Endocrine Physiology

โดย
นางสาวพัชฎา บุตรยะถาวร
ครู ผ้สอน
ู
โรงเรียนเตรีมอุดมศึกษาน้ อมเกล้ า ปทุมธานี
Endocrine vs. Nervous System
• Major communication systems in the body
• Integrate stimuli and responses to changes
in ext...
Introduction
• The endocrine system includes the organs of the body
that secrete hormones directly into body fluids such
a...
Hormones
• Endocrine glands
– Ductless
– Release hormones
• Directly into target tissues
• Into bloodstream to be carried ...
Hormones (cont.)
• Many are derived from steroids that easily
cross the cell membrane
• Examples of steroid hormones
–
–
–...
Hormones (cont.)
• Nonsteroidal hormones

• Prostaglandins

– Made of amino acids or
proteins and cannot cross the
cell me...
Negative and Positive
Feedback Loops
• Control hormone levels
• Negative feedback loop
– Hormone release stops in response...
Negative and Positive
Feedback Loops (cont.)
• Positive feedback loop
– As long as stimulus is present, action of
hormone ...
Apply Your Knowledge
Match the following:

ANSWER:

___ Chemicals that effect cell function A. Nonsteroidal hormone
E
B
__...
Hypothalamus
• Hormones
– Oxytocin
– Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

• Hormones transported to the posterior
pituitary for sto...
Pituitary Gland
• Controlled by the hypothalamus
• Located at the base of the brain
– Protected by a bony structure called...
Pituitary Gland (cont.)
Growth hormone
Stimulates increase in size
of muscles and bones

Luteinizing

Prolactin Stimulates...
Pituitary Gland (cont.)
Oxytocin

Posterior
Lobe
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Stimulates the kidneys to
conserve water
34-13...
Apply Your Knowledge
Match the following:

ANSWER:

D, E Stored in posterior pituitary
___

A. Follicle-stimulating hormon...
Thyroid Gland and
Parathyroid Glands
Thyroid Gland
Located below the larynx
 Divided into follicles that store some of th...
Thyroid Gland and
Parathyroid Glands (cont.)
• Parathyroid glands
– Four located on the posterior surface of the thyroid
g...
34-17

Apply Your Knowledge
True or False:

ANSWER:

__ Thyroid hormones stimulate protein synthesis.
T
Thyroid follicles ...
Adrenal Glands
• Located on top of each kidney
• Divided into the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex
• Adrenal medulla
– C...
Adrenal Glands (cont.)
• Adrenal cortex
– Outermost portion
– Secretes many hormones, but main ones are
• Aldosterone
– St...
Apply Your Knowledge
Match the following:

ANSWER:

____ Adrenal medulla
B, D

A. Cortisol

C
____ Sodium retention

B. Ep...
34-21

Pancreas
• Located behind the
stomach
• Both exocrine gland and
endocrine gland
– Exocrine – secretes
digestive enz...
Pancreas (cont.)
• Islets of Langerhans secrete hormones into
bloodstream
– Alpha cells secrete glucagon
– Beta cells secr...
Apply Your Knowledge
What are the effects of insulin and glucagon?
ANSWER: Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration a...
Other Hormone-Producing
Organs
• Pineal body

• Thymus gland

– Small gland
– Located between
cerebral hemispheres
– Melat...
Other Hormone-Producing
Organs (cont.)
• The gonads

• Small intestine

– Ovaries

– Secretin
– Cholecystokinin

• Estroge...
Back
34-26
Apply Your Knowledge
Match the following:

ANSWER:

D
___ Between lungs

A. Pineal body

A
___ Melatonin

B. Heart

G
___ ...
34-28

The Stress Response
• Stressor
– Any stimulus that
produces stress
– Types
• Physical factors
• Psychological facto...
The Stress Response (cont.)
• Physiologic response to stress caused by
hormone release
– General stress syndrome
• Increas...
Apply Your Knowledge
Match the following:

ANSWER:

