The Soldier’s Challenge And Future Weapons Requirements By Major Bruce Gilchrist DLR 5-5  DND November 23-26, 2009 Toronto...
Outline <ul><li>Locating The Threat </li></ul><ul><li>Rules Of Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>The Shot </li></ul><ul><li>The...
The Weapon Effects “Onion” (Lethality Chain & Overall System Performance) Detect Recognize / Acquire Identify / Hit  Defea...
Locating The Threat <ul><li>Recognizing a threat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapon may not be carried openly </li></ul></ul><ul...
Rules of Engagement <ul><li>International Laws Of War </li></ul><ul><li>National Rules of Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
The Shot <ul><li>Target  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may appear with little or no warning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be visi...
5.56 NATO Error Budget Courtesy of  Mr Per G. Arvidsson 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 100 m 200 m 300 m 400 m 500 m 600 m meter Error in r...
The Shooter <ul><li>Average Canadian Soldier is 82 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum weight carried should be  </li></ul><ul><l...
The Shooter <ul><li>Sensors are critical but need power </li></ul><ul><li>AN/PVS-14 NVG (1 AA battery) </li></ul><ul><li>M...
The Shooter Does not want this:
Lethality NATO A soldier is incapacitated when he is  unable to carry out his main task , at the required level of perform...
Lethality <ul><li>Lethality results from </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption of the central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Bloo...
Current Small Arms
Current CF Small Arms Target  &  Training  Rifles Ranger  & SAR Rifles Signalling Devices Sniper  Rifles Shotguns  & Less ...
No foreign weapons for family training No breaching weapons/ modern grenades Manufactured  1943 to 1945 Manufactured  1945...
<ul><li>Lethality:  does not defeat increased personal protection </li></ul><ul><li>Ammunition:  Minimal multi-effects and...
Snipers Systems Project <ul><li>Will  provide a complete and fully integrated system of sniper equipment from clothing, ca...
Snipers System <ul><li>Sniper Systems Project </li></ul><ul><li>Will integrate the 8 sensors/devices used by the sniper sp...
Snipers Systems Project <ul><ul><li>Will also acquire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional medium & long range rifles...
SARP II Program <ul><li>SARP 2 will modernize or replace the CF small arm capability </li></ul>
Small Arms Replacement  Project 2 <ul><li>Value $1.0 Billion to 1.4 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>Three phases  </li></ul><ul>...
SARP 2 Major Issues  <ul><li>Coordination with Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What parts o...
<ul><li>The weapon is already the location for sensors and electronic devices </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing with a weapon is ...
Allow the soldier to select what  information  is displayed 1 or 2 default  configurations  That can be tailored Informati...
The Scene The Squad  Commander’s  view Fire team  on the balcony
Suspicious  activity  is noted Using the EO  on the weapon  the squad  commander  tries to identify  the threat but the  v...
How can the  squad commander  direct the fire  team to confirm  the identity? How do they know they are looking at the sam...
The Squad  Commander’s  view The Scene
The Fire Team’s  view The Scene
With networked  weapon  mounted  sensors
With Blue  Information From the BMS
The suspicious  person is noticed,  lased and the  information is  passed to the  Fire team The Commander also  passes an ...
The information is  injected into the  fire team weapon  sights
They use their EO  to rapidly locate, confirm and remove the threat
The Scene With networked  weapon  mounted  sensors Any squad member  can now quickly locate  and bring accurate fire  agai...
Requirement on the precision capability: Concept – Automated engagement of the target
Or in a machinegun Define the target area Position sensors stops weapon from firing if shots will be outside of the box
 
The Vision? <ul><li>The future vision is to develop a portable and integrated weapon system for the soldier and the sectio...
