Informative analytes are present in lower amounts in saliva than in serum. DISADVANTAGES
Whole saliva collection Ductal secretions collection Parotid secretions collection Sub mandibular & sub lingual secretions collection Saliva collection
PROCESSING & STORAGE: All procedures must be performed on ice: (1)Divide the saliva samples into multiple 330μL samples placed in cryotubes at -80ºc. Further processed for
Protein analysis: Add protease inhibitors like aprotinin(0.33µL), 3.3µL PMSF.
RNA analysis: Add 1.65µL of SUPERase inhibitor.
(2)Invert gently to mix. (3)Store all fractions at -80ºc.
Salivary/Oral Fluid Biomarkers Possibilities of Use DNA Standard genotyping Genetic information of the hosting human body Bacterial infection (oral microbes in the mouth) Diagnosing carcinomas of head & neck Forensics mRNA Information on transcription rates RNA Viral/bacterial identification Proteins Genetic information Translational regulation Diagnosing periodontitis Detecting dental cavities Immunoglobulin Diagnosing viruses Metabolites Diagnosing periodontitis
P53 antibody can be detected in oral squamous cell carcinoma, increased levels of salivary kallikrein levels in oral malignant tumors, CA 15-3 in breast cancer. CVS: Determination of salivary amylase activity before 6hrs after cv surgery. KIDNEY DYSFUNCTION: Hypo salivation , changes in taste, ammonium smelling breath, oral mucosal pain. EPILEPSY: Gingival hypertrophy, IgA deficiency
VIRAL DISEASES:Acute hepatitis A & B were diagnosed based on the presence of IgM antibodies in saliva.HIV:Salivary IgA levels.BACTERIAL INFECTIONS:By monitoring the presence of antibodies to microorganisms found in saliva & oral cavity
Smoking causes decrease in salivary important antioxidant levels.
Salivary nicotine levels are considered to be the most reliable marker
Drug monitoring ANTI-ASTHMATICS:Theophylline ANTI EPILEPTICS: Carbamazapine, Diazepam, Ethosuximide, Lamotrigine, Topiramate, Phenytoin, Primidone, Valproic acid ANTI ARRYTHMIC/ANTI HYPERTENSIVES: Digoxin, Metoprolol, and Procainamide. ANTI MICROBIALS:Clarithromycin, Gentamycin, Isoniazid, Ofloxacin, Sulfanilamide ANTIPYRETICS: Acetaminophen, Antipyrine, Paracetamol ANTI NEOPLASTICS:Cisplatin, Methotrexate, Texol, Topotecan ANTI VIRAL: Quinine LITHIUM PSYCHOTROPIC:Lithium, Amitriptyline MISCELLANEOUS: Nicotine, Ethanol, Caffeine, Tolbutamide, Quinine ILLICIT DRUGS: Amphetamine, Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, Opiods, Cocaine, Phencyclidine
HORMONE MONITORING: Steroids like cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, insulin SIALOCHEMISTRY ANALYSIS: Early monitoring of an exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury because of higher salivary levels of these elements
CONCLUSION: The components of saliva act as a “Mirror of the body’s health”, widespread use and growing acceptability of saliva as a diagnostic tool is helping individuals, researchers, health care professionals and community health programs to better detect and monitor diseases and to improve the general health of the public