Photo from Spartacus InternationalPhoto from shomanchebat.com
Due to racial discrimination African Americans in the military were not allowed to attend flight school until 1941.Those finally permitted to participate in the flight training were part of what the military called an “experiment.”The experiment was to create a segregated fighter squadron and provide aviation training to black pilots, mechanics, and ground support.The experiment took place at the airfield adjacent to Alabama’s Tuskegee Institute.
Images of the facility
Eleanor Roosevelt insisted on having her photograph taken with Charles Anderson when she visited Tuskegee Institute. She also insisted that the photograph be developed before she left Alabama. She and Charles continued to correspond with each other after her visit.
Scan of documentThis is a telegraph that Charles Anderson sent to Eleanor Roosevelt. In the telegraph, Mrs. Roosevelt was credited as being a major part of the program moving from being called The Tuskegee Experiment to the pilots being known as The Tuskegee Airmen.
When the Tuskegee Airmen in the 99th Fighter Squadron arrived in North Africa, they flew the Curtiss P-40L War Hawk.When the men of the 332nd Fighter Group arrived in Taranto, Italy, they were initially assigned the task of coastal patrol flying an obsolete aircraft the Bell P-39 Airacobra
In May, 1944 the 332nd Fighter Group under the command of Colonel Benjamin O. Davis were assigned to fly escort missions with the 306th Wing of the 15th Fighter Command. They were given the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, affectionately called "The Jug" because of its shape. P-47's were well armed and could perform well at high altitude in the escort role as well as ground attack aircraft. The pilots of the 332nd Fighter Group painted the tails of their P-47's red, thus their nickname "Red Tails". Their reputation for protecting bombers would slaowly grow and later bomber crews would affectionately call them Red-Tail Angels.
The main fighter flown by the pilots of the 332nd Fighter Group from 1944 until the end of the war was the North American P-51 Mustang fighter. The P-51 was the best all around fighter produced by the United States during World War II and was flown in both the European and Pacific Theaters.
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWho were the Tuskegee Airmen and what role did they play in World War II?
PERFORMANCE STANDARDSS5H6 The student will explain thereasons for America’s involvement inWorld War II. e. Describe the effects of rationing andthe changing role of women and African-Americans; include “Rosie the Riveter” andthe Tuskegee Airmen.
RACIAL INEQUALITY“Separate but Equal” was a myth. Racial discrimination was reality. Separate, yes; equal, not in the least.
AFRICAN AMERICAN ROLES IN THE MILITARY World War I World War IIRestricted from combat. Temporary desegregation calledAfrican Americans were not used for combat fighting on bothoverseas. (US held territories) fronts.Limited number place in theinfantry. (Assigned to the InfantryFrench) PilotsMost performed service duties Nurses unloading ships transporting Tankers burying the dead
PUBLIC LAW 18 • April 3, 1939 Public Law 18 was passed • Expand the Air Corps • A section within the law gave African Americans the opportunity for advancement within the military.• A training program to be located within a black college would train blacks for services in a range of areas in the Air Corps.
TUSKEGEE EXPERIMENT• African Americans allowed into flight school in 1941.• “The Experiment”• Segregated fighter squadron• Provided training to black pilots, mechanics, and ground support• Airfield adjacent to Alabama’s Tuskegee Institute.
BACKGROUND OF THE TUSKEGEEOFFICIAL TRAINING FACILITY AIRMEN • Founded in 1881 as a facility to educate African Americans. • Located in Tuskegee, Alabama just a few miles east of Montgomery.
THE TUSKEGEE AIRMEN• Educated African Americans trained at Tuskegee Institute• 99th squadron in Northern Africa• The 332nd fighter group• Shot down over 200 enemy planes during World War II.• Had the lowest loss record of any fighter group.• Changed African Americans’ status in the military and consequently, the nation.
BIBLIOGRAPHYBryan, J. (2003). Fighting for respect: African American soldiers inWWII. Retrieved from:http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/wwi/articles/fightingforrespect.aspxCarnegie Library at Tuskegee Institute. (1906). Retrieve from:http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Multimedia.jsp?id=m-4391Jim Crow Laws Image. Retrieve February 25, 2012, from:http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAjimcrow.htmKrause, L. (2001). Black soldiers in WW II: Fighting enemies at home andabroad.National Geographic News. Retrieved from:http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/02/0215_tuskegee.html
BIBLIOGRAPHY(CONTINUED)Lee, U. (2000). The employment of negro troops. Retrieved from:http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/11-4/Liberman, A. (1943). United We Win, Retrieved from:http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/united_we_win/images_html/united_we_win.htmlMarist College. (n.d.). The Tuskegee Airmen and Eleanor Roosevelt. Retrieved from:http://docs.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/tuskegee.htmlRaymond, M. (2009). Tuskegee AAF, Retrieved from:http://www.flickr.com/photos/optikalblitz/3524250556/
BIBLIOGRAPHY(CONTINUED)Rice, M. (2000). Tuskegee Airmen: Lonely Eagles to Red Tail Angels. Retrieved from:http://logicalthinker2.tripod.com/Tuskegeeaircraft.htmlTuskegee AAF. (1945) Retrieved from:http://www.airfieldsfreeman.com/AL/Airfields_AL_Montgomery.htmTuskegee Airmen. (2011). In The Encyclopedia of Alabama.http://encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Article.jsp?id=h-3154West, J. (2005), Tuskegee Airmen and their B-25, Retrieved from:http://www.indianamilitary.org/ATTERBURYAAF/Tuskegee%20Airmen/TuskeggeAirmen.htmWilson, J. E., Jr. (1998). World War II: 761st tank battalion. Historynet.com. Retrievedfrom http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/11-4/chapter3.htm