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  • Just a few reminders before we get started This is the second year that I have taught this course and second year I have used the projector. If you are having problems reading the slides, please talk to me after class, we can try and change the formatting, lighting etc. I have placed information on different ways to contact me with questions. I However, if you have major problems, please call or email me to set up an appointment. Just like you have other classes, I also have other responsibilities, so be respectful.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Why Study the Autonomic Nervous System? Therapeutics ANS Pharmacology Disease State Management Medicinal Chemistry Pathophysiology
    • 2. Organization of The Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Parasympathetic
    • 3. How do we define neuron types in the ANS? Parasympathetic Sympathetic Acetylcholine Muscarine Nicotine Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
    • 4.  
    • 5. Action Potential Na + Ca 2+ ACH Acetylcholinesterase Na + Parasympathetic Ganglionic Synapse Preganglionic neuron Postganglionic neuron Nicotinic Receptor   
    • 6. Action Potential Ca 2+ ACH Acetylcholinesterase Parasympathetic Organ Synapse K + G Effector Organ Postganglionic neuron Muscarinic Receptor Na +
    • 7. Summary of parasympathetic neurons and synapses
      • Preganglionic neurons
      • Long
      • Synapse with postganglionic neurons at or near organ
      • Release acetylcholine (ACH) to activate nicotinic receptors on postganglionic neurons
      • Postganglionic neurons
      • Short
      • Synapse on the target organ
      • Release acetylcholine (ACH) to activate muscarinic receptors on the target organ
    • 8.  
    • 9. Action Potential Na + Ca 2+ ACH Acetylcholinesterase Na + Sympathetic Ganglionic Synapse Preganglionic neuron Postganglionic neuron Nicotinic Receptor   
    • 10. Action Potential Ca 2+ NE Sympathetic Organ Synapse G Effector Organ Postganglionic neuron Adrenergic Receptor Na +
    • 11. Summary of sympathetic neurons and synapses
      • Preganglionic neurons
      • Short
      • Synapse with postganglionic neurons near spinal cord
      • Release acetylcholine (ACH) to activate nicotinic receptors on postganglionic neurons
      • Postganglionic neurons
      • Long
      • Synapse on the target organ
      • Release norepinephrine to activate adrenergic receptors on target organs
    • 12.
      • Sweat glands:
        • Postganglionic neurons involved with stress-related excretion release norepinephrine (“sweaty palms”)
        • Postganglionic neurons involved with thermoregulation release acetylcholine
      Exceptions in the sympathetic nervous system:
    • 13.
      • Kidneys:
        • Postganglionic neurons to the smooth muscle of the renal vascular bed release dopamine
      • Adrenal gland:
        • Preganglionic neurons do not synapse in the paraverterbral sympathetic ganglion
        • Preganglionic neurons synapse directly on the adrenal gland, release acetylcholine, and activate nicotinic receptors on the adrenal gland
        • Adrenal glands release epinephrine into systemic circulation
      Exceptions in the sympathetic nervous system: Most postganglionic sympathetic neurons release what neurotransmitter?
    • 14. How do drugs influence the ANS?
      • Mimic or block the effects of the two primary neurotransmitters, Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine/Epinephrine
      • Drugs that mimic neurotransmitters are referred to as “ receptor agonists ”
        • These drugs activate receptors
      • Drugs that block neurotransmitters are referred to as “ receptor antagonists ”
        • These drugs block the endogenous neurotransmitters from activating receptors
    • 15. Classification of drugs affecting the ANS
      • Parasympathetic nervous system
      • Mimic acetylcholine = cholinergic = muscarinic agonists = parasympathomimetic
      • Block acetylcholine = anticholinergic = muscarinic antagonist = parasympatholytic
      • Sympathetic nervous system
      • Mimic norepinephrine = adrenergic = adrenergic agonist = sympathomimetic
      • Block norepinephrine = antiadrenergic = adrenergic antagonist = sympatholytic

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