Ronnee Yashon  Michael Cummings   Biology Basics 1Cells and Cell Structure
BB1.1 Why Are Cells Important? (1)   Life begins as a single cell: a fertilized egg,    or zygote   Instructions for org...
BB1.1 Why Are Cells Important? (2)   Organized into organ systems, with highly    specialized functions   Controlled by ...
Cells of the Human Body   Cell Types     Somatic form body not gametes     Germ (gametes) eggs or sperm     Stem cells...
Somatic Cells in the Body
Skeletal muscle   Cardiac muscle   Smooth muscle   Red blood cells Kidney cells      Lung cells      Thyroid cells   Pancr...
How is a Cell Organized?Contain 4 classes of large macromolecules composed of subunits linked together   Carbohydrates: (...
Classes of Macromolecules in the              Cell
Human Cell   Surrounded by a plasma membrane   Contains a nucleus with chromosomes   Contains organelles, internal stru...
Human Cell
RibosomesMitochondrion                                                    Nuclear                                         ...
3D ANIMATION: Tour of an Animal Cell
ANIMATION: Lipid bilayer organization       To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode    PC Users: Please wait for cont...
ANIMATION: Nuclear envelope    To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, the...
BB1.3 What Does the Plasma           Membrane Do? (1)   Double-layered, controls the movement of    materials into and ou...
BB1.3 What Does the Plasma           Membrane Do? (2)   Contains molecular sensors or receptors     To receive and proce...
The Plasma Membrane
Outside the cell                                                                  Carbohydrate                            ...
ANIMATION: Cell membranes   To play movie you must be in Slide Show ModePC Users: Please wait for content to load, then cl...
BB1.4 What is in the Cytoplasm   Membrane bound organelles    ◦ Nucleus    ◦ Endoplasmic Reticulum    ◦ Golgi Apparatus  ...
Nucleus   Surrounded by a double layered    membrane   Contains nucleoli that synthesize    ribosomes   Contains chroma...
Chromosomes• Most human cells carry two copies of each  chromosome o diploid number (2N) =46• Eggs and sperm carry one cop...
Endoplasmic Reticulum   Network of    membranes   Rough ER    contains    ribosomes,    protein synthesis   Smooth ER  ...
a. Rough ER (RER)                          Rough ER lumen  RibosomesVesicle budding from rough ER   Ribosome   Fig. BB1-7a...
b. Smooth ER (SER)                          Smooth ER lumen        Smooth ER lumen                     Fig. BB1-7b, p. 8
Golgi Apparatus   Sorts, modifies, packages, and distributes    proteins
Rough ER                                   Vesicle from RER,                       Smooth ER                              ...
Lysosomes   Membrane enclosed vesicle, contains digestive    enzyme for destruction of materials or cells   > 40 genetic...
Lysosome           containingLysosome           ingested           material                        Fig. BB1-9, p. 9
Mitochondria   Produce energy for cell   Carry own DNA
MitochondrionInner mitochondrial   Outer mitochondrialmembrane              membrane                                    Fi...
Inner           Outermitochondrial   mitochondrialmembrane        membrane                                Fig. BB1-10b, p. 9
Organelles and Genetic Disorders
ANIMATION: Structure of a mitochondrion         To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode      PC Users: Please wait fo...
INTERACTION: Structure of a      mitochondrion   To play movie you must be in Slide Show ModePC Users: Please wait for con...
ANIMATION: Chromosome structural         organization      To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode   PC Users: Please...
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Bio basics1 long-version

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  • Figure BB1.1: Some of the More Than 200 Types of Somatic Cells in the Human Body.
  • Figure BB1.2: A Typical Human Cell Showing the Major Organelles and Their Locations.
  • Figure BB1.3: The Plasma Membrane. Proteins are embedded in a double layer of lipid molecules. These proteins have specific functions, including transport and reception of chemical signals. Short carbohydrate chains are attached to some proteins on the cell surface, giving the cell a molecular identity.
  • Figure BB1.7: The Endoplasmic Reticulum. The ER is a network of membranes that form channels in the cytoplasm. (a) Some of the ER has ribosomes (another organelle) on the outer surface, forming the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER or RER). Proteins made by the attached ribosomes enter the RER (the lumen) to be folded and chemically modified. (b) Other parts of the ER do not have ribosomes on the surface and are called the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER). Lipids that will become parts of the plasma membrane are made in the smooth ER.
  • Figure BB1.7: The Endoplasmic Reticulum. The ER is a network of membranes that form channels in the cytoplasm. (a) Some of the ER has ribosomes (another organelle) on the outer surface, forming the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER or RER). Proteins made by the attached ribosomes enter the RER (the lumen) to be folded and chemically modified. (b) Other parts of the ER do not have ribosomes on the surface and are called the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER). Lipids that will become parts of the plasma membrane are made in the smooth ER.
  • Figure BB1.8: Golgi Apparatus (GA). Proteins are exported from the RER to the Golgi apparatus. Here the proteins are further modified, sorted, and packaged for distribution to their destinations inside and outside the cell.
  • Figure BB1.9: Lysosomes Are the Processing Centers of the Cell. Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed vesicles that contain digestive enzymes. Materials marked for destruction and worn-out organelles end up in the lysosomes, where they are broken down.
  • Figure BB1.10: A Mitochondrion. Cells such as liver cells that require a lot of energy can contain more than 1000 mitochondria. Each mitochondrion carries its own genetic information that is used to make molecules involved in energy production.
  • Figure BB1.10: A Mitochondrion. Cells such as liver cells that require a lot of energy can contain more than 1000 mitochondria. Each mitochondrion carries its own genetic information that is used to make molecules involved in energy production.
  • Transcript of "Bio basics1 long-version"

