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6)The Human Body
 

6)The Human Body

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    6)The Human Body 6)The Human Body Presentation Transcript

    • The Human Body
    • What is A&P?
      • Anatomy
        • Study of structure of the body
      • Physiology
        • Study of those structures functions
    • Normal Anatomical Position
      • Normal Anatomical Position
        • Standing erect
        • Feet together
        • Arms at side
        • Palms facing forward
    • Anatomical Directional Terms
      • Superior
        • Further from the ground/Close to head
      • Inferior
        • Close to the ground/Close to feet
      • Anterior
        • Toward front of body (AKA. Ventral)
      • Posterior
        • Toward back of body (AKA. Dorsal)
      • Medial
        • Close to the midline
      • Lateral
        • Farther away from the midline
        • Bilateral- Both R and L side
    •  
    • Anatomical Directional Terms
      • Proximal
        • Closer to the trunk
      • Distal
        • Farther away from the trunk
      • Central
        • At, in, or near the core
      • Peripheral
        • Away from the center of the body
    • Anatomical Divisionary Lines
      • Midline
        • Divides body into Right and Left halves.
    • Anatomical Divisionary Lines
      • Mid-clavicular
        • Passes through middle of clavicles
        • Parallel to the midline
        • Used in assessing lung sounds
    • Anatomical Divisionary Lines
      • Midaxillary
        • Passes vertically through armpits
        • Divides body into anterior/posterior halves
    • Anatomical Surfaces
      • Palmer Surface
        • Palm of hands
      • Plantar Surface
        • Sole of foot
    • Anatomical Positions
      • Supine
        • Lying on back
      • Prone
        • Lying face down
      • Recumbent
        • Lying on side
    • Anatomical Positions
      • Trendelenburg
        • Supine with feet elevated and head down
      • Fowlers
        • Sitting position
      • Shock Position
        • Supine with feet elevated 8”-12”
    • Anatomical Motion Terms
      • Abduction
        • “ ab”=away
        • Movement away from body
      • Adduction
        • “ add”= toward
        • Movement toward to the body
      • Flexion
        • Bending of a joint
      • Extension
        • Straightening of a joint
    • Body Systems
      • Organization
        • Cells – Tissues – Organ - Organ System - Organism
      • Tissue Types
        • Muscle
          • Contract to allow motion
          • Smooth, Skeletal, Cardiac
        • Nervous
          • Conduct impulses
        • Epithelial
          • Protective and semi permeable
        • Connective
          • Structure/protection/attachment
          • Extracellular matrix, bone, cartilage, blood
    •  
    • Skeletal System
      • 14% total body weight
      • Function
        • Shape, Movement, Storage
        • (Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron)
        • Protection of organs
        • Blood cell production
        • Endocrine Regularion
      • Components
        • Bones
          • Mineralized osseous tissue
        • Cartilage
          • Soft connective tissue/Collagen
          • Flexible support
        • Tendons
          • Attach muscle to bone
          • Collagen, Elastin, Proteogylcans
        • Ligaments
          • Attach bone to bone
          • Collagen
      • Axial Skeleton
        • Skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage
      • Appendicular Skeleton
        • Upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs
    •  
    • Axial Skeleton Skull
      • Skull
        • 22 bones
        • Cranium + Face
        • Encases brain
        • Brain + CSF + Vessels
          • Little space
      • Facial Bones
        • Orbits
          • Eyes
        • Nasal Bones
        • Maxilla
          • Upper Jaw
        • Zygomatics
          • Cheekbones
        • Mandible
          • Lower Jaw
    •  
    • Axial Skeletal Vertebral Column
      • Function
        • Support
      • Components
        • 33 Vertebrae
        • Intervertebral disks
      • Divisions of Vertebrae
        • Cervical (C-) = 7 Neck
          • C1 = Atlas
          • C2 = Axis
        • Thoracic (T-)= 12 Chest
        • Lumbar (L-)= 5 Lower Back