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SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Maj Gilchrist Soldier Challenge

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Major Gilchrist - Soldier Challenge November 2009

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  • GENTLEMEN WE ARE PROPOSING TO CONDUCT SARP 2 IN THREE SEPARATE PHASES EACH LASTING ABOUT SIX YEARS SARP 2 WILL MODERNIZE OR REPLACE MOST OF ALL THE SMALL ARMS AND SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION USED BY THE CANADIAN FORCES LESS THOSE HELD BY THE CADETS OR CANSOFCOM. HIGHLIGHTED HERE ARE THOSE THAT WE INTEND TO REPLACE IN PHASE 1 THERE ARE FOUR CAPABILITIES THAT HAVE BEEN SCHEDULED TO BE ADDRESSED IN PHASE ONE. THESE ARE PISTOLS - REPLACE THE THE 9MM BROWNING AND SIG SAUER MODEL 225 REPLACE THE .303 LEE ENFIELD NOW USED BY THE CANADIAN RANGERS MODERNIZE THE 12 GAUGE SHOTGUN AND SHOTGUN AMMUNITION REPLACE THE 40MM GRENADE LAUNCHER AND MODERNIZE THE AMMUNITION
  • SARP II has identified small arms capability deficiencies which are listed in this slide. These deficiencies include, an inability to defeat future body armour, limited non-lethal capabilities, inconsistent sensor visibility during the day and night, and inadequate noise and flash signatures. In addition, integration issues are significant , as demonstrated by Capt. Gilchrist – (avoiding the Christmas tree). Deficiencies in mechanical, electronic and human systems integration are important at the weapons level. Also, communications and networking integration deficiencies exist with respect to linking to the integrated soldier system platform and conducting operations based on the new Army adaptive dispersed operations concept (ADO). It should be noted that reduced weight , a human systems integration issue, is an important factor, in that implementation of improvements in other areas is dependent on the ability to reduce the weight of the basic weapon. (55 s)
  • ALAWS – I’M NOT GOING TO GET INTO TOO MUCH DETAIL OTHER THAN TO SAY THAT THE DIRECTION TO CLOSE OUT THE PROJECT HAS BEEN RECEIVED. IS THAT THE FINAL WORD? I DON’T KNOW BUT AS WE PUSH AHEAD WITH THE CLOSE OUT REPORT THERE MAY BE SOME ADDITONAL WORK DONE. LAST BULLET – MORE TO FOLLOW. Note that the shelf life of the Eryx missiles and maintain operational level inventories may become a factor
  • ALAWS – I’M NOT GOING TO GET INTO TOO MUCH DETAIL OTHER THAN TO SAY THAT THE DIRECTION TO CLOSE OUT THE PROJECT HAS BEEN RECEIVED. IS THAT THE FINAL WORD? I DON’T KNOW BUT AS WE PUSH AHEAD WITH THE CLOSE OUT REPORT THERE MAY BE SOME ADDITONAL WORK DONE. LAST BULLET – MORE TO FOLLOW. Note that the shelf life of the Eryx missiles and maintain operational level inventories may become a factor
  • ALAWS – I’M NOT GOING TO GET INTO TOO MUCH DETAIL OTHER THAN TO SAY THAT THE DIRECTION TO CLOSE OUT THE PROJECT HAS BEEN RECEIVED. IS THAT THE FINAL WORD? I DON’T KNOW BUT AS WE PUSH AHEAD WITH THE CLOSE OUT REPORT THERE MAY BE SOME ADDITONAL WORK DONE. LAST BULLET – MORE TO FOLLOW. Note that the shelf life of the Eryx missiles and maintain operational level inventories may become a factor
  • SSTRM - StrategicReviewGroup.ca - Maj Gilchrist Soldier Challenge

    1. 1. The Soldier’s Challenge And Future Weapons Requirements By Major Bruce Gilchrist DLR 5-5 DND November 23-26, 2009 Toronto, Ont. Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Weapons: Lethal and Non-Lethal Workshop
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Locating The Threat </li></ul><ul><li>Rules Of Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>The Shot </li></ul><ul><li>The Shooter </li></ul><ul><li>Lethality </li></ul><ul><li>Current Weapons and Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas and vision of the future </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Weapon Effects “Onion” (Lethality Chain & Overall System Performance) Detect Recognize / Acquire Identify / Hit Defeat Protection (if required) Desired Target Effect(s)
    4. 4. Locating The Threat <ul><li>Recognizing a threat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapon may not be carried openly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camouflage may be civilian clothes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have detailed local knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be one person or many </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May use other persons as shields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May want to us to cause collateral damage including casualties </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Rules of Engagement <ul><li>International Laws Of War </li></ul><ul><li>National Rules of Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More restrictive than international law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive identification of a threat/hostile intent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not require escalation of force measures </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The Shot <ul><li>Target </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may appear with little or no warning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be visible for 1 or 2 seconds at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be obscured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be only partially visible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be moving between well camouflaged fire positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may not be concerned with surviving the engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe wearing body armor (protected target) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Error Budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shooting Accurately </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 5.56 NATO Error Budget Courtesy of Mr Per G. Arvidsson 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 100 m 200 m 300 m 400 m 500 m 600 m meter Error in range estimation with +/-20 % Target lead for one meter per second Shooting uphill or downhill 10 degrees 20° C temperature difference Drift due to rotation Wind five meters per second Firing from kneeling position (1 00 m m per 100 m) Weapon and ammunition (50 mm per 100 m)
