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  • SEMINAR ON<br />Brain tonics<br />SUBMITTED TO<br /> JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD,<br />In the partial fulfillment of M.Pharm.I year, ǁ semester.<br />CMR GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS <br />(Approved by AICTE and affiliated to JNTU Hyderabad.)<br />Kandlakoya(V), Medchal(M), Hyderabad-501401<br />Under the guidance of, Prepared By,<br /> Dr.T.Vedavathi Mpharm,Phd K. Sujana <br /> Professor (Pharmacology),M. Pharm 1st Year,<br /> CMR College of Pharmacy Reg. No.10T22S0116,<br /> CMR College of Pharmacy <br /> <br /> <br />C.M.R COLLEGE OF PHARMACY<br /> (Approved by AICTE & PCI)<br /> (Affiliated to JNTU)<br /> Kandlakoya, Medchal.<br /> <br /> CERTIFICATE<br />This is to verify that this is a bonafied record of the seminar entitled “BRAIN TONICS” presented by Sujana.k(10T22S0116), during the academic year 2010-2011 for partial fulfillment in degree of Masters of Pharmacy of Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad.<br />PRINCIPALINTERNAL GUIDE:<br />Dr.K.Rajeswar DuttDr.T.Vedavathi<br />M.Pharm, MBA, Ph.DM.Pharm, Ph.D<br />C.M.RCollege of PharmacyC.M.RCollege of Pharmacy<br />DECLARATION<br />I hereby declare that the seminar work entitled “BRAIN TONICS” submitted to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, is a record work of seminar done by me under the guidance of MISS Dr.T.VEDAVATHI, Professor of CMR College of pharmacy.<br /> K.Sujana<br /> Reg No.10T22S0116 <br />INDEX<br />SERIAL NO.NAME OF THE TOPICPAGE NO.1INTRODUCTION 62BRAIN TONICS 73BRAIN TONIC & MEMORY BOOSTER HERBS 134FORMULATION OF BRAIN TONIC 235CONCLUSION 246BIBILIOGRAPHY 25<br /> <br />BRAIN TONICS<br /> <br /> <br />INTRODUCTION:<br />The human brain is one of the most sophisticated organs nature has ever made. One of the most interesting aspects of the brain is its power to retain information, which we call as memory. Memory is perhaps the most vital of the aspects that differentiates human beings from other animals. However, memory can become faulty due to several reasons, and in that case the person is not able to make full use of his or her potentials.<br />Since ages, drugs and natural remedies have been prescribed to enhance memories in people. Ayurveda has a treasure-chest of such memory enhancing drugs, which are today popular all over the world due to their proven effective qualities.<br />Herbs for memory have been shown to help stimulate the mind and prevent memory loss. <br />Memory is a psychological process that happens in our brains. This is based on connections between nerve cells (neurons), which communicate with each other using chemicals called neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and acetylcholine).<br />It is therefore important to provide the brain with the necessary chemicals it needs for the memory process.<br />MEMORY NEEDS:<br />An important element is oxygen. We all know that without oxygen, brain cells deteriorate. So a better blood circulation will result in better oxygenation of the brain.<br />Memory also depends on the quality of neurotransmitters which is why we need vitamins and minerals.<br />Nature gives us many herbs for memory which enhance the brain's neurotransmitters, while others improve the flow of blood to the brain thus supplying the nutrients it needs to perform effectively.<br />According to Ayurveda the intelligence is a triad of three powers of the mind-the acquisition, the retention and the recollection.<br />The Power of Acquisition: It is the capacity to grasp some topic or something new. It is the capacity to understand or analyse.<br />The Power of Retention: It is the capacity to retain what has been grasped or understood. This capacity also deals with short-term memory.<br />The Power of Recollection: This is the capacity to retrieve the information after some time. It can be compared to long-term memory. <br />The herbs that promote the intelligence are called Medhya herbs. This action is related to our mind and mind resides in brain and nervous system especially the higher cortical centers of brain. 6<br />DEFINITION OF BRAIN TONICS:<br />Brain Tonic is a natural remedy to improve concentration, balance mood and memory problems (including ADHD, ADD and Alzheimer's) and also for those who are studying or under work stress in all ages.<br />Brain Tonic is a non-addictive, safe, natural remedy containing 100% natural ingredients especially selected to relieve forgetfulness and mental fatigue, plus improve brain functioning. it may be taken at the first signs of concentration problems, headache or fuzzy thinking for effective help with both long-term and short-term memory, plus increased alertness. Brain Tonic is taken internally to support brain and nervous system efficiency by promoting equilibrium at a cellular level.<br />It is useful for patient’s sufferings from lack of concentration and low memory performance. It is also useful for Alzheimers patients.