plenary Report Back from Breakaway Session 3 When the participants had completed the Breakaway Session 3 task, a plenary session was held to give them an opportunity to share their results verbally with the other workshop participants. The slide shown here provided guidelines for the session, which consisted of describing the R&D areas of focus and the collaborators identified. Results of Breakaway Session 3 The following tables describe horizontal, cross-cutting R&D efforts that participants at the workshop suggested would contribute to human/system integration for the soldier. Each of the following R&D focus area section includes:  A description of the R & D Area  The relevant R&D requirements  Potential collaborators/experts in the domain that were identified
  59. 59. Page 59 of 122 R&D Focus Area 1. Smart Clothing/Uniform Description System connectivity/intelligent textiles/conformal connectors/"intelligent skin" project Tables 21, 23, 18 Relevant R&D  Ergonomics, "thermo mechanical, physiological properties"  System architecture, technical specifications  Integration with fabric, nanotechnologies, textile technologies  Methods of transferring signal, data/interface/open architecture/local TCPIP/"nervous systems"  Adaptable connector and physical interface  Advanced fibre optics for personal networks  Self-sensing data/bus type and data format  Flexible transport implementation  location of connectors/wires Potential Collaborators Fabric  Foster Miller  Intelligent Textiles  Lincoln Textiles  CTT Group  Corcan Textiles Design (soft goods)  Pacific Safety Products  Mustang Survival  Allen Vanguard Power supply/integrators/electronics  Rockwell Collins International  Rheinmetall  Intel  AMD  NRC  Canadian Space Agency  Vetra Electronics  Teraxion  TR Labs Wiring and connectors  Tyco  Precision Interconnectors  Raytheon  Glenair  Physical Optics Corporation Human factors, HSI:  HUMANsystems,  Shumac  NRC  Universities: Queens, Alberta, Carleton  University of Alberta
  60. 60. Page 60 of 122 R&D Focus Area 2. Improved Situation Awareness Description Information management and distribution for improved situational awareness Tables 22 Relevant R&D  Bandwidth management using PRR's  Prioritizing, categorizing information  Dynamic communications system Potential Collaborators  Communications Research Centre  Communications Security Establishment  General Dynamics  Raytheon  HUMANsystems Inc.  Rheinmetall  Northrop Grumman Mission Systems Europe  Shumac  LTi Software and Engineering
  61. 61. Page 61 of 122 R&D Focus Area 3. Smart Vest Concept Description A modular vest with a better interface. Tables 19 Relevant R&D  Mechanical joints between rigid and flexible support (cloth)  Adding sensors, radios, computers, displays, input devices, etc. into vest  Centralized power sources/batteries Potential Collaborators Human Factors  HUMANsystems Inc. Protective materials, fabrics  Pacific Safety Products Ltd.  Lincoln Fabrics  NRC - IAR, materials and analysis  Intelligent Textiles  Corcan textiles  Allen Vanguard Devices/integrators/battery companies  Raytheon
  62. 62. Page 62 of 122 R&D Focus Area 4. Multifunctional materials Description Materials that can perform a range of functions (e.g., power conduction, communications, temperature control Tables 6 Relevant R&D "Disciplines to mash-up"  Smart fabrics  Low temperature semiconductor deposition  Nanotechnology  Ballistic materials science Potential Collaborators  Intelligent Textiles Ltd  IPE Stuttgart  MIT  Carleton University  NRC - IAR & IMI  BAE Systems  Allen Vanguard  Armorworks Inc.  Pacific Safety Products
