Rete e Reti: Per-che' e per-chi?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Rete e Reti: Per-che' e per-chi?

on

  • 431 views

Presentazione di Paolo Massa nell'ambito del Seminario residenziale “L’approccio territoriale tra aiuto e crescita” - 22-23 giugno 2012 - Villa Flangini - Asolo - Organizzato dal SerAT (Servizio ...

Presentazione di Paolo Massa nell'ambito del Seminario residenziale “L’approccio territoriale tra aiuto e crescita” - 22-23 giugno 2012 - Villa Flangini - Asolo - Organizzato dal SerAT (Servizio Alcologia e Tabagismo Ulss 8)
Con il contributo di ACAT-ULSS 8 onlus e Cooperativa Sonda. Con il patrocinio di Alcologia Ecologica

Statistics

Views

Total Views
431
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
431
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Rete e Reti: Per-che' e per-chi? Rete e Reti: Per-che' e per-chi? Presentation Transcript

    • Seminario residenziale“L’approccio territoriale tra aiuto e crescita” 22-23 giugno 2012 Villa Flangini - AsoloOrganizzato dal SerAT (Servizio Alcologia e Tabagismo Ulss 8) Con il contributo di ACAT-ULSS 8 onlus e Cooperativa Sonda Con il patrocinio di Alcologia Ecologica    
    • Rete e RetiPer-che e per-chi? Paolo Massa http://www.gnuband.org    
    • Chi sono ioLaurea e dottorato in informatica: riduzionista ;)MA ricerca su social networking http://sonet.fbk.euE ~volontariato: parrocchia, Caritas, cooperazione  internazionalePoV “diverso”    
    • Seminario residenziale“L’approccio territoriale tra aiuto e crescita” 22-23 giugno 2012 Villa Flangini - AsoloOrganizzato dal SerAT (Servizio Alcologia e Tabagismo Ulss 8) Con il contributo di ACAT-ULSS 8 onlus e Cooperativa Sonda Con il patrocinio di Alcologia Ecologica    
    •    
    • Cosa voglio fareParlare di “rete”: evoluzione del  concetto, serve come modello  o e una keyword?Fornire spunti a partire da  ricerche su “reti”    
    • Le Città invisibili Italo CalvinoA Ersilia, per stabilire i rapporti che reggono la vita della città, gli  abitanti tendono dei fili tra gli spigoli delle case, bianchi o neri o  grigi o bianco–e–neri a seconda se segnano              relazioni di  parentela, scambio, autorità, rappresentanza.        Quando i fili  sono tanti che non ci si può piú passare in mezzo, gli abitanti vanno  via: le case vengono smontate; restano solo i fili e i sostegni dei fili.  Dalla costa d’un monte, accampati con le masserizie, i profughi di  Ersilia guardano l’intrico di fili tesi e pali che s’innalza nella  pianura. È quello ancora la città di Ersilia, e loro sono niente.Riedificano Ersilia altrove. Tessono con i fili una figura simile che  vorrebbero piú complicata e insieme piú regolare dell’altra. Poi l’  abbandonano e trasportano ancora piú lontano sé e le case. Cosí  viaggiando nel territorio di Ersilia incontri le rovine delle città  abbandonate, senza le mura che non durano, senza le ossa dei morti  che il vento fa rotolare: ragnatele di rapporti intricati che cercano  una forma.    
    • “fare rete” in Google 6: 0-1995 154: 1995-2000 614: 2000-2005 9.000: 2005-2010 47.400: 2010-2012 Rete = panacea?
    • Rete = panacea? … non proprio ;)
    • Un po di storia sulle reti
    • Internet: decentralized by design“On Distributed Communication  Networks,” Paul Baran. 1964.A network without central  authority or single outage  point.Resistant to attacks (to single  nodes).US DARPA (Defense Advanced  Research Projects Agency)Internet is NOT = Web    
    • Resistente Inclusiva (democratica?) Efficiente? Tutti pari? Chi comanda?   
    • Reti Peer2Peer VS Client­Server (Web)   
    • Graph theory1735 - Seven Bridges of Königsberg – Euler v
    • Social networks
    • The simplest network is a dyad or pair Dyads agglomerate to form large interconnected websNode=person, Edge=relationship
    • Network: the focus in on the edge, the relationship,the “thing” between 2 nodes. Maria Giovanni
    •    
    • First studies = small samplesJacob Moreno introduced sociogram (1930 – Who shall survive?)Relationship via interviews.Who do you  like,  eat Pizza with see after work (any relationship)    
    • The study of networks has depended on a visual thinkingsince the beginningSocial Network Analysis    
    • "If we ever get to the point of charting a whole city or awhole nation, we would have … a picture of a vast solarsystem of intangible structures, powerfully influencingconduct, as gravitation does in space. Such an invisiblestructure underlies society and has its influence indetermining the conduct of society as a whole." J.L. Moreno, New York Times, April 13, 1933    
