GEOGRAPHYChapter 5- NaturalVegetation And Wildlife By Abbas Sultan,
Before We Start, I Would Like You To Know What Is Actually Meant By Natural Vegetation.Natural vegetation means any plantsor trees that grow on their own‘naturally’ without any form ofhuman intervention. Certain type ofplants of trees have a natural place oforigin or habitat, and before humansbegan to harvest vegetation and cutdown trees, this type of vegetationwould grow naturally with chemicalssuch as pesticide, to manipulate itsgrowth . out any form of man-made
TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FORESTS• Deciduous means "falling off at maturity" or "tending to fall off", and is typically used in reference to trees or shrubs that lose their leaves seasonally, and to the shedding of other plant structures such as petals after flowering or fruit when ripe. In a more specific sense, deciduous means the dropping of a part that is no longer needed, or falling away after its purpose is finished. In plants it is the result of natural processes. Deciduous has a similar meaning when referring to animal parts, such as deciduous antlers in deer, or deciduous teeth, also known as baby teeth, in some mammals (including human children).
A Deciduous Forest In Autumn When autumn arrives and thedays are shorter or when plantsare drought-stressed, deciduoustrees decrease chlorophyllpigment production, allowingother pigments present in theleaf to becomeapparent, resulting in non-greencolored foliage. The brightestleaf colors are produced whendays grow short and nights arecool, but remain abovefreezing. These other pigmentsinclude carotenoids that areyellow, brown, and orange.
A Deciduous Forest In WinterThe absence of leaves improves windtransmission of pollen for wind-pollinatedplants and increases the visibility of theflowers to insects in insect-pollinatedplants. This strategy is not without risks,as the flowers can be damaged by frostor, in dry season regions, result in waterstress on the plant. Nevertheless, there ismuch less branch and trunk breakagefrom glaze ice storms when leafless, andplants can reduce water loss due to thereduction in availability of liquid waterduring cold winter days.
Mixed Deciduous Forest In SpringBefore the leaves die, some ofthe food material they contain isdrawn back into the twigs andbranches where it is stored andused in the following spring.The warmer temperatures ofSPRING signal to the trees thatthey can grow new leaves again,and restart the cycle.
Deciduous Woody PlantsThe deciduous characteristic has developedrepeatedly among woody plants. Treesinclude Maple, many Oaks, Elm, Aspen, and Birch, among others, as well as a numberof coniferousgenera, such as Larch and Met sequoia.Deciduous shrubsinclude honeysuckle, viburnum, and manyothers. Most temperate woody vines are alsodeciduous, including grapes, poisonivy, Virginia, creeper, wisteria, etc. Thecharacteristic is useful in plant identification;for instance in parts of Southern California andthe American Southeast, deciduousand evergreen oak species may grow side byside.
Temperature Deciduous ForestTemperate deciduous forest biomesare plant communities distributed inNorth and South America, Asia andEurope. They have formed underclimatic conditions which have greatseasonable temperature variabilitywith growth occurring during warmsummers and leaf drop in autumn anddormancy during cold winters. Theseseasonally distinctive communitieshave diverse life forms that areimpacted greatly by the seasonalityof their climate, mainly temperatureand precipitation rates. Thesevarying and regionally differentecological conditions producedistinctive forest plant communitiesin different regions.
Tropical and subtropical deciduous forest.The tropical and subtropical dry broadleafforest biome, also known as tropical dryforest, is located at tropical and subtropicallatitudes. Though these forests occur inclimates that are warm year-round, and mayreceive several hundred centimeters of rainper year, they have long dry seasons whichlast several months and vary withgeographic location. Theseseasonal droughts have great impact on allliving things in the forest.
Tropical Ever-Green ForestsTropical evergreen forests are usually found inareas receiving more than 200 cm of rainfalland having a temperature of 15 °C to 30 °C.They occupy about seven per cent of theEarths land surface and harbour more thanhalf of the world’s plants and animals.In India, evergreen forests are found onthe western slopes of the WesternGhats in States such as Maharashtra, Kerala and Karnataka. And also found inAssam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya,Nagaland, Tripura, West Bengal andAndaman and Nicobar Islands. They arealso found in the hills of Jaintia and Khasi.Some of the trees found in Indian TropicalForestsare rosewood, mahogany and ebony. Bamboo and reeds are also common.
Mangrove ForestsMangroves are various kinds of trees up to mediumheight and shrubs that grow in saline coastalsediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics –mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. Theremaining mangrove forest areas of the world in 2000was 53,190 square miles (137, 760 km²) spanning to118 countries and territories The word is used in atleast three senses: most broadly to refer to thehabitat and entire plant assemblage or mangal forwhich the terms mangrove forest biome, mangroveswamp and mangrove forest are also used, to referto all trees and large shrubs in the mangroveswamp, and narrowly to refer to themangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, oreven more specifically just to mangrove trees of thegenus Rhizophora.
Ecology Of The Mangrove Forests.Mangrove "swamps" are found in tropical andsubtropical tidal areas. Areas where mangaloccur include estuaries and marine shorelines.The intertidal existence to which these treesare adapted represents the major limitation tothe number of species able to thrive in theirhabitat. High tide brings in salt water, and whenthe tide recedes, solar evaporation of theseawater in the soil leads to further increases insalinity. The return of tide can flush out thesesoils, bringing them back to salinity levelscomparable to that of seawater. At low tide,organisms are also exposed to increases intemperature and desiccation, and are then cooledand flooded by the tide. Thus, in order for aplant to survive in this environment, it musttolerate broad ranges of salinity, temperature,and moisture, as well as a number of other keyenvironmental factors. It is unsurprising,perhaps, that only a select few species make upthe mangrove tree community.