    8. 8. The Shooter <ul><li>Average Canadian Soldier is 82 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum weight carried should be </li></ul><ul><li>32% of 82 kg = 26.2 kg </li></ul><ul><li>But the equipment weighs </li></ul><ul><li>Ammo and Weapons – 9 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Ballistic Protection – 10 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing, Indiv Eqpt, Load Carriage – 9 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Radio, NVGs, LAD, GPS + batteries – 6 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Water – 3 kg </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL – 37kg + at temp above 40C </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Shooter <ul><li>Sensors are critical but need power </li></ul><ul><li>AN/PVS-14 NVG (1 AA battery) </li></ul><ul><li>Maglite (2 AA battery) </li></ul><ul><li>PRR (2 AA battery) </li></ul><ul><li>GPS (3 AA battery) </li></ul><ul><li>EOTech Holographic Sight (2 AA battery) </li></ul><ul><li>AN/PVS-505 Kite Sight (2 AA battery) </li></ul><ul><li>AN/PAC-4C model 7500 Laser Pointer (2 AA battery) </li></ul><ul><li>Insight M3X Tactical Flashlight (2 Li-ion CR123A batteries) </li></ul><ul><li>BCID Beacon - TAG IR (1AA battery) </li></ul><ul><li>Spares – Mission duration dependant </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL –At least 15 AA and 2 CR123 batteries daily </li></ul><ul><li>Op MEDUSA, one Infantry company used over 17500 AA batteries in the space of 2 weeks! </li></ul>
    10. 10. The Shooter Does not want this:
    11. 11. Lethality NATO A soldier is incapacitated when he is unable to carry out his main task , at the required level of performance, because of being wounded. A soldier is suppressed when he is unable or unwilling to carry out his task effectively , because of the actual or perceived threat, or because of fear (in particular of being wounded).
    12. 12. Lethality <ul><li>Lethality results from </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption of the central nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Blood loss </li></ul><ul><li>Infection </li></ul><ul><li>5 Important Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Shot Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Shot Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Shot Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Shot Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Everything Else – calibre, barrel length, etc </li></ul>
    13. 13. Current Small Arms
    14. 14. Current CF Small Arms Target & Training Rifles Ranger & SAR Rifles Signalling Devices Sniper Rifles Shotguns & Less Lethal Weapons Assault Rifles & Carbines Light Machineguns Medium Machineguns Heavy Machineguns Sub Machineguns Pistols
    15. 15. No foreign weapons for family training No breaching weapons/ modern grenades Manufactured 1943 to 1945 Manufactured 1945 to 1953 Not compatible with new ammunition Acquired for pest/wildlife control Not compatible with modern night vision or other sensors
    16. 16. <ul><li>Lethality: does not defeat increased personal protection </li></ul><ul><li>Ammunition: Minimal multi-effects and few non-lethal capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy: Requires significant level of training for effect </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent Visibility: Even with viewing aids, visibility by day/night is different. </li></ul><ul><li>Signature Management: Noise/flash are distinctive. </li></ul><ul><li>Integration/Networking: No direct link to the Soldier System </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Dispersed Operations (ADO): Difficulty in integrating current small arms into the net-enabled and dispersed concept of ADO </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics: Poor weight, compactness and operating commonality </li></ul><ul><li>Ancillaries: Ancillaries available but not integrated. </li></ul>Current Capability Deficiencies
    17. 17. Snipers Systems Project <ul><li>Will provide a complete and fully integrated system of sniper equipment from clothing, camouflage, sensors, communications, weapons, night vision equipment, to transportation. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Snipers System <ul><li>Sniper Systems Project </li></ul><ul><li>Will integrate the 8 sensors/devices used by the sniper spotter into 1 system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laser range finder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Night vision system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High power telescope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GPS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inclinometer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weather station (air pressure, humidity, air temperature, wind speed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IR thermometer (ammunition temperature) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ballistic calculator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The system output, the ballistic solution, will be inserted directly into the sniper’s weapon sight </li></ul>