  63. 63. Page 63 of 122 R&D Focus Area 5. A common, cross-platform, human/machine interface Description A common, cross-platform, human/machine interface Tables 6, 3 Relevant R&D  Cognitive human factors - HMI design  Display technology  Displays for all tasks and environments  Gaming engineers  Defence system integrators Potential Collaborators  Universities: Waterloo, Toronto, Carleton  Therefore Design  Kent Displays  Liteye Systems  Philips  EA Games  Nintendo  Advanced Human Factors Inc.  HUMANsystems Inc.  Rheinmetall  Raytheon  Corcan Textiles  Vetronics (General Dynamics)  WAMCO ?  ASU  Apple  Dell  Sony Panasonic  Sharp  Hunting gear designers
  64. 64. Page 64 of 122 R&D Focus Area 6. Anthropometric data collection Description Anthropometric data collection capability—CAD tool Tables 3 Relevant R&D  Blue screen technology  Automation of 3D CAD models (data capture and store)  Defining "proper sample"  Development of more detailed and capable models - feet vs. hands vs. head  Biometrics - full range - behavioural task analysis Potential Collaborators  Human Santos  Universities: Queen's, Toronto
  65. 65. Page 65 of 122 R&D Focus Area 7. Virtual simulators Description Virtual simulators Tables Relevant R&D  Ability to link up multiple people with the same scenario Potential Collaborators  Canadian Electronic Consortium  Film and special effects industry  Communications Research Centre  Gaming industry  Digital media companies  Carleton University HotLab  Tyco Electronics  LTi Software and Engineering
  66. 66. Page 66 of 122 R&D Focus Area 8. Exoskeleton Description Exoskeleton Tables Relevant R&D  Resolve power portability - power to exceed 72 hours Potential Collaborators  NRC Energy Lab  Ballard Power  Rockwell Collins  Ultralife  Lockheed Martin  B-Temia  Universities: Queen's, Simon Fraser
  67. 67. Page 67 of 122 R&D Focus Area 9. A business ecosystem Description A business ecosystem to create standards and enable integration and interoperability. Integrate Human/Systems Integration into system engineering processes. Tables 16, 20 Relevant R&D  Define and integration process  Create/identify key standards in areas by program/by nation  Develop/establish standing evaluation groups  ID and enable selection tools  Develop neutral standards body (IEEE-like) Potential Collaborators  Universities: Queen's, Waterloo, Carleton , universities known for systems engineering - HSI/HFE/applied psychology  Create a "Soldier Systems Integration Centre  Rowanwood  International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE)  NRC  NSERC  Industry members with strong HSI capabilities, such as automotive and electronic gaming
  68. 68. Page 68 of 122 5. Soldier Systems TRM Next Steps This chapter provides an abstract of the closing presentation by LCol. Bodner, describes how the roadmap will be developed further with a Capstone Report and Action Plan, and outlines ongoing roadmap activities on the ICee database and wiki SSTRM Next Steps and Workshop Closure, LCol. M.A. Bodner (DRDC) Reviews the objectives and outcomes of the current development phase of the Soldier Systems TRM. Describes overall TRM phases. Discusses the objectives of the upcoming implementation phase, its approach and governance. Introduces the Soldier Systems Technology Hub, which will be at the core of the implementation phase, and the hub participants. Outlines the ways in which the upcoming Capstone Report and Action Plan will be used to guide the next phase. The functions of the proposed Soldier systems Center are described. Outlines potential funding programs that might assist future R&D projects. Provides an example of how the SSTRM findings can be applied to solving soldier requirements. Show coherence of TRM process to DRDC's four interrelated roles. Describes short and long-term measures of success for the SSTRM. Outlines remaining Development Phase activities. Reiterates soldier systems challenges, and encourages workshop participants to stay engaged in the TRM process.
