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  • 1. SCADACSSCADACSSCADA & Computer SecurityFind Them, Bind Them – Industrial Control Systems (ICS) on the InternetJohannes Klick Daniel MarzinSecure Identity Research Group - Freie Universität BerlinPHDays - may 2013 - Moscow Russia
  • 2. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 2
  • 3. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 3
  • 4. IntroductionProf. Dr. Volker RothJan-Ole MalchowMateusz KhalilPhilipp LämmelSascha ZinkeRobert Fehrmann,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 4
  • 5. IntroductionFounded October 2012TestlabResearch onFinding ICS on the InternetMC7-Disassembler / binaryanalysisICS specific communicationprotocolsExploitsStay tuned!,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 5
  • 6. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 6
  • 7. What is a SCADA system?SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition)Controls and monitors industrial (often critical) processesCommon system componentsProgrammable logic controllers (PLCs)Read sensorsControl actuatorsRemote terminal units (RTU)PLC to SCADA bridgeHuman machine interface (HMI),SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 7
  • 8. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 8
  • 9. Our playgroundSponsored bySiemens Simatic S7-300CPU - 313C 313-5BF03-0ABPNetwork module - CPC 3431GX30-0XE0Industrial grade PLC(midrange)Programmable e.g. with STLBinary language MC7,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 9
  • 10. Our playgroundSetup like described in W32.Stuxnet Dossier (Symantec 2010/2011),SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 10
  • 11. Our playgroundSiemens Simatic S7-1200CPU - 1200 1212C212-1BE31-0XB0GSM Module - CP 1247-7GPRSHMI - KTP400 Basic color PNIndustrial grade PLC (lowerend)Programmable e.g. with STL,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 11
  • 12. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 12
  • 13. Exploits on the Internet,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 13
  • 14. ExploitsSearch tags e.g. simaticSearch on one of the following websitescve.mitre.org (Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures)www.osvdb.org (Open Source Vulnerability Database)www.exploit-db.com (Exploit Database)packetstormsecurity.com (Packet Storm Security)www.metasploit.com (Metasploit),SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 14
  • 15. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 15
  • 16. Start/Stop ExploitExample of public available exploitSiemens Simatic S7 300/400 CPU START/STOP ModuleMetasploit ModuleDillon Beresford (Black Hat US 2011)FunctionSend start commandSend a sequence of stop commandsOur analysisIt works nowIdentified the packetsRemoved unnecessary packets (two thirds),SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 16
  • 17. Exploits,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 17
  • 18. Exploits,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 18
  • 19. ExploitsWithout Metasploitlibnodave (libnodave.sourceforge.net)From Zottel (sps-forum.de) Great Work!Programs to demonstrate the functionalityIncluding start/stop tests,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 19
  • 20. ExploitsStop Exploit - Demo / Video,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 20
  • 21. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 21
  • 22. How to find ICS on the Internet,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 22
  • 23. How to find ICS on the InternetSHODANshodanhq.comScans for HTTP(S), Telnet, SNMP, FTP and NetBios,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 23
  • 24. How to find ICS on the Internetshodanhq.comScans for HTTP(S), Telnet, SNMP, FTP and NetBiosOldest results dating back to 2010,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 23
  • 25. How to find ICS on the Internetshodanhq.comScans for HTTP(S), Telnet, SNMP, FTP and NetBiosOldest results dating back to 2010Provides an API and search filters for protocols, dates, etc.,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 23
  • 26. How to find ICS on the InternetDevices found on SHODANType CountHuman Machine Interface 295Uninterruptible Power SupplyEnterprise-Resource-PlanningSupervisory Control and Data AcquisitionPLC Network DeviceProgrammable Logic ControllerBuilding Management SystemThe industry and PLC manufacturer claim that ICS are not connected to theInternet!SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 24
  • 27. How to find ICS on the InternetDevices found on SHODANType CountHuman Machine Interface 295Uninterruptible Power Supply 664Enterprise-Resource-PlanningSupervisory Control and Data AcquisitionPLC Network DeviceProgrammable Logic ControllerBuilding Management SystemThe industry and PLC manufacturer claim that ICS are not connected to theInternet!SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 24