<br /> <br />Alzheimer's disease (AD), is one form of dementia that gradually gets worse over time. It affects memory, thinking, and behaviour. Memory impairment, as well as problems with language, decision-making ability, judgment, and personality, are necessary features for the diagnosis.<br />Causes, incidence, and risk factors:<br />Age and family history are risk factors for AD.<br />As you get older, your risk of developing AD goes up. However, developing Alzheimer's disease is not a part of normal aging.<br />Having a close blood relative, such as a brother, sister, or parent who developed AD increases your risk.<br />Having certain combination of genes for proteins that appear to be abnormal in Alzheimer's disease also increases your risk.<br />Two abnormal structures called plaques and tangles are prime suspects in damaging and killing nerve cells.<br />Plaques are deposits of a protein fragment called beta-amyloid (BAY-tuh AM-uh-loyd) that builds up in the spaces between nerve cells.<br />Tangles are twisted fibres of another protein called tau (rhymes with “wow”) that builds up inside cells.<br />Though most people develop some plaques and tangles as they age, those with Alzheimer's tend to develop far more. They also tend to develop them in a predictable pattern, beginning in areas important for memory before spreading to other regions.<br />Scientists do not know exactly what role plaques and tangles play in Alzheimer's disease. Most experts believe they somehow play a critical role in blocking communication among nerve cells and disrupting processes that cells need to survive.<br />It's the destruction and death of nerve cells that causes memory failure, personality changes, problems carrying out daily activities and other symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.<br />The cause of AD is not entirely known, but is thought to include both genetic and environmental factors.<br />There are two types of AD -- early onset and late onset:<br />In early onset AD, symptoms first appear before age 60. Early onset AD is much less common than late onset. However, it tends to progress rapidly. Early onset disease can run in families. Several genes have been identified.<br />Late onset AD, the most common form of the disease, develops in people age 60 and older. Late onset AD may run in some families, but the role of genes is less clear.<br />The early symptoms of AD can include:<br />Language problems, such as trouble finding the name of familiar objects<br />Misplacing items<br />Getting lost on familiar routes<br />Personality changes and loss of social skills<br />Losing interest in things previously enjoyed, flat mood<br />Difficulty performing tasks that take some thought, but used to come easily, such as balancing a checkbook, playing complex games (such as bridge), and learning new information or routines<br />As the AD becomes worse, symptoms are more obvious and interfere with your ability to take care of yourself. Symptoms can include:<br />Forgetting details about current events<br />Forgetting events in your own life history, losing awareness of who you are<br />Change in sleep patterns, often waking up at night<br />Difficulty reading or writing<br />Poor judgment and loss of ability to recognize danger<br />Using the wrong word, mispronouncing words, speaking in confusing sentences<br />Withdrawing from social contact<br />Having hallucinations, arguments, striking out, and violent behavior<br />Having delusions, depression, agitation<br />Difficulty doing basic tasks, such as preparing meals, choosing proper clothing, and driving<br />People with severe AD can no longer:<br />Understand language<br />Recognize family members<br />Perform basic activities of daily living, such as eating, dressing, and bathing<br />Natural remedy to treat AD:<br />Brain Tonic: Aids in cognitive processes including concentration, memory and attentiveness.<br />Support brain health and nervous system health by promoting equilibrium at a cellular level<br />Lessen feelings of being 'on edge' and promote a healthy, balanced mood<br />Maintain routine balance of cell salts in the body<br />Enhance the therapeutic effects of other remedies by promoting brain efficiency and mental focus<br />Brain Tonic is a combination of various natural herbs selected for their effect on brain and nervous system health. This can be used regularly to promote systemic balance in the brain and nervous system, as well as in conjunction with other remedies to maintain therapeutic effectiveness. It plays a different yet vital role in maintaining cellular health in the organs and systems of the body. Ensuring the healthy functioning of all brain and nervous system cells enhances the bioavailability of supplements, remedies, and even nutrients in your diet.<br />Brain Tonic maximizes all health efforts of the brain and it is safe to use for all ages as well as during pregnancy. It has ability to stimulate synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF), which may help inhibit brain dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease and possibly other neurological diseases related to aging.<br />USES OF BRAIN TONICS:<br />
    • Relieves mental stress and anxiety.