  69. 69. Page 69 of 122 Developing the Roadmap The content of the workshop, the briefings and input from the Human and Systems Integration Technical Steering Committee and the SSTRM Project Management Office, will be used to write a Soldier Systems TRM Capstone Report and Action Plan. Sharing Knowledge with the ICee Database and Wiki Knowledge will continue to be shared using the Soldier Systems TRM Innovation, Collaboration and Exchange Environment (ICee), which provides an online database and Wiki that can be used to collaborate with others who are interested in soldier systems. This password-protected tool includes sections for communicating restricted, sensitive information meant for a selected audience. The ICee is open to all who wish to participate in the Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap. Participants can contribute to both the database and the Wiki. For more information about the ICee tool visit http://www.soldiersystems-systemesdusoldat.collaboration.gc.ca
  70. 70. Page 70 of 122 A. Workshop Agenda Soldier Human and Systems Integration Workshop Tuesday, September 21 7h30 – 8h00 Registration - Continental breakfast 8h00 – 8h10 Welcome and Opening Remarks, Mr. T. Elliot, DG IC, Dr. D. Reding, DG DRDC Toronto and Mr. L. Garland (TFC CO-CHAIR) 8h10 – 8h20 Workshop Program and TRM Background, Mr. G. Nimmo (IC) 8h20 – 8h30 Workshop Process, Mr. P. Carr (StrategicReviewGroup.ca) 8h30 – 8h40 Soldier Systems TRM Update, LCol. M.A. Bodner (DRDC) 8h40 – 8h50 Future Soldier System Capability Areas, H&SI Requirements and Challenges—Part 1 Maj. J. Herbert (DLR5-6) 8h50 – 09h50 Outdoor Demo of Soldier Equipment/Usage 09h50 – 10h00 Future Soldier System Capability Areas, H&SI Requirements and Challenges—Part 2 Maj. Bruce Gilchrist (DBRT 5-5) 10h00 – 10h30 Coffee Break (ICee Registration & Networking) 10h30 – 11h00 Demo Debrief (Plenary), Mr. P. Carr 11h00 – 11h20 Introduction to Themes and Physical Ergonomics and Integration Challenges, Mrs. L. Bossi (DRDC Toronto) 11h20 – 11h40 Soldier Equipment/Vehicle/Communications Integration Requirements, Mr. M. A. Rochon (DSSPM-10-4-4) 11h40 – 12h00 USMC Approach to Soldier Burden, Mr. D. Tack (HSI Inc. Rep. USMCMERS Project) 12h00 – 13h30 Lunch (no host) – ICee Individual Training and Registration 13h00 – 13h30 Guest Speaker: Dr. Elizabeth S. Redden (ARL), Advanced Interfaces for Dismounted Warfighters 17h00 – 18h00 ICee Registration/Individual Training Sessions 17h00 – 18h00 Cash Bar Reception - Networking 13h30 – 13h50 Challenges of Soldier Protection Integration, Mr. S. Boyne (DRDC Toronto) 13h50 – 14h10 Requirements for Enhancing Soldier Perception, Situation Awareness and Cognition, Mr. D. Tack (HSI Inc.) 14h10 – 14h30 Soldier System Integration Challenges and Issues: An Industry Perspective, Mr.W. Downing, (Industry Rep TSC speech)
  71. 71. Page 71 of 122 14h30 – 14h40 Breakaway Session (1) Instructions, Mr. P. Carr 14h40 – 15h00 Coffee Break 15h00 – 16h00 Breakaway (1): Key Challenges for Each Theme (roundtable) 16h00 – 16h40 Report Back, Mr. P. Carr 16h40 – 16h45 Sticky Homework Instructions, Mr. P. Carr 16h45 – 17h00 ICee-Wiki Update, Mrs. M. Huard (IC-DND) Wednesday, September 22 7h30 – 8h00 Registration - Continental breakfast 8h00 – 8h05 Program of Day 2,Mr. G. Nimmo (IC) 8h05 – 8h25 Challenges and Tools for Effective Soldier System Integration, Mrs. L. Bossi (DRDC Toronto) 8h25 – 8h45 The Role of Biomechanics in Effective Soldier System Integration, Dr. J. Stevenson (Queens University) 8h45 – 9h05 Virtual Simulations for Soldiers : Concepts and Applications, Dr. F. Bernier (DRDC Valcartier) 9h05 – 9h25 Decision Aids for Soldiers, Dr. D. Bryant and Dr. J. Hollands (DRDC Toronto) 9h25 – 9h45 Soldier - Vehicle Integration: A TTCP Approach, Dr. M. Ducharme (DRDC Valcartier) 9h45 – 10h15 Coffee Break 10h15 – 10h25 Breakaway Session (2) Instructions, Mr. P. Carr 10h25 – 11h25 Breakaway (2): System Optimization: Solutions, Enabling Technologies, Processes and Tools 11h25 – 12h15 Report Back, M. P. Carr 12h15 – 13h30 Lunch (no host) Guest speaker: Mr. M.A. Blais (IC-ITO), Overview of the Strategic Aerospace and Defence Industrial Program (SADI) 13h30 – 14h30 ICee Contest Session, G. Nimmo (4 Industry/Academia Briefings) 14h30 – 14h40 Breakaway Session (3) Instructions, Mr. P. Carr 14h40 – 15h50 Breakaway (3): R&D Focus Areas & Potential Collaborations 15h00 – 15h30 Coffee Available 15h50 – 16h20 Report Back, Mr. P. Carr 16h20 – 16h30 SSTRM Next Steps and Workshop Closure, LCol. M.A. Bodner (DRDC)