___ Extreme heat
A

A. Physical stress

___ Death of friend
B

B. Psyc...
34-31

Common Diseases and Disorders
Disease/Disorder
Acromegaly

Description
Too much growth hormone produced in adults;
...
34-32

Common Diseases and Disorders
(cont.)
Disease/Disorder
Diabetes mellitus

Description
Chronic disease characterized...
34-33

Common Diseases and Disorders
(cont.)
Disease/Disorder Description
Gigantism
Too much growth hormone produced durin...
Apply Your KnowledgeCorrect!
True or False:

ANSWER:

in an adult
___ Acromegaly develops as a result of too much growth h...
In Summary
• The organs of the
endocrine system
secrete hormones
directly into blood and
other body fluids.
• Hormones sec...
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Endocrine

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Endocrine

  1. 1. Endocrine Physiology โดย นางสาวพัชฎา บุตรยะถาวร ครู ผ้สอน ู โรงเรียนเตรีมอุดมศึกษาน้ อมเกล้ า ปทุมธานี
  2. 2. Endocrine vs. Nervous System • Major communication systems in the body • Integrate stimuli and responses to changes in external and internal environment • Both are crucial to coordinated functions of highly differentiated cells, tissues and organs • Unlike the nervous system, the endocrine system is anatomically discontinuous.
  3. 3. Introduction • The endocrine system includes the organs of the body that secrete hormones directly into body fluids such as blood – Regulates chemical reaction in cells and therefore control functions of the organs, tissues, and other cells bloodstream to Glands into secrete hormones 34-3 target tissues
  4. 4. Hormones • Endocrine glands – Ductless – Release hormones • Directly into target tissues • Into bloodstream to be carried to target tissues • Hormones – chemicals secreted by a cell that affect the functions of other cells 34-4
  5. 5. Hormones (cont.) • Many are derived from steroids that easily cross the cell membrane • Examples of steroid hormones – – – – Estrogen Progesterone Testosterone Cortisol hormones 34-5
  6. 6. Hormones (cont.) • Nonsteroidal hormones • Prostaglandins – Made of amino acids or proteins and cannot cross the cell membrane easily – Local, or tissue, hormones – Derived from lipid molecules – Do not travel in the bloodstream – Target tissues are located close by – Produced by organs such as – Bind to receptors on the surface of the cells – G-protein – activated by the hormone-receptor complex • • • • • • Activates enzymes inside cell 34-6 Kidneys Heart Stomach Uterus Brain
  7. 7. Negative and Positive Feedback Loops • Control hormone levels • Negative feedback loop – Hormone release stops in response to decrease in stimulus • Stimulus (eating) raises blood glucose levels • Pancreas releases insulin in response to elevated blood glucose • Blood glucose decreases as it is used by the body or stored in the liver • Insulin release stops as blood glucose levels normalize 34-7
  8. 8. Negative and Positive Feedback Loops (cont.) • Positive feedback loop – As long as stimulus is present, action of hormone continues • Infant nursing at mother’s breast  stimulates hypothalamus  stimulates posterior pituitary • Oxytocin released  stimulates milk production and ejection from mammary glands • Milk release continues as long as infant continues to nurse 34-8
  9. 9. Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ANSWER: ___ Chemicals that effect cell function A. Nonsteroidal hormone E B ___ Easily cross cell membranes B. Steroidal hormone A ___ Made of amino acids C. G-protein D ___ Target nearby cells D. Prostaglandins ___ Activated by hormone-receptor C complex E. Hormones ___ Cannot cross cell membranes easily A B ___ Estrogen and cortisol 34-9
  10. 10. Hypothalamus • Hormones – Oxytocin – Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) • Hormones transported to the posterior pituitary for storage • Directs posterior pituitary to release hormones 34-10 Glands
  11. 11. Pituitary Gland • Controlled by the hypothalamus • Located at the base of the brain – Protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica – The optic chiasm is located just above the pituitary gland • Carries visual information to the brain for interpretation • Two lobes – Anterior lobe – Posterior lobe Glands 34-11