    • Ideal for students and elderly people.
    • Prevents early ageing of brain cells
    • Improves functioning of other organs by stimulating central nervous system.
    • Relieves forgetfulness and mental fatigue
    • Increases alertness. Improves concentration and memory
    • Increases blood flow to the brain
    • Reduces the frequency of headaches
    • Supports systemic balance on a cellular level
    • Provides fast-acting relief plus sustained support
    • Safe for all ages, also during pregnancy and nursing 7
    The following is a list of the most effective herbs used in brain tonics for memory enhancement all over the world.<br />BRAIN TONIC & MEMORY BOOSTER HERBS 8<br />LATIN NAME COMMON NAMEFAMILYAchyranthes aspera Roughchaff Tree, Prickly-chaff Flower, Chirchita, LacjiraAmaranthaceaeArtemisia nilagirica Titapati Asteraceae Artemisia vulgarisFelon herb, Fleabane, Damanaka, MagdanaAsteraceaeAtropa acuminateA. belladonnaIndian Atropine, Angur-shafa, Sag-angur, BelladonaSolanaceaeBacopa monnieriBrahmmi, Nirbrahmi, Jalneema, JalnaveriScrophulariaceaeCarissa carabdasKaronda ApocynaceaeCelastrus paniculatusStaff Tree, Khunjri, Jyotishmani, Maal Kangni, Magaz-ShuddhiCelastraceaeCentella asiatica (= Hydrocotyl asiatica)Pennywort, Bramhi, Brahma-munduki, Gotu kola Apiaceae Datura metelJimson Weed, Thorn Apple, Dhatura SolanaceaeFerula asafoetida(= F. alliacea)Asafoetida, HingUmbelliferaeHyoscyamus nigerBlack HenbaneSolanaceaePunica granatumPomegranate, Anar PunicaceaeRauwolfia serpentinaSerpentine, SarpgandhaApocynaceaeTerminalia belliricaBedda Nut tree, Baleric Myroblan, BaheraCombretaceae<br />1. GINGKO<br />SYNONYMS: Maiden hair tree, Kew tree.<br />BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: The dried leaves of Gingkobiloba belonging to the family Gingkoaceae.<br />CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Medicinally, active ingredients of gingko leaf are various flavonol glycosides, which mainly include flavonol,mono-di-and triglycosides of kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin. Along with these ingredients, leaves also contain diterpene lactones namely gingkolides A,B,C and J,anthocyanins. Also contains organic acids. 10<br />USES:<br />
    • Ginkgo works by improving the blood circulation to the central nervous system. This is the primary requisite for a healthy and capable brain . Apart from this,ginkgo corrects any damage done to the cells of different parts of the body,including the brain.
    • It also minimizes the effects of the blood clotting.  
    • Ginkgo has got a place of respect in Ayurveda. The extract of the ginkgo is prescribed to people who have amnesia and Alzheimer’s disease. Several herbal brain tonics have ginkgo as one of the chief ingredients.