        • Sacral (S-)= 5 Back of pelvis (fused)
        • Coccyx (C-)= 4 Tailbone (fused)
    • Axial Skeletal Thoracic Cage
      • Function
        • Protection of thoracic cavity
        • Supports shoulder girdle
      • Components
        • 12 pairs of ribs
          • 1-10 attach to sternum
          • 11-12 “float”
        • Sternum
          • Manubrium
          • Body
          • Xiphoid process
        • Costal cartilage
          • Connect ribs to sternum
        • Thoracic vertebrae (12)
    • Appendicular Skeleton Upper Extremities
      • Clavicle
      • Scapula
      • Acromion (Tip of shoulder)
      • Humerus
      • Olecranon (elbow)
      • Radius
      • Ulna
      • Carpals (wrist)
      • Metacarpals (hands)
      • Phalanges (fingers)
    • Appendicular Skeleton Lower Extremities
      • Greater Trochanter (head of femur)
      • Acetabulum (socket of hip)
      • Femur (thigh)
      • Patella (knee)
      • Tibia (shin)
      • Fibula (lower leg)
      • Medial/Lateral malleolus (ankle)
      • Tarsals and metatarsals (foot)
      • Calcaneus (heel)
      • Phalanges (toes)
    • Appendicular Skeleton Pelvis
      • Function
        • Support and protection
      • Components
        • Ilium
          • Wings
        • Pubis
          • Anterior portion
        • Ischium
          • Inferior portion
        • Sacrum
        • Coccyx
    • Joints
      • Definition
        • 2 or more bones connecting to bones
      • Types
        • Ball and socket
          • Hip/Shoulder
          • Wide Range of motion
        • Hinge
          • Elbow/knee
          • Motion in 1 plane
          • Flexion and extension only
    • Body Cavities
    • Body Cavities
      • Cranial
        • Enclosed by skull
        • Contains: brain, eyes, ears
      • Vertebral
        • Enclosed by vertebrae
        • Contains: spinal cord
      • Thoracic
        • Enclosed by ribcage
        • Bounded by diaphragm
        • Contains: trachea, esophagus, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, heart, great vessels, thymus gland,
      • Abdominopelvic
        • Abdominal
          • Enclosed by ribcage and pelvis
          • Contains: kidneys, ureters, stomach, large/small intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen
          • Divided into quadrants (next slide)
        • Pelvic
          • Enclosed by pelvis
          • Contains: urinary bladder, anus, reproductive organs
    • Abdominal Quadrants
    • Respiratory System
    • Respiratory System
      • Function
        • Gas exchange with outside environment
        • Filtration/Humidification/Warming/Conduction of air
      • Structures
        • Nose
        • Mouth
        • Naso/Oro/Laryngopharynx
        • Larynx
        • Bronchi
          • Bronchioles
        • Lungs
        • Diaphragm
          • Associated muscles
        • Alveoli
    • Upper Airway Nose/Mouth
      • Function
        • Filters
        • Warms
        • Moistens
    • Upper Airway Pharynx
      • Location
        • Posterior to mouth
        • Superior to esophagus, larynx, trachea
      • Function
        • Conducts air to bronchi
      • 3 Divisions
          • Nasopharynx
          • Oropharynx
          • Laryngopharynx
    • Upper Airway Epiglottis
      • Location
        • Sits posterior to larynx
        • Attached to tongue
      • Structure
        • Leaf shaped cartilage
      • Function
        • Prevents food/liquid from entering larynx during swallowing
        • Guards opening to vocal cords (glottis)
    • Upper Airway Larynx
      • AKA: “Voice box”
      • Location
        • Inferior to epiglottis
        • Superior to trachea
      • Structure
        • Cartilaginous rings
          • Thyroid Cartilage = “Adam’s Apple”
            • Bulk of anterior wall
          • Cricoid Cartilage
            • Firm rings forming lower aspect/base
      • Function
        • Stops foreign objects that pass epiglottis
          • Laryngospasm
        • Voice production
    • Lower Airway Trachea
      • AKA: “Windpipe”
      • Location
        • Inferior to Larynx
        • Anterior to Esophagus
        • Bifurcates into primary bronchi
      • Structure
        • Cartilaginous rings anterior and lateral
          • Approx 15-20
        • Smooth muscle tissue posterior
          • Trachealis muscle
        • Why????