    • Not all edges are equal! Strength of weak ties. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Tie-network.jpgGranovetter. 1973. The American Journal of Sociology.Most jobs were found through "weak" acquaintances.(Different) value in social relationships.    
    • The Strength of Weak TiesStrong ties (i.e. family members) affect people more deeplyWeak ties often link more people. Photo by johntrainor, Flickr
    • Power in NumbersSocial ties, rather than money, were used as collateral andcould be used to guarantee a loan. Yunus founded the Grameen Bank which now fosters social networks which • optimize trust • connect groups through weaker ties • help find creative solutions through connectionsSerge Latouche = ricchezza nelle relazioni (Il pensiero creativo controleconomia dellassurdo) Photo by Inkyhack, Flickr
    • Social capitalPutnam 1995 “Bowling alone: Americas Declining  Social Capital:~500,000 interviews in US (1975­2000) ­­> decline of social capital over time (belong to fewer orgs (­58%), know their neighbors less (­35%), ...)    
    • Bridge (ponte) Legame che connette due parti della rete che sarebbero altrimenti  separate (componente connessa).Rimuovere un bridge significa sconnettere il grafo, ovvero dividerlo in due grafipiu piccoli, e non connessi tra di loro    
    • Network structure and roleConnector – span different worlds (central in  network)“Connectors” have many weak ties to members outside  their group. ConnectorMavens ­ information specialists ­ start word­of­ mouth epidemics (good for marketing)    
    • Specific social rolesFinding social roles in Wikipedia. Proceedings of the  2011 iConference.    
    • Operatori come connector tra due famiglie?Oppure quale altro “ruolo sociale”?Chi e connector? E chi connette?Cambia nel tempo? Connector    
    • Reti come sistemi dinamiciDynamic Network AnalysisMonitorare lo stato di salute di una rete? Prevederne la  fine?Bowling alone and trust declinein social network sitesPaolo Massa, Martino Salvetti, Danilo TomasoniSocialCom 2011    
    • Social Network Analysis   
    • We shape our network1. We determine structure of our network: how many people we are connected to The average American has 4 close social contacts known as their “core discussion network” The same number of people can be arranged and connected in different ways, and have different topologies
    • We shape our network2. We influence the density of interconnections between friends and family we introduce friends from separate groups to one another
    • We shape our network3. We control how “central” we are within the social networkAre you the life of the party? Or the wall flower?
    • Linked: The New Science of Networks, 2002.Barabási, Albert­László, physics.Data, data, data!All networks (Web links, Internet cables,  collaboration among actors, scientists,  sexual interaction, biological networks  of cells, food webs in ecology, phone  call patterns, word co­occurrence in  text, neural network connectivity of  flatworms, conformational states in  protein folding) …Same property = small world, power law    
    • One law behind everything?!? (2002)    
    • Tracking the Spread of InformationWord of mouth (marketing, new ideas and products),Viruses (epidemiology, SARS), ... Photo by Christian Keenan
    • 6 degrees of separationMilgram 1967 ­ 296 letters to reach targetAverage path length ~ 6 (just 64 successes!)Folklore but the message is“Its a small world”Connected: How Kevin Bacon cured cancerMovie: 6 degrees of separation    
    • Social Networking SitesFacebook: 800 million active users (?!?)Twitter, Ebay, P2P, …Rendono visibili le “reti degli altri”    
    • http://qualitypoint.blogspot.com/2010/05/list-of-social-networking-sites.html    
    • Not so virtual worldsEllison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of  Facebook "friends:" Social capital and college students use of  online social network sites. Journal of Computer­Mediated  Communication  http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue4/ellison.html2010 ­ Social Networking Affects Brains Like Falling in Love ­  Paul Zak. "Your brain interpreted tweeting as if you were  directly interacting with people you cared about or had empathy  for," Zak says. "E­connection is processed in the brain like an in­ person connection."http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/147/doctor­love.html    