  • 28. How to find ICS on the InternetDevices found on SHODANType CountHuman Machine Interface 295Uninterruptible Power Supply 664Enterprise-Resource-Planning 1222Supervisory Control and Data AcquisitionPLC Network DeviceProgrammable Logic ControllerBuilding Management SystemThe industry and PLC manufacturer claim that ICS are not connected to theInternet!SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 24
  • 29. How to find ICS on the InternetDevices found on SHODANType CountHuman Machine Interface 295Uninterruptible Power Supply 664Enterprise-Resource-Planning 1222Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 3258PLC Network DeviceProgrammable Logic ControllerBuilding Management SystemThe industry and PLC manufacturer claim that ICS are not connected to theInternet!SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 24
  • 30. How to find ICS on the InternetDevices found on SHODANType CountHuman Machine Interface 295Uninterruptible Power Supply 664Enterprise-Resource-Planning 1222Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 3258PLC Network Device 9772Programmable Logic ControllerBuilding Management SystemThe industry and PLC manufacturer claim that ICS are not connected to theInternet!SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 24
  • 31. How to find ICS on the InternetDevices found on SHODANType CountHuman Machine Interface 295Uninterruptible Power Supply 664Enterprise-Resource-Planning 1222Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 3258PLC Network Device 9772Programmable Logic Controller 20501Building Management SystemThe industry and PLC manufacturer claim that ICS are not connected to theInternet!SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 24
  • 32. How to find ICS on the InternetDevices found on SHODANType CountHuman Machine Interface 295Uninterruptible Power Supply 664Enterprise-Resource-Planning 1222Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 3258PLC Network Device 9772Programmable Logic Controller 20501Building Management System 47764The industry and PLC manufacturer claim that ICS are not connected to theInternet!,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 24
  • 33. How to find ICS on the Internet,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 25
  • 34. How to find ICS on the InternetProject SHINEinfracritical.orgRunning since 2012-04-14SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 26
  • 35. How to find ICS on the Internetinfracritical.orgRunning since 2012-04-14Found over 500,000 ICS related entries on SHODAN(ICS-ALERT-13-016A)SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 26
  • 36. How to find ICS on the Internetinfracritical.orgRunning since 2012-04-14Found over 500,000 ICS related entries on SHODAN(ICS-ALERT-13-016A)U.S. DHS reduced the list to 20,000 devicesSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 26
  • 37. How to find ICS on the Internetinfracritical.orgRunning since 2012-04-14Found over 500,000 ICS related entries on SHODAN(ICS-ALERT-13-016A)U.S. DHS reduced the list to 20,000 devicesList has since grown to over 800k entriesSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 26
  • 38. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 27
  • 39. Industrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAM,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 28
  • 40. Industrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMData source: SHODAN,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 29
  • 41. Industrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMData source: SHODAN83,541 devices,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 29
  • 42. Industrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMData source: SHODAN83,541 devices83 SHODAN search terms e.g.SIMATICSoftPLCRockwell Automation+1769i.LONinline+controller,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 29
  • 43. Industrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMIRAM - 1. DEMO / VIDEO,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 30
  • 44. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 31
  • 45. SCADACS Search Engine - SSE,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 32
  • 46. SCADACS Search Engine - SSESCADACS Search EngineC implementation using raw sockets,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 33
  • 47. SCADACS Search Engine - SSESCADACS Search EngineC implementation using raw socketsCurrently scanning at 2,500 IP / s ... (possible up to 25,000 IP / s),SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 33
  • 48. SCADACS Search Engine - SSESCADACS Search EngineC implementation using raw socketsCurrently scanning at 2,500 IP / s ... (possible up to 25,000 IP / s)Services: HTTP(S), Telnet, S7com, Modbus, (SNMP),SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 33
  • 49. SCADACS Search Engine - SSESCADACS Search EngineC implementation using raw socketsCurrently scanning at 2,500 IP / s ... (possible up to 25,000 IP / s)Services: HTTP(S), Telnet, S7com, Modbus, (SNMP)Future protocols: BACnet, OPC, SRTP,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 33
  • 50. SCADACS Search Engine - SSES7 Communication (Siemens PLCs)Proprietary protocolModbusSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 34