  72. 72. Page 72 of 122 B. List of Participants Last Name First Name Title Company 1 Beaudoin R. (Bob) Vanguard Magazine 2 Boone Paul Combat Networks 3 Brusin Brankica Senior Investment Analyst, ITO IC 4 Campbell Ross Industry Canada 5 Cao Linli BM Technology Inc 6 Cochran Bruce Textile Technology consultant 7 Compton David Colt Canada 8 Cote Denis NRC 9 Culligan Iain Esterline | CMC Electronics 10 Darling Marie Rockwell Collins 11 Dec Albert BAE Systems 12 Della Vedova Ron Fellfab Inc. 13 Desbiens André Université Laval 14 Detombe John ADGA Group 15 Dolez Patricia Chercheure Ecole de Technologie Supérieure 16 Dontigny Sherrie Pacific Safety Products Inc. 17 Duheme Yvon Monterey Textiles 1996 Inc 18 Dyck Walter DND 19 Eastaugh Graham NRC 20 El Tassi Albert Director of Peerless Garments LP Peerless Garments LP 21 Espenant Mark DRDC 22 Farsi Fred Pikala Systems 23 Fiset Robert Levitt Safety Ltd 24 Frim John DND 25 Gagnon Michel Acolam inc
  73. 73. Page 73 of 122 Last Name First Name Title Company 26 Galasso Robert S. Prospice Consulting 27 Gaumond Claude Groupe medical gaumond 28 Goldenberg Andrew Engineering Services Inc. (ESI) 29 Goss Ben BAE Systems 30 Gregg Stewart Phirelight E Business Solutions 31 Hart Ken Industry Canada 32 Hatashita Kris DND 33 Hayes Kevin NRC 34 Haynes Justin W.L. Gore and Associates 35 Hofford Suzanne Martintek USA 36 Hosein Charlene Director, Professional Services Group Phirelight E-Business Solutions Inc. 37 Hulme Andrew Principal Consultant Hulme Consulting 38 Intwala Zarina DND 39 Jain Rajesh DND 40 Kan Adir Elbit Systems 41 Key Brent Combat Networks 42 King Philippa Ontario Centres of Excellence 43 Kirkpatrick Doug Phirelight E Business Solutions 44 Ko Frank University of British Colombia 45 Kondratova Irena NRC 46 Labbe Paul DRDC 47 Lacasse Pierre B-TEMIA Inc. 48 Lefebvre Vivier DRDC 49 Lopez Damian Thales Systems Canada 50 Lundahl Sonny AMITA Corporation 51 Mack Charles Department of National Defence 52 Maclean Iain Difco Performance Fabrics Inc
  74. 74. Page 74 of 122 Last Name First Name Title Company 53 Manuel Christopher Sierra Nevada Corporation 54 Masse Marc DRS Technologies 55 Matthews Rob L-3 Electronic Systems 56 McKoy Rocky Cantec Systems 57 McNiven Nancy DFAIT 58 Meloche John DRDC 59 Minduik Andrew NORLEANS Technologies Inc 60 Minduik Fred NORLEANS Technologies Inc 61 Mitchell Lyndon NRC 62 Mlynarek Jacek Groupe CTT 63 Mohan Dave Directorate Technical Airworthiness and Engineering Support 64 Nammour Georges DND 65 Nussbaum Doron Carleton University 66 O'Neill Laurence General Dynamics Canada 67 Parolin T.E.(Ernie) DND 68 Pawliw Carmen KERMEL 69 Playfoot Bruce Agile Manufacturing 70 Quinlan Kevin Apption Corporation 71 Rancourt Etienne Canada Economic Development for the Quebec Regions 72 Regush Murray DND 73 Reilly Tara DGPFSS 74 Sayeur Mathieu DND 75 Shewchenko Nicholas Biokinetics and Associates Ltd 76 Smith Fern DND 77 Srinivas Vijay SRCTec, Inc 78 Stroup Adam US Army RDECOM International Technology Center
  75. 75. Page 75 of 122 Last Name First Name Title Company 79 Tchagang Alain NRC 80 Tchaplia Ilya ITS Electronics 81 Trask Brett MDA 82 Tremblay Roger DND 83 Valeri Hon. Tony Special Advisor, Research Partnerships & Internationalization McMaster University 84 Van Den Hoeven Arnold NGRAIN - Vancouver 85 Van Ham Claude L-3 Electronic Systems 86 Vandeweerd Helena Tulmar Safety Systems INC 87 Webb James NRC 88 Webster Bill C4N Divn - Sierra Nevada Corporation 89 Wheat-Bain Becky General Dynamics Canada 90 Winship John GENTEX 91 Zavarella Jordan First UPS 92 Zhang Chris University of Saskatchewan
