Apple and the root of innovation


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The slides are to share a story about Xerox PARC and Apple in 1979 and some investigation outputs

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  • Story about mouse!Missed the network!
  • - Something you're using at this very moment was invented at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center. Xerox PARC is where the first graphical user interface was invented (for the Xerox Alto) and the first Ethernet cables were connected. It's home to the first laser printer and the first WYSIWYG text editors. Adobe Systems? Ubiquitous computing?- The use of icons, windows, point-and-click commands, local area networks and other features that are now part of the foundation of the personal computer industry were developed by Parc, but exploited by others
  • More invention !!!
  • Metcalfe left PARC in January, 1979. He formed 3COM Corporation. He persuaded Xerox to license the Ethernet technology. Spurred by Metcalfe’s efforts, Digital, Intel, and Xerox formed an alliance [DIX] to define a standard for Ethernet LAN communication. 3Com + IBM PC => core value proposition became the ability to share files and printers via an Ethernet compatible with the nascent IBM PC standard. Adobe: Charles Geshke and John Warnock, left PARC in 1983 to commercial PostScript, allows printers to use digital fonts to reproduce a wide variety of characters generated from a PCSynOptics: Andy Ludwick and Ron Schmidt left PARC in 1985 to form company that enable Ethernet technology to run over fiber optic cabling. Manage to survive from 1982 until its sale in 1991 to IBM- Metaphor was created by David Liddle and Donald Massaro in 1982. It developed a series of technologies that allowed non-technical users (knowledge workers) to create sophisticated queries of large data bases.LiveWorks: formed in 1992. The company was set up to commercialize an innovative electronic whiteboard, could capture comments on one board, and then transmit and display those comments on a separate white board => coordinating group work activities between remote sites. The company was shut down in 1997, after losing tens of millions of dollarsDocumentum: The company was formed in January of 1990, by Howard Shao and John Newton, under the aegis of Xerox’s Technology Ventures (XTV) group. They soon discovered an opportunity to help customers’ teams manage documents more effectively- One PARC spinoff, Powerset Inc., was formed to make use of natural language technologies to allow users to do Web searches based on phrases, not just keywords. Xerox retained an equity stake and cashed it in when Powerset was bought for more than $100 million in 2008 by Microsoft, which incorporates the technology in its Bing search engine.
  • “The innovator says go. The company says stop—and maybe the only lesson of the legend of Xerox PARC is that what happened there happens, in one way or another, everywhere.”“Jobs proposed a deal: he would allow Xerox to buy a hundred thousand shares of his company for a million dollars—its highly anticipated I.P.O. was just a year away—if PARC would “open its kimono””
  • But in 1973 the personal-computer market didn't exist, so Xerox didn't really know what to do with the Alto.Shortly thereafter Xerox finally realized its mistake and began marketing the Xerox Star, a graphical workstation based on technology developed for the Alto. But it was too little, too late.
  • Apple and the root of innovation

    1. 1. Appleand the root of Innovation Presented by: Pham Dang Hung (Faculty of Business Information Systems) Email:
    2. 2. ContentsA storyaboutSteve Jobs!
    3. 3. Apple Inc.
    4. 4. Steve JobsApple’s co-founder,leaderand theInnovator!
    5. 5. An event in 1994 Apple sued Microsoft for stealing GUI (Graphical User Interface) design! But ... at the same time, Apple was sued by another company for the same reason!
    6. 6. Xerox Alto and Apple Macintosh How did he get this?
    7. 7.  XEROX PARC!
    8. 8. How is his idea? “Good artist copy, Great artist steal”
    9. 9.  A deal from Steve Jobs! “Jobs proposed a deal: he would allow Xerox to buy a hundred thousand shares of his company for a million dollars—its highly anticipated I.P.O. was just a year away—if PARC would “open its kimono”” (1979)
    10. 10. Parc more inventions
    11. 11. Not onlyApple 1991 Metcalfe, 1979 David Liddle and Donald Massaro in 1982 PostScript SynOptics Ludwick and Ron Schmidt, 1985, fiber optic Liveworks 1992 Charles Simonyi Charles Geshke and Documentum John Warnock 1983 Howard Shao and John Newton 1990
    12. 12. SummaryLook around, look back and get a smart deal! Become next Steve Jobs!
    13. 13. References
    14. 14. Thank you foryour attention!
    15. 15. Backup slides
    16. 16. Why Xerox did not see what it had?
    17. 17. Hesitation! “After their unhappy experience with Scientific Data Systems (SDS, later XDS) in the late 1960s, the firm was reluctant to get into the computer business again with commercially untested designs.”
    18. 18. Slow in realizing value.. Business Protection..
    19. 19. The opportunity was over..
    20. 20. Business Protection again..
    21. 21. The core competency of the corporation (1990) C.K Prahalad and Gary Hamel "Only by fully leveraging core competencies can small companies like Canon afford to compete with industry giants like Xerox"
    22. 22. What’s result today? Key numbers for fiscal year ending December, 2010 Xerox Canon Sales: Sales: $21,633.0M $45,454.0M Net income: Net income: $606.0M $3,023.8M Income Income growth: growth: 24.9% 111.9%
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