  • 51. SCADACS Search Engine - SSES7 Communication (Siemens PLCs)Proprietary protocolExisting code: libnodave and plcscanModbusSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 34
  • 52. SCADACS Search Engine - SSES7 Communication (Siemens PLCs)Proprietary protocolExisting code: libnodave and plcscanModbusOpen protocolSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 34
  • 53. SCADACS Search Engine - SSES7 Communication (Siemens PLCs)Proprietary protocolExisting code: libnodave and plcscanModbusOpen protocolMany opensource tools (e.g. plcscan)SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 34
  • 54. SCADACS Search Engine - SSEThanks to SCADA StrangeLove for plcscan tool!,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 35
  • 55. SCADACS Search Engine - SSEFirst Scan Project - SetupSeeding with 7,000 whois queries on IPs found via SHODANSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 36
  • 56. SCADACS Search Engine - SSEFirst Scan Project - SetupSeeding with 7,000 whois queries on IPs found via SHODAN4,213 European IP BlocksSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 36
  • 57. SCADACS Search Engine - SSEFirst Scan Project - SetupSeeding with 7,000 whois queries on IPs found via SHODAN4,213 European IP Blocks283 Mio. IPs (6.58% of IPv4 address space)SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 36
  • 58. SCADACS Search Engine - SSEFirst Scan Project - Results (Preview)10,266 ICS/BMS related answers,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 37
  • 59. SCADACS Search Engine - SSEFirst Scan Project - Results (Preview)10,266 ICS/BMS related answers436 via S7 Communication,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 37
  • 60. SCADACS Search Engine - SSEFirst Scan Project - Results (Preview)10,266 ICS/BMS related answers436 via S7 Communication2571 via Modbus,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 37
  • 61. SCADACS Search Engine - SSEFirst Scan Project - Results (Preview)10,266 ICS/BMS related answers436 via S7 Communication2571 via Modbus602 IP Blocks (Modbus / S7),SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 37
  • 62. SCADACS Search Engine - SSEFirst Scan Project - Results (Preview)10,266 ICS/BMS related answers436 via S7 Communication2571 via Modbus602 IP Blocks (Modbus / S7)132 IP Blocks used for dynamic IPs,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 37
  • 63. SCADACS Search Engine - SSE6 IP blocks owned by a big manufacturer6.25% of their IPs are answering to Modbus requests8 IP blocks owned by critical infrastructureSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 38
  • 64. SCADACS Search Engine - SSE6 IP blocks owned by a big manufacturer6.25% of their IPs are answering to Modbus requests8 IP blocks owned by critical infrastructure16% of their IPs are answering to S7 Communication requestsSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 38
  • 65. SCADACS Search Engine - SSEIRAM and SSE (green: Modbus, red: S7 communication),SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 39
  • 66. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 40
  • 67. Evaluation of SHODAN (Preview),SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 41
  • 68. Evaluation of SHODAN (Preview)Scan of a SHODAN sample set (7,000 devices)Approx. 15 % of devices found on SHODAN are reachable at a giventime,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 42
  • 69. Evaluation of SHODAN (Preview)IPs crawled bySHODAN: Approx. 4,000,000,000 IPs (worldwide)Search time usedSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 43
  • 70. Evaluation of SHODAN (Preview)IPs crawled bySHODAN: Approx. 4,000,000,000 IPs (worldwide)SSE: 283,000,000 IPs (Europe)Search time usedSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 43
  • 71. Evaluation of SHODAN (Preview)IPs crawled bySHODAN: Approx. 4,000,000,000 IPs (worldwide)SSE: 283,000,000 IPs (Europe)Search time usedSHODAN: 1080 days (~3 years)SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 43
  • 72. Evaluation of SHODAN (Preview)IPs crawled bySHODAN: Approx. 4,000,000,000 IPs (worldwide)SSE: 283,000,000 IPs (Europe)Search time usedSHODAN: 1080 days (~3 years)SSE: 2 daysSCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 43
  • 73. Evaluation of SHODAN (Preview)S7 devices foundSHODAN: 444Overlap of SHODAN and SSESCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 44
  • 74. Evaluation of SHODAN (Preview)S7 devices foundSHODAN: 444SSE: 436Overlap of SHODAN and SSESCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 44
  • 75. Evaluation of SHODAN (Preview)S7 devices foundSHODAN: 444SSE: 436Overlap of SHODAN and SSE125 S7 devices~28%SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 44
  • 76. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 45
  • 77. Outlook,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 46
  • 78. OutlineIntroductionWhat is a SCADA system?Our playgroundExploits on the InternetStart/Stop ExploitHow to find ICS on the InternetIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEEvaluation of SHODAN (Preview)OutlookJoint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 47
