Monster frogs—what a great topic for an undergraduate research
project! That’s what Stanford University sophomore Pieter J...
ers, 85 percent of the frogs developed deformities. Further
experiments showed why not all the frogs were deformed:
The in...
vironments by making metabolic adjustments to conditions
such as changes in temperature, the presence or absence of
sunlig...
Buffon did not attempt to explain how such changes took
place, but his student Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744–1829)
propos...
logical evolution. Cells and the membranes that enclose them
are the subjects of Chapters 4 and 5.
Cells are so effective ...
cepting much of the sun’s deadly ultraviolet radiation. Even-
tually (although only within the last 800 million years of e...
another to form social systems, populations, and ecological
communities, which are the subjects of Part Eight of this book...
tinct. This diversity is the result of millions of splits in popu-
lations, known as speciation events. The unfolding of t...
nology enables us to synthesize masses of genetic data. The
ATOL initiative, one of the grandest projects of modern biol-
...
illuminate the tremendous diversity of life, and are im-
portant tools for biologists because, as in all the sciences,
pre...
STEPS 3 AND 4: FORMULATING HYPOTHESES AND MAKING PREDIC-
TIONS. To develop hypotheses about the first question, sci-
entis...
pollutants than in areas with less expo-
sure. This hypothesis has been tested us-
ing the comparative method. The exten-
...
Simple explanations that account for everything should not
be expected or trusted. Its complexities make biology a diffi-
...
Biological evolution began about 3.8 billion years ago when
interacting systems of molecules became enclosed in mem-
brane...
Mars today is a cold, dry place, not suitable for life as we know it.
But 3 billion years ago, it was warmer and wetter. A...
16 CHAPTER TWO
Before describing how chemical elements are arranged in
living creatures, we will examine some fundamental ...
contribution of electrons to the mass of an atom can usually
be ignored when measurements and calculations are made.
It is...
18 CHAPTER TWO
cern here, but the others are not unimportant. Sodium and
potassium, for example, are essential for nerves ...
composition of substances. The characteristic number of elec-
trons in each atom of an element determines how its atoms
wi...
20 CHAPTER TWO
Chemical Bonds:
Linking Atoms Together
A chemical bond is an attractive force that links two atoms
together...
valent bonds, the strong bonds that result from the sharing
of electrons. Then we will examine other kinds of interac-
tio...
22 CHAPTER TWO
of atoms, they are the same in length, angle, and direction,
regardless of the larger molecule of which the...
But when hydrogen bonds with oxygen to form water, the
electrons involved are unequally shared: they tend to be
nearer to ...
24 CHAPTER TWO
a complete transfer of the electron from one element to the
other (Figure 2.13). This reaction between sodi...
These weak interactions between nonpolar sub-
stances are enhanced by van der Waals forces, which
result when two atoms of...
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