Program Objective• Understand how to structure a presentation and deliver the content,• Design presentations which are visually appealing.• Fine tune verbal and non- verbal behavior for impact.• Overcome the fear of Public speaking.• Under stand common pitfalls of ineffective presentation and avoid them.
“I always think a great speakerconvinces us not by force ofreasoning but because he isvisibly enjoying the beliefs hewants us to accept.” -W.B. Yeats
What is a good presenter?“A presenter should be like a mini skirt:Long enough to cover the vital parts,and short enough to attract attention.”
Introduction Presentations skills are important in general: quite often during your study, and also later in your career, you will need to use this skill.Presentations can have different objectives:• To inform,• To sell something,• To persuade someone, or• To train people.
This is what irritates people during presentations • the speaker was nervous • the speaker was disorganised • the speaker never looked at me • the speaker had bad accent • the speaker did not sound enthusiastic • the speaker was monotonous • the visuals were bad • I was irritated by his/her clothing • the speaker was speaking too softly • the speech was confused; I didn’t know what he/she was trying to tell me
Research by Harvard University suggest that:“ For many people the thought of giving a publicpresentation is more disturbing than thethought of dying.”
Push yourself out of your comfort zone• The way we communicate has been learned over our entire life. We do what we do because we are comfortable that way . Often, however our comfort zone limits us.• In fact , any change or skill building requires that we step out of comfort zone and try some new behavior.• The first time we try something new, it may seem difficult, but with the time and practice, we become comfortable doing it.
4P’s of PresentationPresentation and public speaking skill is an art and anyone can master this art with a preparation and practice.To avoid any negative outcome the following aspects are important in making a presentation:• Plan• Prepare• Practice• Present / Deliver
PlanSome people think that they can delivereffective presentations without planning.But experienced presenter know that they needto plan the presentation and anticipatesituations that may occur.
Benefits of planning your presentation include:• Polished delivery.• The ability to give a presentation within time limit.• Anticipation of the audiences comfort.• The ability to alter a presentation to meet various needs.• Reduction of technical problems.
To plan an effective presentation, you need todetermine its purpose and to determine thepurpose of your presentation , you should askyourself the following:• Why this specific presentation?• What should the participants be able to do or understand after going through the presentation?• How should the participants react at the end of the presentation?
PrepareThis is the basic structure of a talk: 1. Introduction 2. Main part (body) 3. Conclusion 4. Question & Answer sessionThis means that you need to plan every part carefully.Your presentation must tell a story. At this stage you are like a screen-writer,someone who is writing a play.
Preparation at homeWhen you plan your presentation you need to answer the following questions:1. Who is my audience (how much do they know about my topic?)2. How am I going to organise my topic? (it needs to tell a story)3. How long should my presentation be? (you will have time limits and you need to say everything within that limit)4. What visual support shall I use? (PowerPoint, transparencies, models, objects...?)
Putting parts together Particularly if you are working in a group it is important that you put the parts of your speech in a logical sequence. Your presentation needs to tell a story and be told in a simple language so that the audience can follow you. You will no doubt discover many ideas that you want to include in your presentation but you must be selective. Include only the information that is relevant to your audience and your objective. Leave all other ideas out. What approach should you use? Formal or informal? Lots of visual aids or only a few? But remember, your time is always limited, therefore be selective.
Effective vocal technics include:• Speed – It is rate at which you communicate the message to the audience.• Volume – The optimum volume depends on the size of the room and the size of the audience.• Pitch – Pitch is the tone or the inflection in your voice.• Quality – Vocal quality is the overall sound of your voice.
Non-Verbal CommunicationEffective non-verbal communication includes:• Eye contact• Facial expression• Appearance• Hand gesture• Posture
VisualsProfessor Albert Mehrabian carried out someinvestigative research several years ago to findout which factors most influence an audienceduring a presentation.The results showed that most what an audienceremembers are things they have seen.The next important factors is the tone of voiceused by the presenter and least influential factoris the actual content of the presentation.
The ratios are :• Visual impact - 55 %• Tone of voice – 38 %• Text and Content – 7 % Presentation Skills60504030 Presentation Skills20100 Pictures & Everything they see Tone of Voice Text & Content ( Including (Except Bullet Points) Bullet Points)
PracticePractice is a vital part of preparation. You should leave time to practise yourspeech two or three times and also practise with your group. In this way you will: – become more familiar with what you want to say – identify weaknesses in your presentation – be able to practise difficult pronunciations – be able to check the time that your presentation takes and make any necessary modifications . So practise, practise, practise! Prepare everything: words, visual aids, timing, equipment. Rehearse your presentation several times and time it. Is it the right length? Are you completely familiar with all your illustrations? Are they in the right order? Can you give good comments to your visuals? How will you answer difficult questions? Do you know the room? Are you confident about the equipment? When you have answered all these questions, you will become more confident .