    19. 19. Snipers Systems Project <ul><ul><li>Will also acquire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional medium & long range rifles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A sniper short range semi-automatic rifle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New ammunition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized light weight clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized light weight protective equipment (helmet, frag vest etc) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special individual and collective camouflage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight communication equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battle management system </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. SARP II Program <ul><li>SARP 2 will modernize or replace the CF small arm capability </li></ul>
    21. 21. Small Arms Replacement Project 2 <ul><li>Value $1.0 Billion to 1.4 Billion </li></ul><ul><li>Three phases </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1 (Tentative 2012-2015) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pistol, Ranger Rifle, Grenade Launcher, Shotguns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 (Tentative 2015-2018) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDW, Boarding Party Weapons, Breaching systems, Grenades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 3 (Tentative 2018-2022) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infantry Assault Weapons & Machineguns </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. SARP 2 Major Issues <ul><li>Coordination with Integrated Soldier System Project (ISSP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What parts of the soldier system are to be weapon mounted & why </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New operational concepts - ADO </li></ul><ul><li>US Army/NATO decision on calibers </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of Terminal Ballistics performance </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the training requirement </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>The weapon is already the location for sensors and electronic devices </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing with a weapon is natural for a soldier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Export information used by accurate pointing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Battle Management System to help the soldier locate the tgt in the weapon sights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accurate pointing can be used to enhance the squad SA if the EO devices export information & images to the network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be geo-referenced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time stamped </li></ul></ul>Weapons and the Network
    24. 24. Allow the soldier to select what information is displayed 1 or 2 default configurations That can be tailored Information from the network IFF Direction to an assigned target Remaining Ammunition Unknown Friendly Enemy
    25. 25. The Scene The Squad Commander’s view Fire team on the balcony
    26. 26. Suspicious activity is noted Using the EO on the weapon the squad commander tries to identify the threat but the view is obstructed
    27. 27. How can the squad commander direct the fire team to confirm the identity? How do they know they are looking at the same person?
    28. 28. The Squad Commander’s view The Scene
    29. 29. The Fire Team’s view The Scene
    30. 30. With networked weapon mounted sensors
    31. 31. With Blue Information From the BMS
    32. 32. The suspicious person is noticed, lased and the information is passed to the Fire team The Commander also passes an image of the person with the location information
    33. 33. The information is injected into the fire team weapon sights
    34. 34. They use their EO to rapidly locate, confirm and remove the threat
    35. 35. The Scene With networked weapon mounted sensors Any squad member can now quickly locate and bring accurate fire against a threat or put extra eyes on a potential threat
    36. 36. Requirement on the precision capability: Concept – Automated engagement of the target
    37. 37. Or in a machinegun Define the target area Position sensors stops weapon from firing if shots will be outside of the box
    38. 39. The Vision? <ul><li>The future vision is to develop a portable and integrated weapon system for the soldier and the section which will increase weapon effectiveness, provide scalable lethal and non-lethal effects, against a variety of targets at the desired range/conditions (night & day) while minimizing system weight, i.e. : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced target acquisition and hand-off through networking with ISSP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced target identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced hit probability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable target effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For lethal cases: Rapid incapacitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For non-lethal cases: Target neutralisation with reversible effects </li></ul></ul></ul>
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