    • Networks as a lens to understand Society   
    • TrentiniNelMondo – http://next.trentininelmondo.it   
    • Self­awareness of you in the network is  important?    
    • E io? Bisogna essere coscienti della rete (big picture)? Delle proprie relazioni (ego­network)? Della propria “posizione” nella rete? Del proprio ruolo? A cosa e utile? A chi?    
    • Trust networksGoal: influenzare la “cultura” del bere.Ci si fida dei propri peer, si mutuano i loro  comportamentiConnected: The Surprising Power of Our Social  Networks and How They Shape Our Lives,  Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H    
    • What spread over social networks?Do behaviours of your connected nodes  influence yours?Framingham Heart Study:  started in 1948,  5,000 participants, multiple generations,  tracking health and contact information every  two to four years.    
    • No Laughing MatterIn 1962 in Tanzania an epidemic of laughing spread throughmany villages resulting in the closing of several schoolsThis was a “mass psychogenic illness” – also known as“epidemic hysteria” and was traced to three teenage girls Photo by Casey Lehman Photo by Federia Olivieri Photo by k-girl, Fli
    • Family Feelings Experiment using beepers to record and track the emotional states of family members• The strongest path was from daughters to parents• Parents had little affect on daughters• Fathers had a significant effect on wives and sons P h ot o s b y M What this means…when a father returns grumpy from work the whole household ik e soon becomes miserable C a
    • Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network:  longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart  James H Fowler and Nicholas A Christakis, 2008 4739 individuals followed from 1983 to 2003. People’s happiness depends on the happiness of others with whom they are connected. See happiness, like health, as a collective phenomenon. Objectives To evaluate whether happiness can spread from person to person and whether niches of happiness form within social networks.Results:
 Clusters of happy and unhappy people are visible in the network, and the relationship between people’s happiness extends up to three degrees of separation (for example, to the friends of one’s friends’ friends).People who are surrounded by many happy people and those who are central in the network are more likely to become happy in the future. Longitudinal statistical models suggest that clusters of happiness result from the spread of happiness and not just a tendency for people to associate with similar individuals. A friend who lives within a mile (about 1.6 km) and who becomes happy increases the probability that a person is happy by 25% (95% confidence interval 1% to 57%). Similar effects are seen in coresident spouses (8%, 0.2% to 16%), siblings who live within a mile (14%, 1% to 28%), and next door neighbours (34%, 7% to 70%). Effects are not seen between coworkers. The effect decays with time and with geographical separation.(credits: Photo by beija-flor released on Flickr under Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial No Derivative license)    
    • “Alone in the Crowd: The Structure and Spread of Loneliness in a  Large Social Network,” 2009, James H Fowler and Nicholas A  Christakis, The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. In a 10­year study of 5,100 people and their           social contacts,  researchers tracked feelings of loneliness               over time by asking  participants how many days a week they                 felt lonely. What they  discovered was that loneliness could be                   contagious and  followed a distinct path as it spread through          social networks.Over time, each additional day of loneliness per            week that people  experience leads to a little more than one extra            day of loneliness  per month among those in their social network The average person experiences loneliness about 48 days a year, but  having a lonely friend can add 17 days of loneliness annually. By  comparison, every additional friend can decrease loneliness by about 5  percent, which translates to about two and a half fewer lonely days a  year.    