    • Lower Airway Bronchi
      • Location
        • Bifurcation of trachea
          • 2 nd Intercostal space
            • Angle of Louis
        • Right and Left main stem
      • Structure
        • Smooth muscle
        • Irregular hyaline cartilage rings
      • Function
        • Conducts air to lungs
    • Lower Airway Bronchioles
      • Location
        • Distal bifurcations of the bronchi
        • Terminate at alveoli
      • Function
        • Conduct air to alveoli
      • Structure
        • 1 st airways with NO cartilage
        • ALL muscle
          • Bronchoconstriction
          • Bronchospasm
        • < 1 mm wide =Tiny
    • Lower Airway Alveoli
      • Location
        • Terminal sacs of bronchial tree
        • Distal to bronchioles
        • Particular to mammalian lungs
        • 150 million/lung
      • Structure
        • 1 cell thick
        • Surface are= 75m 2 (Tennis court)
        • Increased SA= Increased 0 2 absorption
        • 0.2-0.3 mm diameter
        • Covered in capillaries (70%)
        • Bathed in surfactant
      • Function
        • Diffusion of gas with capillaries
    •  
    • Lower Airway Lungs
      • Location
        • Bilateral of midline
      • Structure
        • Divided into lobes
          • Left= 2
          • Right= 3
      • Function
        • Houses structure for gas exchange
        • Alteration of pH
    • Lower Airway Mucociliary Escalator
      • Location
        • Along epithelium of primary bronchi
        • Beat in rhythm
      • Structure
        • Cilia projections
        • “ Hair like”
      • Function
        • Move debris up out of lungs
          • Cough or swallow
            • Smokers…
        • Prevent mucous accumulation
    •  
    • Respiratory Physiology How we breathe…
      • Ventilation
        • Mechanical movement of air into/out of the body
      • Inhalation ( Active )
        • Muscles Used
          • Diaphragm & External Intercostals
        • Physiology
          • Diaphragm contracts downward
          • External intercostals pull ribs up and out
          • Increases dimension of chest cavity
          • Increased diameter of chest drops intra thoracic pressure
          • Air rushes in until pressure is equalized
    • Respiratory Physiology How we breathe…
      • Ventilation
        • Mechanical movement of air into/out of the body
      • Exhalation ( Passive )
        • Physiology
          • Diaphragm relaxes as well as intercostals
          • Chest cavity dimension decreases
          • Decrease in dimension increases intrathoracic pressure
          • Air rushes out
          • Lungs recoil
    •  
    • Respiratory Physiology Gas Exchange
      • Respiration
        • Process by which the body utilizes oxygen
        • Diffusion
            • Net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
    •  
    • Respiratory Physiology Gas Exchange
      • Respiration
        • Process by which the body utilizes oxygen
      • Alveolar/Capillary Exchange
        • Physiology
          • O 2 rich air enters alveoli
          • O 2 poor blood in capillaries pass alveoli
          • O 2 diffuses down its concentration gradient into the capillaries
          • CO 2 diffuses down its concentration gradient into the alveoli
          • CO 2 is exhaled and O 2 transported to tissues
    • Respiratory Physiology Gas Exchange
      • Respiration
        • Process by which the body utilizes oxygen
      • Capillary/Cellular Exchange
        • Physiology
          • O 2 rich blood passes cells
          • O 2 diffuses across its concentration gradient into the cells
          • CO 2 diffuses across its concentration gradient into the capillary
          • CO 2 is transported to the alveoli
    • Respiratory Evaluation
      • Areas of assessment
        • Rate. Rhythm. Depth. Quality.