  12. 12. Pituitary Gland (cont.) Growth hormone Stimulates increase in size of muscles and bones Luteinizing Prolactin Stimulates milk production Anterior Lobe Females: stimulates ovulation and estrogen production Males: stimulates testosterone production Adrenocorticotropic Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormones Thyroid-stimulating Stimulates the thyroid gland to release its hormones Follicle-stimulating Females: stimulates estrogen production and maturation of the ova Males: stimulates sperm production 34-12
  13. 13. Pituitary Gland (cont.) Oxytocin Posterior Lobe Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Stimulates the kidneys to conserve water 34-13 Females: causes contraction of the uterus and ejection of breast milk Males: stimulates contraction of the prostate and vas deferens during sexual arousal
  14. 14. Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ANSWER: D, E Stored in posterior pituitary ___ A. Follicle-stimulating hormone ___ Milk production B B. Prolactin D, E Produced by hypothalmus ___ C. Luteinizing hormone ___ Stimulates sperm production A D. ADH ___ Maturation of ova A E. Oxytocin ___ Stimulates ovulation C Super! ___ Conservation of water D ___ Production of testosterone C ___ Contraction of uterus E 34-14
  15. 15. Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands Thyroid Gland Located below the larynx  Divided into follicles that store some of the hormones  Major hormones T3 T4 Stimulate protein synthesis and increase cellular energy production Lowers blood calcium levels by activating osteoblasts that Glands build new bone tissue 34-15
  16. 16. Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands (cont.) • Parathyroid glands – Four located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland – Secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) • Agonist to calcitonin by raising blood calcium levels through activation of osetoclasts (dissolve bone) – As bone dissolves, calcium levels in blood increase Glands 34-16
  17. 17. 34-17 Apply Your Knowledge True or False: ANSWER: __ Thyroid hormones stimulate protein synthesis. T Thyroid follicles store __ The thyroid gland does not store hormones. some hormones. F __ PTH activates osteoblasts. F PTH activates osteoclasts. __ Calcitonin increases cellular energy production. F Thyroid hormone increases cellular energy production. T __ The four parathyroid glands are located on the thyroid gland. __ Calcitonin lowers blood calcium levels. T
  18. 18. Adrenal Glands • Located on top of each kidney • Divided into the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex • Adrenal medulla – Central portion – Hormones • Epinephrine • Norepinephrine • Same effects as sympathetic nervous system Glands 34-18
  19. 19. Adrenal Glands (cont.) • Adrenal cortex – Outermost portion – Secretes many hormones, but main ones are • Aldosterone – Stimulates body to retain sodium and water – Important in maintaining BP • Cortisol – Released when stressed – Decreases protein synthesis, resulting in slowed tissue repair – Decreases inflammation 34-19
  20. 20. Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ANSWER: ____ Adrenal medulla B, D A. Cortisol C ____ Sodium retention B. Epinephrine A ____ Decreases inflammation C. Aldosterone B, D ____ Sympathetic effects D. Norepinephrine ____ Maintains blood pressure C Excellent! ____ Released during stress A A, C ____ Adrenal cortex 34-20
  21. 21. 34-21 Pancreas • Located behind the stomach • Both exocrine gland and endocrine gland – Exocrine – secretes digestive enzymes into a duct leading to the small intestine – Endocrine – secretes hormones into bloodstream Glands
  22. 22. Pancreas (cont.) • Islets of Langerhans secrete hormones into bloodstream – Alpha cells secrete glucagon – Beta cells secrete insulin Blood glucose concentrations Blood glucose concentrations Protein synthesis Protein synthesis 34-22
  23. 23. Apply Your Knowledge What are the effects of insulin and glucagon? ANSWER: Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration and increases protein synthesis. Glucagon does just the opposite. It increases blood glucose and decreases protein synthesis. Yippee ! 34-23