  76. 76. Page 76 of 122 C. Breakaway Session 1 Participant Input: Key Challenges by Theme This appendix contains the detailed participant input from Breakaway Session 1, described in Chapter 1 Exploring Operational Space: Challenges, Deficiencies, and Priorities, including: 1. Flipchart content from the workshop participants 2. Stickies content from the workshop participants The input themes and challenges are: Theme 1—Physical Integration 1. Improving system characterization (physical) 13. Improving socio/psychological readiness 2. Improving tools & processes (physical) 14. Enhancing/augmenting soldier perception 3. Reducing physical soldier burden (weight overload) 15. Reducing cognitive burden (information load) 4. Improving physical usability 16. Improving situation awareness/understanding 5. Improving modularity/configurability 17. Improving decision making 6. Improving fit, form, anthropometry 18. Enhancing displays/GUI 7. Improving interfaces compatibility 19. Improving human computer interaction 8. Improving body-worn equipment/sensors integration Theme 3—External Integration 9. Improving display/control hardware design 20. Improving integration with weapons Theme 2—Psychological/Cognitive Integration 21. Improving integration with C4I systems 10. Improving system characterization (psychological) 22. Improving integration with combat vehicles 11. Improving tools & processes (psychological) 23. Improving integration with autonomous vehicle/sensors 12. Reducing the effects of stressors 24. Enabling future capability growth
  77. 77. Page 77 of 122 1. Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants What follows is a compilation of the contents of the workshop participants' flipcharts from Breakaway Session 1, organized by table. Due to the consolidation of many tables into fewer tables before Breakaway Session 1, the table numbers are not sequential from 1- 20. Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1) Table 3, Theme 1—Physical Integration Issue Problems Solution Soldier Burden and Fit  Varying Soldier Sizes  Capacity to carry  Equipment does not ―scale‖  Each soldier trade/duty maintains different requirements  Proper metrics (i.e. when is equipment ‗on‘)  Procurement cycle is not ―flexible‖ (i.e. now vs. tomorrow is obsolete)  In-theatre supply and support  Mission ―fit‖ of personnel  Vehicles can accommodate person for mission(s)  Commercial-off-the-shelf solutions  Better requirement(s) definition (for ex: technology insertion, gating delivery, interactive capability enhancement)  R&D partnership incentives for industry/PWGSC/end-users  Evolutionary procurement process (i.e. user trials to be conducted in system development) to save money  Exploit tools which we already have (for ex: anthro of ‗naked‘ body vs. person with different types of army kit on  Access to timely and recent intelligence/feedback from users
  78. 78. Page 78 of 122 Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1) Table 6, Theme 2—Psychological/Cognitive Integration Issue Problems Solution Weight Burden (weight, inertia, balance)  Orders of magnitude are too high  Reduced mobility  Reduces operational effectiveness  Psychological tolerance to carry (homeostasis)  50% weight reduction (2020)  32% weight reduction (2025)  Improved balance by 50% (2020)  Improved inertia by 50% (2020) Thermal Burden (retained heat, ventilation, hydration/ core temperature/skin temperature)  Physiologically limiting for performance and safety  Psychological effects (i.e. decrease in perception, cognition, focussing)  Increased need to carry water weight  Improve thermal management by passive means (2025)  Improved thermal management by active means (2020) Encumbrance Burden (Rom measures, accessibility time, task completion time, total soldier system bulk/volume)  Decreased mobility and range of motion  Decreased accessibility to pockets, areas of the body, pouches  Increased energy used for motion(s)  Inelastic to human motion  Increased dependence on others  Increased soldier bulk  Increased Range of Motion by 50% (2020)  Decreased bulk / volume by 50% (2020)  Increased Range of Motion by 75% (2025)  Decreased bulk / volume by 75% (2025)
