Pragmatics presupposition and entailnment

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  • 1. PragmaticsPresupposition & Entailment
  • 2. Presupposition DefinitionTypes of Presupposition Some commonPresupposition triggers
  • 3. Entailment Definition CharacteristicBackground vs. Foreground entailment Subtypes of entailment
  • 4. Presupposition
  • 5. ContextDefinition Types
  • 6. 1.Definition:- Presuppositions are implications that are often felt to be in the background — to be assumed by the speaker to be already known to the addressee
  • 7. Presupposition• For example: a. The king of France is bald. b. The king of France is not bald. c. Is the king of France bald? d. If the king of France is bald, he should wear a hat in the winter . There is a king of France.
  • 8. Example : Mary’s brother bought three horses• Presupposition: • Entailment:Mary exists, Mary has a Mary’s brother buy brother, Mary has only something, bought three one brother, Mary’s animal, two horses, one brother is rich. horse etc.= speaker’s subjective = the speaker’s beliefs are presupposition, all can right or wrong be wrong.
  • 9. 2.Types Existential Factive Lexical Structural Non-Factive Counterfactual
  • 10. 2.1 Existential presupposition• - Speaker is committed to the existence of the entities named The King of France the cat the girl next door your car
  • 11. 2.2 Factive presupposition• Certain verbs/construction indicate that something is a fact.• Example- We REGRET telling him >>> we told him- She didn’t REALIZE he was ill >> he was ill- I’m GLAD it’s over >> it’s over
  • 12. 2.3. Lexical presuppositionis the assumption that, in using oneword, the speaker can act as ifanother meaning (word) will beunderstood.
  • 13. Examples She pretended that he had understood what she Andrew stopped running. meant.4 He used to run. You are late again.4 You were late before.
  • 14. 2.4. Structural presuppositionis the assumption associated withthe use of certain words andphrases.
  • 15. Examples• Wh-question in English are conventionally interpreted with the presupposition that the information after the wh-form (e.g. when and where) is already known to be the case.
  • 16. Examples She pretended that he had understood what she When did she travel to the USA? meant.4 >> she traveled Where did you buy the book?4 >> you bought the book
  • 17. A non – factive presupposition Is one that is assumed not to be true.
  • 18. Examples She pretended that he had understood what she meant.4 He did not understand what she meant. I imagined that Kelly was ill.4 Kelly was not ill
  • 19. A counter – factual presupposition Meaning that what is presupposed is notonly not true, but is the opposite of what istrue, or “ contrary to facts.”
  • 20. Counterfactual conditional 1 An If clause → a complete statementEx :If I had enough money, I would buy that house.→ I do not have enough moneyIf he hadn’t made such a terrible mistake, we would be very happy now.→ He did make/made a terrible mistake.
  • 21. 2 An embedded clause after wish ⇒ a complete statementEx :They wish they could go on vacation now.→ They cannot go on vacation now.I wish I had studied medicine.→ I did not study medicine.
  • 22. 3 A clause with a modal perfect verb form ⇒ a complete statementEx:You shouldn’t have seen such a horror film.→ You did see/saw a horror film.You could have talked to the dean.→ You did not talk to the dean.
  • 23. Some common Presupposition triggersPresupposition ExamplestriggersDefinite descriptions my son, the boss, MikeFactive predicates count, make sense, matter, know, regret, realise, resent, find out, discover, see, notice, be aware that, be proud that,…Counter-factual If, unless, without,…conditionals
  • 24. Change of state verbs begin, start, stop, finish, cease, continue, carry on, cease, take, leave, enter, come, go, arriveTemporal clauses before, while, since, after, during, whenever..Cleft sentences It is/was …. which/ whom/ that…Questions Who, what, when, …
  • 25. Definition of Entailment a relationship that applies between two sentences/propositions, where the truth ofone implies the truth of the other because of the meaning of the words involved
  • 26. Characteristic• logical consequences following from what is asserted in the utterance• Sentences, not speakers, have entailmentse.g. a) John beats Tom. => b) John beats someone. c) Tom was beaten by someone. a) true => b) & c) true
  • 27. 1.2 Characteristic• Entailments depend on sentence meaning, not the context in which the sentence is used.• Entailment also happens when one set of objects is included in another. It may be seen as a kind of hyponymic relation.e.g. Mary loves her dog very much. => Mary loves an animal very much.dog: hyponymyanimal: superordinate
  • 28. Characteristic• Entailments can also involves the use of determiners. This is simply the relation of inclusion.e.g. Every student loves learning English. => Most students love learning English.
  • 29. Characteristic• logical consequences following from what is asserted in the utterance• Sentences, not speakers, have entailmentse.g. a) John beats Tom. => b) John beats someone. c) Tom was beaten by someone. a) true => b) & c) true
  • 30. Background vs. Foreground entailment• In one occasion, one sentence can has a number of background entailments but one foreground entailment.• Foreground entailments which is defined by stress, is more important for interpreting intended meaning.
  • 31. • e.g.• Rover chased three squirrels.=>Rover chased a certain number of squirrels.• Rover chased three squirrels.=>Someone chased three squirrels.• Rover chased three squirrels.=>Rover chased something.
  • 32. Subtypes of entailment EntailmentAssertion Presupposition
  • 33. Assertion• A declarative sentence typically asserts that a state of affair exists.