      • Rate
        • Adult = 12-20 per minute
        • Child = 15-30 per minute
        • Infant -= 30-60 per minute
      • Rhythm
        • Regular or irregular
      • Depth
        • Tidal volume adequate or inadequate
          • Amount of air breathed in/out in one ventilation
          • Approx 500 mL
    • Respiratory Evaluation cont’d.
      • Quality
        • Breath sounds
          • Midclavicular & Midaxillary lines
          • Present or diminished or absent
        • Chest expansion
          • Unequal or symmetrical
        • Increased effort
          • Accessory muscles
          • “ Seesaw” breathing
            • Infants
          • Nasal flaring
          • Retractions
            • Above clavicles, between ribs
          • Cyanosis
          • Shortness of breath
          • Altered mental status
    • Accessory Muscle Use Nasal Flaring Retractions
    • Respiratory Evaluation cont’d.
      • Cyanosis
        • Blue/pale coloring of skin
          • Nail beds
          • Lips
          • Eyelids
        • Why is this seen in these areas first???
        • Indicates poor perfusion
    • Pediatric Considerations
      • Mouth/Nose
        • Smaller and easily obstructed
      • Pharynx
        • Tongue is BIG
      • Trachea
        • Narrower
        • Softer and more flexible
      • Cricoid Cartilage
        • Less developed/Less rigid = easily kinked
      • Diaphragm
        • Chest is soft
        • Depend on diaphragm to do most of the work of breathing
          • Seesaw Breathing….
    • The Circulatory System
    • The Circulatory System Function/Components
      • Function
        • Transport system of the body
        • Delivers O2 and nutrients to cells
        • Returns waste to liver/kidneys/lungs
        • Transports specialized cells to fight infection.
      • Components
        • Blood
        • Blood vessels
          • 60,000 – 100,000 miles
        • Heart
    • The Circulatory System The heart
      • Location
        • Just left of midline
        • Posterior to sternum
        • Anterior to T-spine
      • Function
        • Pump for driving of blood flow
    •  
    • The Circulatory System Chambers of the Heart
      • 4 Chambers
        • Divided by a septum
        • 2 Atria
          • Receiving chambers
          • Contract together
          • Superior to ventricles
        • 2 Ventricles
          • Pumping Chambers
          • Contract together
          • Inferior to atria
    • The Circulatory System Valves of The Heart
      • Function
        • Prevents backflow of blood
        • Create heart sounds
      • Atrioventricular Valvues
          • Between each atria and its ventricle
        • Tricuspid Valve
          • Between Right Atria/Ventricle
        • Bicuspid/Mitral Valve
          • Between Left Atria/Ventricle
      • Semilunar Valves
          • Between each ventricle and its artery
        • Pulmonic Valve
          • Right Ventricle and Pulmonary Artery
        • Aortic Valve
          • Left Ventricle and Aorta
    • The Circulatory System Types of Circulation
      • Separate Systems
        • Pulmonary
          • Right ventricle
          • Blood to the lungs
            • Oxygenation
        • Systemic
          • Left ventricle
          • Blood to the body
            • Perfusion
    • The Circulatory System Conductive System
      • Automaticity
        • Ability to create own electrical signal
        • Pacemaker Sites
          • Sinoatrail Node (SA)
            • 60-100 bpm
          • Atrioventricular Node (AV)
            • 40-60 bpm
          • Bundle of HIS
            • 40-60 bpm
          • Purkinje Fibers
            • 20-40 bpm
    •  
    • The Circulatory System Blood Vessels
      • Arteries Arterioles Capillaries
      • Venules Veins
    • The Circulatory System Arteries
      • Function
        • Conduct blood away from heart
        • High pressure
      • Structure
        • Endothelial lining
        • Connective tissue
        • THICK Smooth muscle
        • Connective tissue
          • Allows for great expansion of vessels
    • The Circulatory System Major Arteries
        • Coronary
          • Supply heart with blood
        • Aorta
          • Major artery from the heart to the body
          • 1” diameter
        • Pulmonary
          • Carries O2 poor blood to lungs
        • Umbilical
          • Carries O2 poor blood to lungs
        • Carotid
          • Major artery of the neck
          • Supplies the head with blood
        • Femoral
          • Major artery of the thigh
          • Supplies lower extremities with blood
          • Bifurcation of aorta at navel
        • Radial
          • Major artery of the lower arm
        • Brachial
          • Artery of the upper arm
        • Posterior tibial
          • Artery running posterior to ankle
        • Dorsalis pedis
          • Artery of the foot
          • Anterior
    •  
    • The Circulatory System Arterioles
      • Smallest branch of an artery
        • Leads to a capillary
      • Structure
        • Thin smooth muscle wall (1-2 layers)
      • Function
        • Main site of vascular resistance
        • Important in blood pressure
    • The Circulatory System Capillaries
      • Structure
        • Tiny blood vessel
          • 5-10 μ m diameter
        • 1 endothelial cell thick
      • Function
        • Connect arterioles to venules
        • Exchange of gases, nutrients, etc.