    • Ginkgo has been proposed as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease on the basis of positive preclinical results in mice and a 2006 study that found 160 mg of ginkgo extract as effective as a daily 5 mg dose of the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil in human subjects.
    DOSAGE : Gingko supplements are usually taken in the range of 40-200mg per day.<br />2. LIQUORICE<br />SYNONYMS: Yastimadhu, Mulethi, Glycyrrhiza .<br />BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: Liquorice consists of dried, unpeeled,roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza glabra belonging to family Leguminosae .<br />CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: The Chief constituent of liquorice is a triterpenoid saponin known as glycyrrhizin(glycyrrhizic acid),which is a potassium and calcium salt of glycyrrhizinic acid. Glycyrrhizinic acid is a glycoside and on hydrolysis yields glycyrrhetinic acid (glycyrrhetic acid), which has a triterpenoid structure. Other constituents of liquorice are glucose (upto 4%) sucrose (2.5 to 6.5%), bitter principle glycyramarin resins ,asparagin(2 to 4%) and fat.Another important chemical aspect of liquorice is the presence of flavonoids.The compounded carbenoxolone is derived from liquorice. Some studies indicate it may inhibit an enzyme in the brain that is involved in making stress-related hormones,which have been associated with age-related mental decline. 10<br />USES:<br />
    • Mulethi is none other than licorice, the herb already known worldwide for its various curative properties. Mulethi is an efficient brain tonic and a re-vitalizer for the brain. Like most of the other herbs mentioned here, mulethi also rejuvenates the brain. In times of stress,mulethi can stimulate mental functions so as to feel a calming and relaxing effect.
    • Mulethi increases the circulation into the central nervous system and balances the sugar levels in the blood.
    • Mulethi is frequently provided to students who are preparing for important examinations,as it helps to remember small facts and bits of information.  5
    DOSAGE: Generally,1-2cups of liquorice tea is taken per day. And recommended dose, tincture: 1/2-1teaspoonful twice a day taken before meals.<br />3.ASHWAGANDHA <br />SYNONYMS: Withania root, Asgandh, Winter cherry <br />BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: It consists of stem bases of Withania somnifera belonging to family solanaceae .<br />CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: The main constituents of ashwagandha are alkaloids and steroidal lactones .Among the various alkaloids, withanine is the main constituent. The other alkaloids are somniferine, somnine, somniferinine ,withananine, tropine, pseudotropine and anahydrine .The drug also contains monohydric alcohols called somnitol withanic acid,a physteol and mixture of fatty acids containing oleic acid,palmitic acid and stearic acid . 10<br />USES:<br />
    • Ashwagandha is one of the most essential components used in enhancing memory and overall brain functioning.
    • Ashwagandha is an adaptogen,stress-buster and a re-vitalizer. Ashwagandha has a cooling and calming effect on the brain. After a hard day’s work, ashwagandha can bring the brain back to its normal state of functioning. 
    • Ayurveda regards ashwagandha as a medha rasayana, i.e. a brain tonic. It has direct results in improving the memory capacity of the brain. Ashwagandha is very powerful in making new concepts seem clearer and easy to understand. It is a vital component of almost all herbal brain tonics available in the market.  5
    DOSAGE: 1 or 2 capsules twice everyday with meals.- oral administration of ashwagandha for five days suggested that anxiety-relieving effects similar to those achieved by the anti-anxiety drug lorazepam.<br />4.CENTELLA ASIATICA<br />SYNONYMS: Gotu kola, Mandukparni, Hydrocotyleasiatica,SaraswathiPlant.<br />BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: It consists of long-stalked, green, reniform leaves of Centella asiatica belonging to the family Apiaceae.<br />CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS:  The primary constituents reported in the literature for gotu kola are known as the triterpenoid compounds. The concentration of triterpenes in gotu kola can vary between 1.1 and 8%, with most samples yielding between 2.2 and 3.4%. The major triterpenoid components are: asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside. Saponin glycosides include brahmoside and brahminoside. The plant is also a source of calcium and sodium. 10<br />USES: <br />
    • The gotu kola is very effective in increasing the circulation of blood to different parts of the body, including the brain. It protects the brain from damage due to the wear and tear of its cells.
