Ch08 8 Information Security Process


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Ch08 8 Information Security Process

  1. 1. Lesson 8-Information Security Process
  2. 2. Overview Introducing information security process. Conducting an assessment. Developing a policy. Implementing security. Conducting awareness training. Conducting audits.
  3. 3. Introduction to Information Security Process The process of information security
  4. 4. Conducting an Assessment An assessment determines: The total value of the organization’s information assets. The size of the threats with respect to confidentiality, integrity, availability, and accountability. The vulnerabilities of the information assets and the organization. The organization’s overall risk and recommended changes to current information security policy.
  5. 5. Conducting an Assessment While conducting an assessment of an organization, examine: Network. Staff. Physical security measures. Workload and employee Existing policies and attitude. procedures. Adherence. Precautions. Business. Awareness.
  6. 6. Network (1/3) The organization’s network is the easiest access point to information and systems. A network diagram helps examine each point of connectivity. Query network administrators to know the type of network management system in use. Perform a vulnerability scan of all systems.
  7. 7. Network (2/3) The protection mechanism within a network should include: Router access control lists and firewall rules on all Internet access points. Authentication mechanisms used for remote access. Protection mechanisms on access points to other organizations. Encryption mechanism used to protect portable computers and to transmit and store information.
  8. 8. Network (3/3) The protection mechanism within a network should include (continued): Anti-virus systems in place on servers, desktops, and e- mail systems. Server security configurations.
  9. 9. Physical Security Measures (1/2) Important physical security information includes identifying: The protection mechanisms to site, buildings, office space, paper records, and data center. The personnel responsible for the physical security. The critical and sensitive areas. The location of the communication lines within the building. The types of UPS in place and how long the current UPS will sustain.
  10. 10. Physical Security Measures (2/2) Important physical security information requires knowing: How power is supplied to the site and data center. The systems connected to the UPS. The environment controls attached to the UPS in the data center. The type of suppression system in the data center. The personnel who need to be notified incase of power or environment control failure.
  11. 11. Policies and Procedures Policies and procedures must be examined for relevance, appropriateness, and completeness. Procedures must define the way tasks are currently performed. Map requirements with stated goals. Update policies and procedures on a regular basis. Assess the organization’s security awareness program. Examine the recent incident and audit reports.
  12. 12. Precautions Precautions are used to restore operations when something goes wrong. Backup systems and disaster recovery plans are two components of precautions. Understand which backup system is used and how often is it used. Examine the disaster recovery plan for relevance and completeness.
  13. 13. Awareness Determine the staff’s level of awareness of security issues and policies. Create awareness of security threats, vulnerabilities, and signs indicating that a system is compromised. Ensure that the staff knows how to implement a disaster recovery plan.
  14. 14. People Examine whether the staff members have the necessary skills to implement a security program. They must understand policy work and latest security products. Administrator’s must be able to administer the organization’s systems and networks.
  15. 15. Workload and Employee Attitude Overworked employees do not contribute much to the security environment. Determine whether the workload is a temporary problem. Assess management attitude with regard to security issues. Identify responsible personnel for security within the organization. Employees must be aware of the management’s commitment to security.
  16. 16. Adherence While determining the intended security environment, identify the actual security environment. The intended security environment is defined by policy, attitudes, and existing mechanisms. Determine whether adherence to this policy requirement is lacking.
  17. 17. Business (1/2) Identify the cost if confidentiality, integrity, availability, or accountability of information is compromised. Measure vulnerabilities in monetary terms, downtime, lost reputation, or lost business. Identify the flow of information across the organization.
  18. 18. Business (2/2) Identify organizational interdependencies. Identify which systems and networks are important to the primary function of the organization. Identify the back-end systems.
  19. 19. Assessment Results Analyze the information. Assess all security vulnerabilities. Compile a complete set of risks in the order of high to low. Include a list of recommendations to manage each risk. Present potential cost in terms of money, time, resources, reputation, and lost business. Develop a security plan. Allocate and schedule resources to handle security.
  20. 20. Developing a Policy (1/2) Policies and procedures define the expected state of an organization’s security. It defines the tasks to be performed during implementation. Create policies for communication, security, system usage, backup, account management, incident handling, and disaster recovery plan. Choosing the order of policies to develop, depends on: The criticality of risks. The time each will take to complete. Ideally, the information policy should be completed early in the process.
  21. 21. Developing a Policy (2/2) Existing documents require frequent updating. Use these documents and identify deficiencies. Involve people who developed the policies.