        • Decrease pressure
        • Usually carries no more than 50% of the volume it could
    • The Circulatory System Venule
      • Smallest branch of a vein leading from a capillary
      • Structure
        • A vein on small scale
        • Internal valves
      • Function
        • Conducts deoxygenated blood out of capillaries into veins
    • The Circulatory System Veins
      • Function
        • Return blood to the heart
        • Low pressure system
      • Structure
          • Endothelial lining
          • Connective tissue
          • Thinner Smooth muscle
          • Connective tissue
          • Internal Valves
    • The Circulatory System Major Veins
        • Pulmonary
          • Carries O2 rich blood from lungs to left atrium
        • Umbilical
          • Carries O2 rich blood from lungs to left atrium
        • Vena Cava
          • Superior
            • Drains head/upper extremities
          • Inferior
            • Drains trunk/lower extremities
    •  
    • Path of blood through the heart Putting it all together
      • Pulmonary Circulation:
        • Blood from the body enters Right atrium via venae cavae
        • Right Atrium contracts
        • Blood enters Right ventricle via Tricuspid valve
        • Right Ventricle contracts
        • Blood enters Pulmonary artery via Pulmonic Valve
        • Pulmonary artery carries blood to lungs for gas exchange
    •  
    • Path of blood through the heart Putting it all together
      • Systemic Circulation:
        • Blood enters the L atrium via Pulmonary veins
        • Atrium contracts
        • Blood enters the L ventricle via Mitral/Bicuspid Valve
        • Ventricle contracts
        • Blood enters the aorta via Aortic Valve
        • Aorta conducts blood to body
        • Pumps Your Blood Song
    •  
    • The Circulatory System Blood
      • 5-6 Liters
      • Components
      • Plasma
        • Fluid that carries blood cells/nutrients
        • 55%
      • Formed Elements
        • 40%
        • Red Blood Cells
          • Carry O2 to organs & CO2 away
          • Give blood its color
          • Hemoglobin
          • 45%, 4.2-6.1 million/mL
        • White Blood Cells
          • Defense
          • 4,3000-10,800 WBC/mL
        • Platelets
          • Clotting
          • 150,000 - 350,000/mL
    • The Circulatory System Physiology Pulse
      • Pulse
        • Palpable wave of blood sent though arteries after contraction of L ventricle
      • Peripheral
        • Radial
        • Brachial
        • Posterior tibial
        • Dorsalis pedis
      • Central
        • Carotid
        • Femoral
    • The Circulatory System Physiology Blood Pressure
      • Blood pressure
        • Force exerted from blood on walls of vessels
      • Phases of Cardiac Cycle
        • Systolic
          • Pressure against the walls when the L ventricle contracts
        • Diastolic
          • Pressure against the walls when the L ventricle relaxes
    • The Circulatory System Physiology Perfusion
      • Perfusion
        • In an organ system:
          • Delivery of O2/nutrients
          • Removal of waste products
    • The Circulatory System Pathology Shock
      • Shock/Hypoperfusion
        • Failure of the circulatory system to adequately perfuse and oxygenate the tissues of the body
      • Signs/Symptoms
        • Pale, cool, cyanotic, clammy skin
        • Rapid/shallow breathing
        • Restlessness/anxiety
        • Nausea/vomiting
        • Weak pulse
        • Low blood pressure/volume
    • Musculoskeletal System
    • Musculoskeletal System
      • Function
        • Body shape
        • Protection of organs
        • Movement
        • Blood cell production
      • Components
        • Muscle tissue
          • Skeletal
          • Smooth