    • Gotu kola can regenerate lost energy from the hsuman system and can make the person feel more zestful. 
    • Gotu kola is generally used in tonics intended to re-vitalize the brain. It improves concentration, makes the brain more receptive to information and also brings about an enhancement in the memory. 
    • Centellaasiatica may be useful in the treatment of Anxiety and may be used as a promising anxiolytic agent in the future. 5
    DOSAGE: 1 or 2 capsules twice daily with meals.<br />5. ACORUS CALAMUS <br />SYNONYMS: Calamus, Sweet flag<br />BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: These are the dried rhizomes of the plant known as Acorus calamus belonging to family Araceae.<br />CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS :The drug contains 1.5 to 3.5% of volatile oil ,starch ,resin (2.5%) and tannin 1.5%.volatile oil contains asaraldehyde.The other contents of the oil are asarone and eugenol.Calamus also contains a bitter amorphous principle known as acorine.The other constituents are Hydrocarbons ,trimethylamine,beta-asarone,camphone. 10<br />USES:<br />
    • Vacha is a very vigorous brain tonic, because it shows results in a very short time. It increases the overall memory of the person and strengthens the nervous system.Vacha is prescribed to people who have amnesia.
    • Improving the memory is a quest on which human beings have embarked centuries ago.In almost all civilizations, there have been attempts to discover the best herbs for brain enhancement with minimum side-effects. Perhaps, Ayurveda wins the race in this.
    • All the herbs Ayurveda uses for its brain tonics have minimum side-effects and are quite safe for the human beings. Western science is now warming up to these herbs and is looking upon them as effective supplements for the human brain.
    • It also increases blood supply to brain and oxygenates it. 5
    DOSAGE: The root or rhizome of calamus can be chewed or to be taken as a pinch of powder in teaspoonful of honey.<br />6. BACOPA MONNIERI<br />SYNONYMS: Brahmi <br />BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: It consists of fresh and dried leaves and stems of the plant known as Bacopa monnieri belonging to family Scrophulariaceae.<br />CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Brahmi is found to contain the alkaloids brahmine, herpestine and the mixture of three alkaloids. It contains saponins, namely bacosides A and B. Additionally it also contains betulic acid, stigmasterol, monnierin and hersaponin . 10<br /> USES: <br />
    • Brahmi is used as nerve tonic and treatment of epilepsy.It enhances protein synthesis in the cerebrum associated with long term memory.
    Improves memory and enhances recall.<br />Increases concentration and intellect. <br />Increases brain capacity to take additional load.<br />Relives mental stress and strain.<br />
    • Also very useful in ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) & Senile Dementia (Age Related Memory Loss). 5
    DOSAGE: Suggested dose: Adults powder: 2 teaspoonsful twice a day in milk. Capsule: 1 capsule twice a day preferably with milk. Children: 1-2 teaspoonsful twice a day in milk.<br />7. CONVOLVULUS PLURICAULIS<br />SYNONYMS: shankhapushpi, bindweed.<br />BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: The areial parts of the plant convolvulus pluricaulis belonging to family convolvulaceae.<br />CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: <br />The chemical composition of shankhapushpi contains many phytonutrients like convolidine, convolvine, convolvidine, convoline, confoline,phyllabine, subhirsine, sitosterol and scopoline.These compounds help brain stimulation and increase the ability to concentrate. 10<br />USES: <br /> <br />
    • Shankhapushpi has been regarded as powerful brain tonic,a natural memory stimulant, and a good tranquilizer.
    • It is also used as a rasayana and rejuvenator. Due to its soothing action on the nervous syste,this plant is used as a tranquilizer for sleeplessness and anxiety neurosis.