    1. 1. Ronnee Yashon Michael Cummings Biology Basics 1Cells and Cell Structure
    2. 2. BB1.1 Why Are Cells Important? (1) Life begins as a single cell: a fertilized egg, or zygote Instructions for organism encoded in the DNA of that single cell After ~36–39 weeks, newborn ~40 billion cells All body cells originate from zygote by cell division
    3. 3. BB1.1 Why Are Cells Important? (2) Organized into organ systems, with highly specialized functions Controlled by genetic information Differences in size and shape, > 200 cell types Carry same genetic information and basic plan
    4. 4. Cells of the Human Body Cell Types  Somatic form body not gametes  Germ (gametes) eggs or sperm  Stem cells that can divide into different cell types Chromosomes contains genetic material Cells can divide by  Mitosis produces identical daughter cells  Meiosis produces haploid germ cells
    5. 5. Somatic Cells in the Body
    6. 6. Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle Red blood cells Kidney cells Lung cells Thyroid cells Pancreatic cells Fig. BB1-1, p. 3
    7. 7. How is a Cell Organized?Contain 4 classes of large macromolecules composed of subunits linked together Carbohydrates: (sugars) used for energy, chemical markers on the cell Lipids: fats, steroids and waxes Proteins: enzymes, structural, hormones Nucleic Acids: store genetic material
    8. 8. Classes of Macromolecules in the Cell
    9. 9. Human Cell Surrounded by a plasma membrane Contains a nucleus with chromosomes Contains organelles, internal structures that act as tiny organs
    10. 10. Human Cell
    11. 11. RibosomesMitochondrion Nuclear envelope Chromatin Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear pore RoughLysosome endoplasmic reticulum Microtubule Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Centrioles Plasma Vacuole membrane Golgi complex Cytoplasm Fig. BB1-2, p. 4
    12. 12. 3D ANIMATION: Tour of an Animal Cell
    13. 13. ANIMATION: Lipid bilayer organization To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
    14. 14. ANIMATION: Nuclear envelope To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
    15. 15. BB1.3 What Does the Plasma Membrane Do? (1) Double-layered, controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell Genetically determined chemical markers on surface give cell an identity  For example, HLA (human leukocyte antigen) identifies organs foreign to the body  Mismatch in HLA markers can cause transplant recipient to reject organ
    16. 16. BB1.3 What Does the Plasma Membrane Do? (2) Contains molecular sensors or receptors  To receive and process chemical signals  To regulate many critical cell functions  Mutations of receptors have important role in some diseases Encloses and protects the cytoplasm
    17. 17. The Plasma Membrane
    18. 18. Outside the cell Carbohydrate chain Lipid Receptor bilayer VariousCholesterol membranemolecule Channel proteins protein Membrane lipid molecule Inside the cell Fig. BB1-3, p. 5
    19. 19. ANIMATION: Cell membranes To play movie you must be in Slide Show ModePC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
    20. 20. BB1.4 What is in the Cytoplasm Membrane bound organelles ◦ Nucleus ◦ Endoplasmic Reticulum ◦ Golgi Apparatus ◦ Lysosomes ◦ Mitochondria
    21. 21. Nucleus Surrounded by a double layered membrane Contains nucleoli that synthesize ribosomes Contains chromatin organized into homologous pairs of chromosomes Genes are carriers of genetic information on the chromosomes
    22. 22. Chromosomes• Most human cells carry two copies of each chromosome o diploid number (2N) =46• Eggs and sperm carry one copy of each chromosome o haploid number (1N) =23• At fertilization, the egg and sperm fuse to form at diploid zygote
    23. 23. Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of membranes Rough ER contains ribosomes, protein synthesis Smooth ER synthesis of lipids and metabolism of toxins
    24. 24. a. Rough ER (RER) Rough ER lumen RibosomesVesicle budding from rough ER Ribosome Fig. BB1-7a, p. 8
    25. 25. b. Smooth ER (SER) Smooth ER lumen Smooth ER lumen Fig. BB1-7b, p. 8
    26. 26. Golgi Apparatus Sorts, modifies, packages, and distributes proteins
    27. 27. Rough ER Vesicle from RER, Smooth ER about to fuse with the Golgi membraneGolgi apparatus (GA) Vesicles budded from Golgi containingInternal finished productspace Fig. BB1-8a, p. 8
    28. 28. Lysosomes Membrane enclosed vesicle, contains digestive enzyme for destruction of materials or cells > 40 genetic disorders of lysosomes
    29. 29. Lysosome containingLysosome ingested material Fig. BB1-9, p. 9
    30. 30. Mitochondria Produce energy for cell Carry own DNA
    31. 31. MitochondrionInner mitochondrial Outer mitochondrialmembrane membrane Fig. BB1-10a, p. 9
    32. 32. Inner Outermitochondrial mitochondrialmembrane membrane Fig. BB1-10b, p. 9
    33. 33. Organelles and Genetic Disorders
    34. 34. ANIMATION: Structure of a mitochondrion To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
    35. 35. INTERACTION: Structure of a mitochondrion To play movie you must be in Slide Show ModePC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE
    36. 36. ANIMATION: Chromosome structural organization To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERE

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