  79. 79. Page 79 of 122 Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1) Table 7, Theme 3—External Integration Issue Problems Solution Human Systems Integration in DND acquisition and system engineering  Lack of expertise  No legislated mandate  DRDC expertise by insufficient capacity  Human Systems Integration targets in Canada  ADM MAT Human System Integration section (2020)  Consortia of Human System Integration contracts available) (2020)  Canadian military standard 1472 (2020)  DRDC developed tools (2020)  Government legislation to implement change in DND acquisition practices (2025) Adaptability of system architecture  Acquisition process is slow  Requirements change / evolve  Technology evolves / changes quickly  Customer thinks they always know what they want  Requirement for legacy compatibility  Open architecture (hardware and software) (2020)  Spiral development (2020)  Give financial incentives to industry (2020)  Exploit CAPDEM – evolving requirements capturing system (2020)  Systems of systems architecture Vehicle integration  We do not know the anthropometry / clothes of current soldier population  Vehicle and soldier equipment procured separately  Vehicle – Commercial-off-the- shelf (limited design influence)  Politically – one cannot select soldiers based on size  Extra blast protection  Increased fit  Advancement in electronic and communications systems  Power charging capabilities  Maintaining SA with inside
  80. 80. Page 80 of 122 Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1) Table 8, Theme 1—Physical Integration Issue Problems Solution Clothing  Weight; not garments themselves but add-ons are the problem  Fire retardant  Longevity / replacement levels / cleaning of material  Look outside the box for new and meaningful ways to bring about improvements  Self-cleaning and long lasting fabrics  Cooling / Heating wearable fabrics for extreme weather  Garment recharge batteries, health monitors, camouflage  Technology to negate heat signatures  Passive / Active identity in garments (i.e. determining friend vs. foe)  Self assembling personal protective equipment  Built-in protection garments (i.e. Velcro adjustments) that allow replacement as well.  Fabric intended for multi-task use and provides more than basic cover (2020)(2025) Personal Protective Equipment ‗Rat‘ and not ‗Panda‘ (i.e. generic and multi-use not the hope for a ‗perfect‘ tool for a single job) Compressibility N/A N/A N/A
  81. 81. Page 81 of 122 Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1) Table 10, Theme 3—External Integration Issue Problems Solution System architecture and integration : Integration with processes – Targets and Procurement  Users need to understand design features and design trade off decisions  Percieved equipment performance  Understand equipment limitation during procurement to feed training  Return of lesions learned into training and procurement processes including long term impacts  Make equipment performance limitations more obvious – less training  Earlier and better integration of training and acquisition processes  Qualitative data for commanders to make better trade-off decisions. Systems architecture  The degree of modifications/ configuration/ adaptability will remain limited / sub-optimal until such time as there is a basic infrastructure/backbone on the soldier  Common power and database interface standards N/A N/A N/A
  82. 82. Page 82 of 122 Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1) Table 16, Theme 1—Physical Integration Issue Problems Solution Tools and processes  Too many choices  Trade-offs exist and a need to prioritize (risks, cost, safety, usability, complexity)  Client needs to understand decision processes/rationale  Entrench Human Factors design standards in acquisition process (i.e. embed Human Factors experts to work with industry in the creation of SOR)  Develop Human Factors tools, models surveys, decision aids, best practices, lessons learned. Personal weapons  Integration of sensors (e.g. laser / flash) with reduced weight  Added weight equates to a change in range of motion  Added weight raises fatigue and decreases accuracy  Handedness  Eye relief  Laser collimation  Accidental ejection of magazine  Personal Protective Equipment and its effect on reach  Cold weather and need for added padding/warmth needed on/for hands  Potential issues of changing one area while creating a new problem in another  Understand human performance and design guidelines  Minimize change in mass through integration  Adjustable N/A N/A N/A
