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Cogeneration in Sugar mills

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Cogeneration operations can be improved by reducing moisture content at milling and also later using dryer with flue gases. Energy generation with sugarcane bagasse and trash has the potential to …

Cogeneration operations can be improved by reducing moisture content at milling and also later using dryer with flue gases. Energy generation with sugarcane bagasse and trash has the potential to supply a substantial amount of electricity. However, this potential has not been fully developed. There is the need to develop the necessary technology (strategy and equipment) to implement trash recovery and its use as supplementary fuel to bagasse at sugarcane mills, at attractive cost and without hindering mill operations. If this can be done, it will be possible to produce electric energy around the year, selling guaranteed electricity on a profitable basis to end consumers.

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  • Trash contains 1/3rd of the energy of the plant and we waste the energy either my mulching or burning. Biomass Gasifier that can take mulched Trash as Raw Material is available upto 3000 Kg/hour which can be retrofitted with the existing system. The bye-product Char is a valuable soil sequestration product which when used in Sugar cane fields can improve output by 20% with reduced fertilizer usage. As all other infrastructure like evacuation and Turbines are in place this retrofit can improve plant utility by atleast 20% a big cost-benefit. Still no takers. We are willing to create a model with any Sugar Mill provided they are willing to invest 25% of Capital Cost to showcase. Any takers? Contact: acclaim.technology@gmail.com
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  • 1. CogenerationThere are plenty of opportunities in Sugar & Paper Industries for Cogeneration. Themain constraints for implementation are High capital costs, Fuel availability forcontinues operation throughout the year, Government approvals and power trading.Cogeneration operations can be improved by reducing moisture content at millingand also later using dryer with flue gases. Energy generation with sugarcane bagasseand trash has the potential to supply a substantial amount of electricity. However,this potential has not been fully developed. There is the need to develop thenecessary technology (strategy and equipment) to implement trash recovery and itsuse as supplementary fuel to bagasse at sugarcane mills, at attractive cost andwithout hindering mill operations. If this can be done, it will be possible to produceelectric energy around the year, selling guaranteed electricity on a profitable basis toend consumers.The low tariff culture, inherited from the times when the Government owned thepower sector, survived even with privatization and discouraged large investments innew power plants and high voltage transmission lines. These facts associated with alower than average rainfall resulted in power shortage. This created favorableconditions for the implementation of thermal power plants and as a consequenceseveral gas fired plants are being planned; the biomass could take a share of thesenew plants if adequate conditions are created to permit it to compete with fossilfuels.It was expected that sugar mills could have the largest share in biomass powergeneration, with the advantage that mills are normally located near large consumingcenters. Today there is a wide gap between the value received by the energygenerator and what is paid by the consumer. It is expected that energy generatorswill get the better prices producing around the year. As increase in the country’sdemand for energy goes up, the need for new utility power plants, an importantopportunity for sugarcane mills if they can generate around the year. Project isconsistent with national priorities and policies for the energy sector and forrenewable energy production.In India a Mill Tandem consisting of 4 mills is quiet common and sometimes has 5Mills, depending upon RME desired. A Mill Tandem of 4 Conventional Mills delivers upto 96% and that of 5 Mill it is generally + 96. However recently In India, Compact MultiRoller (CMR) Mill design is becoming popular, which is a combination of a trash plateless two roller mill with closed pressure chute less three roller pressure feedersystem, the mill thus is an integral five roller mill without conventional trash plateand without closed pressure chute. Not only these mills consume about 30% lesspower as compared to conventional mills but also offer higher RME and much lowerbagasse moisture. Mill tandem of 4 such Mills has + 96% RME and bagasse moisture ofabout 48%.1
  • 2. At many co-generation factories which have installed conventional mills, CMR Mill isreplacing the conventional mills to avail reduced bagasse moisture. Such factorieshave tremendously benefited on account of substantial reduction in bagasse moistureand have recovered the cost of mill replacement within a season or two; the milldesign of the CMR Mill is such that it can use the existing drive of conventional millwhen replaced.Factories with conventional mill tandems have added CMR Mill as a Zero Mill and theoverall milling efficiency improved. At such installations the power consumption ofthe zero mills is less than the power consumption of the existing last conventionalmill. Power consumption of the CMR Mill tandem will be about the same as that of theDiffuser. Due to this recently a new factory exploring possibility of Diffuser for newplant, opted for CMR Mill tandem. CMR Mill manufacturers have developed the Millswith shaft mounted planetary drives, eliminating the need for heavy foundations formill drives and at the same time, making it possible to reduce mill house spans andeventually mill house building and civil work costs.Diffuser must consist of two dewatering mills, constituting half the milling tandem.The CMR Mill manufacturers believe that their CMR mill tandem will offer aneconomical, efficient and convenient alternative for the Diffuser system and wouldfind