  24. 24. Other Hormone-Producing Organs • Pineal body • Thymus gland – Small gland – Located between cerebral hemispheres – Melatonin – Located between lungs – Thymosin • Promotes production of T lymphocytes • Regulates circadian rhythms • May play a role in onset of puberty Glands 34-24
  25. 25. Other Hormone-Producing Organs (cont.) • The gonads • Small intestine – Ovaries – Secretin – Cholecystokinin • Estrogen • Progesterone – Testes • Heart – Atrial natriuretic peptide – regulates BP • Testosterone • Stomach – Gastrin • Kidneys – Erythropoietin – stimulates blood cell production 34-25 Glands
  26. 26. Back 34-26
  27. 27. Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ANSWER: D ___ Between lungs A. Pineal body A ___ Melatonin B. Heart G ___ Estrogen/testosterone C. Kidneys F ___ Gastrin D. Thymus gland E ___ Secretin E. Small intestine C ___ Erythropoietin F. Stomach B ___ Atrial natriuetic peptide G. Gonads D ___ Thymosin E ___ Cholecystokinin 34-27
  28. 28. 34-28 The Stress Response • Stressor – Any stimulus that produces stress – Types • Physical factors • Psychological factors • Positive stimuli
  29. 29. The Stress Response (cont.) • Physiologic response to stress caused by hormone release – General stress syndrome • Increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and BP • Increase in glucose and fatty acids in blood, which leads to weight loss • Increase in cortisol if stress prolonged – Decreased body repair – Susceptibility to illness 34-29
  30. 30. Apply Your Knowledge Match the following: ANSWER: ___ Extreme heat A A. Physical stress ___ Death of friend B B. Psychological stress ___ Fractured leg A C. Positive stimulus ___ Wedding C ___ Exam B ___ Hearing an explosion nearby B ___ “A” on an exam C ___ Flu A ___ Car stolen B 34-30
  31. 31. 34-31 Common Diseases and Disorders Disease/Disorder Acromegaly Description Too much growth hormone produced in adults; enlargement of bones and thickened skin Addison’s disease Adrenal gland fails to produce enough corticosteroids Cretinism Extreme form of hypothyroidism present prior to or soon after birth Cushing’s disease Hypercortisolism; over-production of cortisol Diabetes insipidus Kidneys fail to reabsorb water, resulting in excessive urination; hyposecretion of ADH
  32. 32. 34-32 Common Diseases and Disorders (cont.) Disease/Disorder Diabetes mellitus Description Chronic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels Type I Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; usually develops in childhood Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; primarily in adults but increased incidence in teens Occurs during pregnancy; usually temporary Type II Gestational Dwarfism Too little growth hormone (somatotropin) produced during childhood
  33. 33. 34-33 Common Diseases and Disorders (cont.) Disease/Disorder Description Gigantism Too much growth hormone produced during childhood Goiter Enlargement of thyroid gland, causing swelling in neck; deficiency of iodine in diet Grave’s disease Hyperthyroidism; antibodies attach to thyroid gland, causing it to produce too much thyroid hormone Thyroid gland produces inadequate amounts of thyroid hormone; common in females over 50 Myxedema
  34. 34. Apply Your KnowledgeCorrect! True or False: ANSWER: in an adult ___ Acromegaly develops as a result of too much growth hormone in a child. F T ___ In diabetes insipidus, the kidneys fail to reabsorb water. ___ Too little growth hormone in childhood results in dwarfism. T ___ Myxedema is the result of hyperthyroidism. F hypothyroidism ___ Addison’s disease is the result of too little corticosteroid. T ___ Cushing’s disease is the result of too little ACTH. F too much ACTH ___ Cretinism is an extreme form of hyperthyroidism present at birth. F hypothyroidism 34-34
  35. 35. In Summary • The organs of the endocrine system secrete hormones directly into blood and other body fluids. • Hormones secreted by the endocrine system control the functions of other cells. • Endocrine organs – – – – – – – – – 34-35 Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Adrenal glands Pancreas Pineal body Thymus gland Gonads, stomach small intestine, heart, kidneys
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