  • 79. Joint Data Integration and InformationCombine the presented results into one toolIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMWhat do we get?,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 48
  • 80. Joint Data Integration and InformationCombine the presented results into one toolIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEWhat do we get?,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 48
  • 81. Joint Data Integration and InformationCombine the presented results into one toolIndustrial Risk Assessment Map - IRAMSCADACS Search Engine - SSEExploitsWhat do we get?,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 48
  • 82. Joint Data Integration and InformationEasy to use point and click interfaceWhat could it look like?SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 49
  • 83. Joint Data Integration and InformationEasy to use point and click interfaceSophisticated target selection (per country, owner, device type, etc.)What could it look like?SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 49
  • 84. Joint Data Integration and InformationEasy to use point and click interfaceSophisticated target selection (per country, owner, device type, etc.)Integrated vulnerability and exploit databaseWhat could it look like?SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 49
  • 85. Joint Data Integration and InformationEasy to use point and click interfaceSophisticated target selection (per country, owner, device type, etc.)Integrated vulnerability and exploit databaseDirect access to network informations (ping, whois, reverse DNS)What could it look like?SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 49
  • 86. Joint Data Integration and InformationEasy to use point and click interfaceSophisticated target selection (per country, owner, device type, etc.)Integrated vulnerability and exploit databaseDirect access to network informations (ping, whois, reverse DNS)Seamless integration of further data sourcesWhat could it look like?SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 49
  • 87. Joint Data Integration and InformationEasy to use point and click interfaceSophisticated target selection (per country, owner, device type, etc.)Integrated vulnerability and exploit databaseDirect access to network informations (ping, whois, reverse DNS)Seamless integration of further data sourcesSocial networksWhat could it look like?SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 49
  • 88. Joint Data Integration and InformationEasy to use point and click interfaceSophisticated target selection (per country, owner, device type, etc.)Integrated vulnerability and exploit databaseDirect access to network informations (ping, whois, reverse DNS)Seamless integration of further data sourcesSocial networksCurrent geopolitical informationsWhat could it look like?SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 49
  • 89. Joint Data Integration and InformationEasy to use point and click interfaceSophisticated target selection (per country, owner, device type, etc.)Integrated vulnerability and exploit databaseDirect access to network informations (ping, whois, reverse DNS)Seamless integration of further data sourcesSocial networksCurrent geopolitical informationsNetwork perimetersWhat could it look like?SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 49
  • 90. Joint Data Integration and InformationEasy to use point and click interfaceSophisticated target selection (per country, owner, device type, etc.)Integrated vulnerability and exploit databaseDirect access to network informations (ping, whois, reverse DNS)Seamless integration of further data sourcesSocial networksCurrent geopolitical informationsNetwork perimetersFlow of IP packetsWhat could it look like?SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 49
  • 91. Joint Data Integration and InformationEasy to use point and click interfaceSophisticated target selection (per country, owner, device type, etc.)Integrated vulnerability and exploit databaseDirect access to network informations (ping, whois, reverse DNS)Seamless integration of further data sourcesSocial networksCurrent geopolitical informationsNetwork perimetersFlow of IP packetsDirect execution of exploitsWhat could it look like?SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 49
  • 92. Joint Data Integration and InformationEasy to use point and click interfaceSophisticated target selection (per country, owner, device type, etc.)Integrated vulnerability and exploit databaseDirect access to network informations (ping, whois, reverse DNS)Seamless integration of further data sourcesSocial networksCurrent geopolitical informationsNetwork perimetersFlow of IP packetsDirect execution of exploitsUp to your imagination...What could it look like?SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 49
  • 93. Joint Data Integration and Information,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 50
  • 94. The EndThank you for your attention.,SCADACS, ICS on the Internet, PHDays 2013 51