About 110 species are considered "mangroves", inthe sense of being a tree that grows in such asaline swamp, though only a few are from themangrove plant genus, Rhizophora. However, a givenmangrove swamp typically features only a smallnumber of tree species. It is not uncommon for amangrove forest in the Caribbean to feature onlythree or four tree species. For comparison, thetropical rainforest biome contains thousands oftree species. That is not to say that mangroveforests lack diversity. Though the treesthemselves are few in species, the ecosystem thatthese trees create provides a home for a greatvariety of other organisms.
Threats and conservationThe remaining deciduouswoodland continues tobe cleared for grazingland, while the pasturethat has been created isitself threatened byovergrazing and invasiveweeds. One large area ofnatural forest remainsin southern Andhra
MONTANE FORESTSMontane grasslands and scrublands isa biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. Thebiome includes high altitude grasslandsand shrublands around the world.Montane grasslands and shrublands located abovethe tree line are commonly known as alpine tundra,which occurs in mountain regions around the world.Below the tree line are subalpine and montanegrasslands and shrublands. Stunted subalpineforests are known as krummholz, and occur justbelow the tree line, where harsh, windy conditionsand poor soils create dwarfed and twisted forests ofslow-growing trees.
THE THORN FORESTS AND SCRUBS The Deccan thorn scrub forests is a xeric shrubland ecoregionof Indi a and northernmost Sri Lanka, a large area that was once forest and home to large numbers of elephants and tigers.
There are about 17,500 taxa offlowering plants from India. The IndianForest Act, 1927 helped to improveprotection of the natural habitat.
Threatened Plant Species In India Number of Threat Category (IUCN) species Extinct 19 Extinct/Endangered 43 Endangered 149 Endangered/Vulnerable 2 Vulnerable 108 Rare 256 Indeterminate 719 Insufficiently Known 9 No information 1441 Not threatened 374 TOTAL 3120
Threatened Animal speciesNumber of species per group according toIUCN threat categories (1994)
Flora Of IndiaThe Flora of India is one of the richestof the world due to a wide range ofclimate, topology and environmentsin the country. It is thought there areover 15000 species of floweringplants in India, which account for 6percent of the total plant species inthe world. and probably many morespecies
Corbett National ParkCorbett National Park offersdifferent kinds of vegetation allalong its varied topography.....110species of trees, 51 species of shrubsand over 33 species of bamboo . Inaddition, there are trees such aspalas (Butea monospermous, theflame of the forest), which sets theforest alight with the bright orange Corbett had the proud distinction of beingred color, offering a spectacular sight chosen as the venue for the inaugurationto parks visitors. Over 50 mammals, of Project Tiger in India. The rich biodiversity of the Reserve is partly580 birds and 25 reptile species attributed to the variety of habitat foundhave been listed in the Corbett here. Due to the location of the Reservewhich is known as Heaven for Tigers. in the foothills of the Central Himalayas both Himalayan and peninsular flora and fauna is found in the Reserve.
Bandhavgarh National ParkBandhavgarh Flora And FaunaBandhavgarh is very rich in floral diversity due to combination oflandforms and soil types, and the moist character of the region.Forests types of Bandhavgarh can be identified as Moist Peninsular SalForest and Southern tropical Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest andSouthern Tropical Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest. The reserve has over600 species of flowering plants, 50 species of aquatic plants and 18species of rare plants. Bandhavgarh National Parks has variety of treethat one may comes across during visit
‘India’s Natural Vegetation Has UndergoneMany Changes Due To Various Factors’What Are They?-The Growing Demand ForCultivated Land.-Development Of IndustrialAnd Mining.-Urbanization-Over Grazing Of Pastures
A Note On The Indian Flora.-47,000 Plant Species-10th In World And 4th In Asia.-15,000 Flowering Plants-6% Of The World’s Total.-India Is Also Rich In Non-Flowering Plants Like Ferns, Algae And Fungi.-Flora Ranges From One Found In Tropics To The ArcticRegion, Due To The Country’s Varied Relief ,Temperature And RainfallConditions.- Most Of Himalayan And Peninsular Regions Are CoveredWith Indigenous Vegetation. These Species Are Found In The North Indian PlainsAnd The Thar Desert.-Owning To Destruction Of Forests For Agriculture And Industrial Development ,Several Plants Are Facing Existence.-The Vegetal Cover Of India ,In large Parts, Is No More ‘natural’ In A Real Sense.Except Some Inaccessible Regions Like The Thar Desert Or The Himalayas, TheVegetation Has Been Destroyed In Some Places Or Replaced Or Degraded ByHuman Occupancy.
Have You Ever Wondered ‘WhatInfluences The Kind Of vegetationFound In The Mountains?’
-The Decrease In TemperatureWith Increasing Altitude Leads ToThe Corresponding Change InNatural Vegetation. There Is ASuccession of Natural VegetationBelts In The Same Order As WeSee From The Tropical To TheTundra Region.