    • It has been found to be helpful in restoring memory and so is useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and dementia.
    • Shankhapushpi reduces anxiety and stress by controlling the production of body's stress harmones, adrenaline and cortisol.
    • This plant also significantly enhances memory power and intelligence. Its powder, mixed with cumin and milk can be taken for insomnia. 5
    DOSAGE: powder- 2-4gm; paste- 10-20gm per day.<br />8.ARTEMISIA VULGARIS:<br />SYNONYMS: Mugwort, Common Wormwood.<br />BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: It contains leaves and flowering tops of the plant Artemisia vulgaris belonging to the family Asteaceae.<br />CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: The important chemical constituents of mug wort are thujone, cineole,a volatile oil, acrid resin and tannin. It also cantains flavonoids, triterpenes and coumarin derivatives. 10<br />USES:<br />
    • It is recommended for people with memory deficiency due to cerebral circulation problems.
    • This is an excellent brain tonic, useful in cerebral congestion and spinal cord stimulation because that the connection between brain and the spinal cord is so tight, that herbs which have effect on the spinal cord have great chances to influence a region of the brain.
    • It is also prescribed for nervous and spasmodic diseases connected with debility and epileps.Also used for insomnia and nervousness. 5
    DOSAGE: Tea or tincture twice daily to enhance your psychic abilities. One teaspoon per cup for infusion;5 – 20 drops tincture.<br />FORMULATION OF BRAIN TONIC:<br />COMBINATION OF HERBS viz., Centella asiatica, Piper longum, Zingiber officinale, Withania somnifera, Achyranthes aspera, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Terminalia chebula.<br />DRUG PREPARATION: Centella asiatica leaves (2 1/2 tbsp),Piper longum fruits (1 tbsp), Zingiber officinale rhizome (1 tbsp), Withania somnifera root (1tbsp), Achyranthes aspera whole plant (2 1/2 tbsp), Glycyrrhiza glabra root (1 tbsp) and Terminalia chebula fruit (2 1/2 tbsp).<br />DOSAGE: One teaspoonful powder is given to the patient,twice daily with milk or water. 4<br />CONCLUSION<br />
    • Brain Tonic is a natural remedy to improve concentration,balance mood and memory problems (including ADHD,ADD and Alzheimer's) and also for those who are studying or under work stress in all ages.
    • Prevents early ageing of brain cells.Improves functioning of other organs by stimulating central nervous system.It also increases blood supply to brain and oxygenates it.
    • Reduces the frequency of headaches.Supports systemic balance on a cellular level. Provides fast-acting relief plus sustained support.
    • In almost all civilizations, there have been attempts to discover the best herbs for brain enhancement with minimum side-effects.Perhaps, Ayurveda wins the race in this. Brain tonics increases alertness,improves concentration and memory.Ideal for students and elderly people.
    • And all the herbs Ayurveda uses for its brain tonics have minimum side-effects and are quite safe for the human beings.Western science is now warming up to these herbs and is looking upon them as effective supplements for the human brain.
    BIBILIOGRAPHY<br />BRAHMI: The Brain Tonic -By Brijesh Regal.<br />NEW SCIENTIST (magzine)- Published by reed business Information.<br />ESSENTIAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY: neuroscientific basis and practical applications -By S. M. Stahl<br />www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/brain-tonic.shtml - <br />http://www.holistic-herbalist.com/ayurvedic-herbs-information.html<br />http://www.motherherbs.com/memory-tonic.html<br />http://www.gettall.com/brain_tonic.html<br />http://www.self-healing-herbs.com/herbs-for-memory.html<br />http://www.altnature.com/thegarden/Mugwort.html<br /> Text Book : Pharmacognosy, published by Nirali Prakasham, 29th Edition-2004, Authors – Dr.C.K.Kokate, A.P.Purohit, S.B.Gokhale. Page No.368, 218, 215, 164, 234<br />