  22. 22. Implementing Security (1/2) Implementation of organizational policies include: Identification and implementation of technical tools and physical controls. Hiring of security staff. Examination of each implementation and its interactions with other controls.
  23. 23. Implementing Security (2/2) Security reporting systems. Authentication systems. Internet security. Intrusion detection systems. Encryption. Physical security. Staff.
  24. 24. Security Reporting Systems(1/3) It is a mechanism to track adherence to policies and procedures. It tracks the overall state of vulnerabilities within the organization. It can use manual or automated systems. Enforce computer use policies such as: Tracking Internet use. Restricting access while maintaining login attempts. Removing unwanted applications from the desktop installations.
  25. 25. Security Reporting Systems(2/3) System vulnerability scans include: Tracking the number of systems on the network. Tracking the number of vulnerabilities on these systems. Providing vulnerability reports to system administrators for correction or explanation.
  26. 26. Security Reporting Systems(3/3) Policy adherence is a time-consuming security task. It can be automated or manual. The automated checks require more time to set up and configure. They provide complete results in a timely manner. In manual system, a security personnel examines and monitors all facets of the security policy.
  27. 27. Authentication Systems Authentication systems are used to prove the identity of users accessing a network. These systems identify authorized users and grant them physical access to a facility. They should be implemented with proper planning. Password restrictions, smart cards, and biometrics are few examples of authenticated systems.
  28. 28. Internet Security The implementation of Internet security includes: Placing an access control device such as a firewall. Setting up virtual private networks (VPN). Changing network architecture.
  29. 29. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) IDS are designed to detect any unwarranted entry into a protected area. Choice of IDS depends on overall organization risks and available resources. Anti-virus software, manual and automated log examination, host-based and network-based intrusion detection software are a few IDS.
  30. 30. Encryption Encryption can be used to protect information in transit or while residing in storage. Choose well-known and well-reviewed algorithm. Private key encryption is faster than public key encryption. Include an effective key management technique such as link encryptors. A system must change keys periodically.
  31. 31. Physical Security Ensure that a proper procedure for authenticating users is in place. Restrict access to data center. Protect the data center from fire, high temperature, and power failure. Remodel the data center to implement fire suppression and temperature control. Plan for disruptions due to implementation of an UPS.
  32. 32. Staff Hire skilled staff: Who can handle the security implementation. To conduct awareness training programs. Who will be responsible for the security of the organization.
  33. 33. Conducting Awareness Training Conduct awareness training to provide necessary information to: Employees. Administrators. Developers. Executives. Security staff.
  34. 34. Employees Employees should know the importance of security. They must be trained to identify and protect sensitive information. Ensure that the employees are aware of the organization policy, password selection, and prevention of attacks.
  35. 35. Administrators System administrators must be updated on the latest hacker techniques, security threats, and security patches. Include updates in regular administration staff meetings. Send updates to administrators as and when they are prepared.
  36. 36. Developers Developers should know proper programming techniques to reduce security vulnerabilities. They should have a proper understanding of the security department’s role during the development process. Security issues must be addressed in the design phase.
  37. 37. Executives Management must be informed of the state of security and the progress of the program. Periodic presentations must include the results of recent assessments, and the status of various security projects. Metrics that indicate the risks to the organizations must be a part of such reports.
  38. 38. Security Staff Security staff must be kept up-to-date to help them provide appropriate services to the organization. Conduct both internal and external training programs. Include security-related topics in the training sessions.
  39. 39. Conducting Audits Audit is the final step in the information security process. It ensures that controls are configured correctly and map to the policy.
  40. 40. Types/Components of Audits Policy adherence audits. Periodic and new project assessments. Penetration tests.
  41. 41. Policy Adherence Audits The audit policy determines whether or not the system configurations adhered to the policy. They are the traditional audit function. Any variations are recorded as violations. Conduct periodic audits on implementation of information policy and storage of sensitive documents.
  42. 42. Periodic and New Project Assessments Changes in computer and network environments results in change in risks and assessments. Full assessment of the organization should be performed periodically. Major audits and assessment must be done by an external firm.
  43. 43. Penetration Tests Penetration test attempts to exploit an identified vulnerability to gain access to systems and information. Test effectiveness of controls using penetration tests. Physical penetration tests include individuals who attempt to gain unauthorized access to a facility. Social engineering tests include testing employees to divulge classified information. Products
  44. 44. Summary Conducting an information security assessment involves determining the value of an organization’s information assets. Policies and procedures define the work to be performed during implementation. The implementation of policy involves identification and implementation of tools and controls.
  45. 45. Summary Awareness training provides necessary security information to employees. Audits ensure that policies are being implemented and followed.