  83. 83. Page 83 of 122 Flipchart Content from Workshop Participants (Breakaway Session 1) Table 18, Theme 2—Psychological/Cognitive Integration Issue Problems Solution Device and displays Need for greater human consideration in Human Factors  Providing the right information at the right time  More studies needed to define the information at the right time  Soldier should receive ‗formatted/filtered‘ data  Information must be available to the soldier when he/she requires it (2015) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Table 20, Theme 1—Physical Integration Issue Problems Solution Tools and processes used in acquisitions  Lack of standards / specifications  Lack of collaboration  Poor specifications  Collaboration between DND / PSGSC / Industry  Follow TRM process  Retool the procurement process with DND  Overall CADSI engagement with DND / PWGSC N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
  84. 84. Page 84 of 122 2. Stickies Content from Workshop Participants Theme 1—Physical Integration 1. Improving system characterization (physical) Technical Challenge Solution description Related Technologies Time Frame TRL (1-9) Key Players Requirements maturation Actual soldier systems will have to be tried for 5-10 years in the field before we see convergence of requirements all 2015 5  End customer  user  industry Structural applications of advanced composite materials Capability of current composite materials has almost reached its limit. Nanotechnology provides a promising approach for materials with improved properties. Explore the application of this technology in two-scales: constituents level and lamina level of composites  advanced composite materials with CNT  enhancements of composite with CNT to reduce stress concentrations 2020 4 5  NRC  DRDC  Universities Develop lightweight flexible fabrics to be used in PPE components face/arm protection Fabrics and components would have to be FR, with stand wear and tear from soldier, adaptable helmet and vest. Should disperse blow from stop metal must be comfortable, as well, have the ―cool‖ factor  develop fabric/FR fabric  develop print process of FR fabric  develop and design new fastening system that can take the dust 2015  scientists  fabric designers  plastic suppliers, moulded products Equipment standards that are unrealistic (i.e. helmet impact requirements of 14 feet/sec) Determine and clearly present why such standards are necessary and the research behind them. Recognize that technology might take a while to catch up , be open to interim solutions R&D helmet development 2015  industry  government  military
  85. 85. Page 85 of 122 2. Improving tools and processes (physical) Technical Challenge Solution description Related Technologies Time Frame TRL (1-9) Key Players Tools and processes , acquisition and collaboration between stakeholders Short term, TRM. Long term, overhaul procurement process, increase collaboration ICee 0-5 10-15 9  government  industry Physical ergonomics Exploit boss data sets and collect more to update/expand 97 anthro survey. Generate standard set of CAD models of range of sizes of soldiers and of soldier borne equipment to support integration/dev. studies  compile Boss data set  acquire/develop appropriate tools to use data to separate CAD of soldier and equipment  generate CAD data set and distribute 2015+ 9 6 6  DSSPM  DRDC  NRC  Academia  Improve tool and process Acquire biodynamics/biomechanics tool to support product development  acquire tool  develop necessary models and apply tool 2011 8 6  DRDC  industry Reduce size and mass of soldier system power Incorporate fuel cells and energy harvesting on conjunction with lithium secondary batteries and smart power management eliminate double a batteries  battery  fuel cell  power electronics 2020 2  Soldier data and power system is pushed to devices Develop and intergraded power and data management system which centralizes power source on soldier and which distributes power to devices (example: weapon sights) via connectors  power management software  power distribution via soldier clothing  centralized weapon sources to change/power external systems 2020 7 3 4  DRDC  Industry  academia 

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