          • Cardiac
        • Skeletal
          • Ligaments
          • Tendons
          • Skeletal tissue
    • Musculoskeletal System Skeletal Tissue
      • Skeletal
        • Voluntary
        • Attached to bone
          • Tendons
        • Form major muscle groups of the body
    • Musculoskeletal System Smooth Tissue
        • Involuntary
        • Location
          • Walls of tubular structures
          • GI and urinary tract
          • Blood vessels
        • Function
          • Control flow
          • Carry out automatic functions of the body
    • Musculoskeletal System Cardiac Tissue
        • Involuntary
        • Location
          • Only in heart
        • Function
          • Create/conduct electrical impulses
            • Automaticity
    • The Nervous System
    • The Nervous System
      • Function
        • Controls voluntary/involuntary activity
      • Components
        • Central Nervous System (Computer)
          • Brain
          • Brainstem
          • Spinal Cord
        • Peripheral Nervous System (Communicator)
          • Associated nerves
          • Sensory- Carry info from body to brain
          • Motor – Carry info from the brain to the body
          • Divided into
            • Somatic NS = voluntary
            • Autonomic NS= Involuntary
    •  
    • Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
      • Sympathetic
        • “Fight or flight”
      • Parasympathetic
        • “Feed or breed”
      OR
    •  
    • The Nervous System The Brain
      • Cerebrum
        • Largest most superior portion of the brain
        • Divided into R & L hemispheres
        • Hemispheres divided into specialized lobes
          • Frontal = Intellect and motor function
          • Occipital = Eyesight
          • Temporal = Smell/Hearing
          • Parietal = Sensory information
      • Brainstem
        • Lower part of the brain
        • Circulation, Respiration, BP
      • Cerebellum
        • Outpocketing of brain, posterior to brainstem
        • Coordination and movement
    •  
    • The Nervous System The Brain: Blood Supply
      • Cerebral Blood Supply
        • 15% of Cardiac output
        • 80% of blood is supplied by the carotid arteries
        • Vertebral arteries supply the rest
          • Circle of Willis
        • Each area of the brain has its own blood supply
      • Sensitivity to Deprivation of glucose and O2
        • Cannot store glucose itself
          • Deprivation = AMS
        • Interruption in O2 supply
          • Unconsciousness 5-10 seconds
        • Blockage of O2 supply
          • Neural death 4-6 minutes
    •  
    • Integumentary System Skin
    • Integumentary System Skin
      • Function
        • Largest organ system in the body
        • Protection from environment
        • Temperature regulation
        • Senses
          • Heat, Cold, Touch, Pressure, Pain, etc.
        • Vitamin D synthesis
        • Storage
      • Structure
        • Epidermis
          • Outermost layer
          • No blood vessels
          • Protection, absorption of nutrients homeostasis
        • Dermis
          • Deeper layer
          • Contains sweat/sebaceous glands, hair folicles, blood vessels, nerve endings
          • Gives skin its flexibility
        • Subcutaneous layer
          • Fat layer
          • Insulation, protective padding, energy storage
    •  
    • Endocrine System
      • Function
        • Secretes chemicals (hormones) that regulate body activities
          • i.e. Insulin & adrenalin
      • Structures
        • Pituitary
        • Pineal gland
        • Hypothalamus
        • Thyroid
        • Parathyroid
        • Adrenals
        • Pancreas
          • Islets of Langerhans
        • Ovaries
        • Testes
    • That does it