Present / DeliverAs presenter, most of the attention is focused onyou – what you are saying and how you aredelivering your message. To be an effectivecommunicator you must use presentation skillsthat promote a coordinated presentation.Even a well organised presentation withappealing visual aids can fail to reach itsobjectives if the presenter’s delivery style is noteffective.
Presenter as an “Actor” When you come to stand on the podium you become the actor of yourpresentation. During your presentation you are going to speak and not read fromyour notes. This means using your voice, and also your body language. What isimportnat is that you establish eye contact with each member of your audience.Each person should feel that you are speaking directly to him or her. You need tothink in advance: Where shall I stand? How shall I keep eye contact? Where shall Ikeep my hands? What if I get lost? How to manage audience phobia?
IntroductionIntroduction is probably the most important part. ThePurpose of the introduction is “to tell the audience whatyou are going to tell them”. You should remember that thereis no second chance for a first bad impression. If you start off badlyyou will spoil everything.During the introduction you need to achieve the following aims: Gain Attention attract Interest create Desire stimulate Action
Getting started - greeting the audienceWhat you need to do first is to greet your audience. Here are some useful phrases: • Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. • Welcome to my presentation. • It’s very nice to see you all here today. • Can we get started? • Let me say just a few words about my background...
Making an effective opening There are several ways how to attract the audience right from the beginning. Think of one of the following techniques to introduce your talk:• Give them a problem to think about (Suppose you... Why is it that...)• Give them some amazing facts.(Did you know that ...)• Give them a story or a personal anecdote.(stories always atractattention)• Use a citation (if you want to start on a more philosophical note)• Make a funny remark(but be careful with humour, not all jokes work well)• Record a music piece perhaps (if appropriate for the topic)
Possible Introduction Scheme:1. start with welcoming courtesies/introduce yourself2. state the purpose of your talk, using one of the techniques3. give a route map (tell them how long will your presentation take)4. give the rules (do you allow to be interrupted or should your audience keep questions until the end)
Some useful phrases• What I want to do this morning is to …..• My talk will take about 30 minutes.• During my presentation, I’m going to be focusing on four main areas.• I’ll be giving out copies of my transparencies at the end.• If you have any questions, or comments you’d like to make, please don’t hesitate to stop me.
Ending your talkWhen you come to the end of your presentation you need to indicate this tothe people. Don’t just end up abruptly without giving a conclusion.The purposeof the conclusion is to “tell the people what you have told them”.Follow this scheme: • summarise facts • give recommendations • give proposals Thank the audience Invite questions
Ending your talk : useful phrases Wrapping up • This brings me to the end of my presentation. • Let me just run over the key points again… • To sum up briefly… • To conclude … • As we’ve seen… • So, my recommendation is …. • I would welcome any suggestions.Thanking the audience & Inviting questions•Thank you for your attention and if you have any questions I’ll be pleased to answer them.• I’ll be happy to answer any questions.• Are there any questions you’d like to ask?
Questions & Answers“Does anyone have any questions for my answers?” -Henry Kissinger
Questions & Answers• Beginning of a whole new interactive presentation• Opportunity to make a point• Most presentations are won or lost here
Questions & Answers• Anticipate lines of • Don’t repeat negative questioning questions • Clarify question• Rehearse • Defer to experts• Don’t rank questions • Move your eyes off• Keep answers brief questioner• Be honest • If negative, end your• Avoid negative words response focused on somebody else
Instead…• Look at the questioner.• Remain neutral and attentive.• Listen to the whole question.• Pause before you respond.• Address the questioner, then move your eyes to others.
Easy as A B C“I can’t Answer that question Because …, but I Can tell you…”
“Better to keep yourmouth shut and appearignorant than open itand remove all doubt.” -Mark Twain
ConclusionConsider this in preparing your presentation: • Simplify the text. • Focus your material. You can’t say everything. • Use transitions (signsposting) to move smoothly. • Use examples, anecdotes, statistics to support your message. • Use a lot of visuals to reinforce the message. • Consider timing. • Apply the KISS principle. KISS principle: Keep it Simple Stupid. • Practise alone and with the whole group.
“Make sure you have finishedspeaking before your audiencehas finished listening.” -Dorothy Sarnoff