    • The Spread of Alcohol Consumption Behavior in a Large Social Network, J.N. Rosenquist, J. Murabito, J.H. Fowler, and N.A. Christakis,   Annals of Internal Medicine (April 2010)Drinking habits can be contagious: if a close connection (friend, relative,  coworker) drank heavily — defined as an average of one drink per day for  women and two drinks per day for men — participants were 50% more likely to  drink heavily themselves; if someone connected by two degrees of separation (a  friend of a friend) drank heavily, participants were 36% more likely to do so.The social impact of drinking continued to three degrees of separation — that  is, if your friend’s mom’s cousin drinks heavily, you’re about 15% more likely  to do so too.For every social contact who abstained from alcohol, a person’s likelihood of  heavy drinking decreased by 10%.The study findings “reinforce the idea that drinking is a public health and clinical  problem that involves groups of interconnected people who evince shared  behaviors, and targeting those behaviors would rightly involve addressing  groups and not just individuals.”    
    • What spreads over social networks?Christakis NA, Fowler JH. Dynamic spread of Happiness in a large social  network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart  Study, 2008.Cacioppo JT, Fowler JH, Christakis NA, Alone in the Crowd: The Structure  and Spread of Loneliness in a Large Social Network 2008.J.N. Rosenquist, J. Murabito, J.H. Fowler, and N.A. Christakis, "The Spread of  Alcohol Consumption Behavior in a Large Social Network," Annals of  Internal Medicine   152(7): 426­433 (April 2010)Christakis NA, Fowler JH. The collective dynamics of Smoking in a large  social network. N Engl J Med2008;358:2249­58.Christakis NA, Fowler JH. The spread of Obesity in a large social network  over 32 years. N Engl J Med2007;357:370­9.    
    • The grand theory of networkingObesity, happiness, smoking, loneliness, … vaseline  spread across networks.http://www.gnuband.org/2010/01/13/networks_of_loneliness/    
    • Vladimir Hudolin"...se i Club lavorano per la  pace interiore di ognuno di  noi, è indubitabile che  questa pace verrà  trasmessa alle persone che  ci sono più vicine e poi si  allargherà, a macchia  d’olio, a tutta la nostra  comunità, portandoci così a  riappropriarci del nostro  futuro..."    
    • Chapter 9The Whole is Great
    • Since the Beginning…Since the beginnings of human civilization, connections haveshaped and aided our development as a race.Even the Bible refers tothe strength of ties inpassages like the Towerof Babylon and the storyof Jericho. Photo by jankie, Flickr
    • Since the Beginning…Theorists from Hobbes to Rousseau have speculated about “socialcontracts” and what would make the best form of human interaction. Photos by The National Gallery, London and Sir Paul, Flickr
    • The Human SuperorganismBy joining together, humans areable to accomplish feats otherwiseunimaginable, just like antscooperate to make an ant hill. Photos by stevendepolo and sara.atkins, Flickr
    • The Human SuperorganismCooperation is key.Networks of cooperation can lead to self-sustaining “organisms,”whether it be cells in a human body or human bodies in aneighborhood! Photos by adrigu and gaminrey and Editor B, Flickr
    • The Human Superorganism With this cooperation, networks can do great things.● However, the power and influence of networks can also be dangerous. Shoes taken from victims Habitat for Humanity Volunteers during World War 2 Photos by KidMoxie and tbertor1, Flickr
    • Social Network InequalityThe connections we have with others can influence us to domany things from giving more to charity to stealing a car.Our connections depend on where we are located in our socialnetwork.There is “positional inequality” -- not because of who we are butbecause of who we are connected to.
    • Social Network InequalityIf you are connected to the rightpeople, you may have opportunities toget jobs, gifts, or other extra benefits.If you are connected to others youcould be influenced to commit crimesor eat unhealthy food.Position matters. Photos by Andyrob and alexik, Flickr
    • ConnectedSocial networks seem to have so much power and influenceover us… But remember:Social networks are not just about the influence other haveover us, but also about the effect we have on others!
    • Be thechange youwant to see in the world
    • Be thechange youwant to see in thenetwork
    •  Riprendere “rete come modello o solo come  keyword?”    
    • Rete o …? Rete? O comunita? O gruppo? O …?    
    •