favorable response from the cane sugar industry.1. Decomposition of the bagasse-loss of CV and the creation of terrible smells in thebagasse store and boiler house.2. Spontaneous combustion of the bagasse-this required constant moving of thebagasse using FE loaders. Sprinklers were also employed to cool the bagasse.3. Airborne bagasse creating environmental issues.4. Combustion by unburnt embers from smoke stacks falling on the pile.5. High FE loader maintenance costs and some spectacular FE loader fires!Most of the countries in the world are storing the bagasse in the open area withoutcovering. Some countries a part of the bagasse is stored in bins which shall besufficient for running of the boiler for 4 to 5 days. In some countries a permanentshed is arranged to keep some part of bagasse. In India as per the standards it is notallowed to cover the bagasse with plastic material. Plastic is a flammable materialand once it gets fire stopping of the same shall be very difficult. Hence, in thebagasse storage site; layout is to be designed with an efficient fire hydrant system.Always a keen observation is required while welding near the storage.In the peak summer it is a practice to sprinkle water on the Bagasse.Storing bagasse outside does not require it to be covered by plastic or any othermeans.The downside is that it degrades and losses it caloric value, Cuban Dr. AbilioArrascaeta explained it is about 2% degradation per year and they would use anaffordable spray to treat the bagasse to allow for it to maintain its calorific valuewhen stored especially outside. If you continue to burn bagasse in the offseason in2
  • 3. order to utilise all the bagasse in one year then the effort to treat it from degradationmay not be worthwhile. The bagasse reclaim areas should be covered though andshould have a means of getting bagasse below the surface of the bagasse pile on theoutside if in case you want to reclaim bagasse when it is raining. One way is to justuse a push piler or frontend loader but a conveying and scrapper system is better.From a thermo dynamical point of view there are Availability of Energy and EnergyQuality. You can reduce moisture by reducing the water added to the mill tandem butyou will increase your sucrose content in bagasse, thus the loss. By simply improvingbagasse quality much difference in plant operation is achieved as one of the majorproblem areas (steam generation and supplemental fuel/power) is covered and at thesame time extra income is derived from the juice resulting from dryer bagasse.Success with reducing bagasse moisture depends on:Mill settings - Mill Engineers have determined empirical discharge compaction ratesfor bagasse in the mill. This ranges from around 500 kg/m3 in the first mill to around1000 kg/m3 in the last mill. Mill settings must be determined using these criteria. Themill settings must be laid out on a trash plate drawing. Sufficient sweep should beallowed for the bagasse to expand across the trash plate and hence release themoisture. Sweep should be around 1/2" to 3/4" from toe to heel. In addition clearancefor the bagasse entering the trash plate through the discharge opening should beprovided and clearance between the rear of the trash plate and the discharge rollershould be provided for drainage.Mill set up - Mill must be set carefully according to the drawing.Mill Feed - a mill must be well fed for good results to be achieved. Gaps in feed willresult in high moistures. Trend the level of cane in the 1st mill chute against the mainsteams pressure and will find an amazing correlation between the two.Mill performance monitoring - The single biggest problem with high moisture isnormally reabsorbtion. If the moisture in the bagasse on the trash plate cannot draindue to slippage of the rollers, insufficient lift or clearances etc then this will besucked up by the bagasse in the discharge nip. You sometimes see juice squirtingthrough the discharge opening of a mill for this reason. There are many novel ways tosolve drainage issues in a mill, most involve the experience of seasoned MillEngineers. This poor drainage can be calculated in the form of a factor called thereabsorbtion factor. This should be in the region of 1.6. Mill arcing is veryimportant-record the kg of welding rods applied per 1000 ton cane. With more3
  • 4. welding, comes less slippage and the lower bagasse moisture. Time must be spentunderstanding each mill.Bagasse dryers are intended to operate only with gasses from bagasse combustion,because this flue gasses have a dew point temperature close below to 75ºC thatallows recovering larger quantity of heat from these gasses, which constitute thebasic principle of the operation. Flue gasses from oil or coal have larger dew pointtemperature and do not permit this deep recovery and also can create corrosiondue to its sulphur content. The boiler capacity is 120TPH and 108 Kgs/Scum pressure. It is working since last two seasons and able to reduce the moisture by 6 unitsand handle up to 80% of the bagasse generated from the crushing operations.The crushing capacity is 3500TCD. Needs further fine tuning of the operatingparameters to get the optimum performance. The drier will work only when we use bagasse and not mixed fuel, since the dewpoint of coal is high. The outlet flue gases are connected to the regular chimney of the boiler andthere is no problem. The drier is designed basing on the parameters 1. Flue gas temperature 2. Inletbagasse moisture. 3. Flue gas quantity. The drop in moisture will depend on the quantity of heat available in the fluegases which in turn depend on the temp and quantity of flue gases and thebagasse quantity being fed to the drier. Hence the drop in moisture is correctof a set of the particular operating conditions. It will vary if the conditions arechanged.The cane diffuser requires two dewatering mills, where the bagasse moisture isabout 50% or even more. Bagasse moisture is the important factor in any co-generation, +50% moisture is not an attractive proposition.Present Situation - Asia’s energy matrix can be renewable (the world average is 14%,and in developed countries 6%).The power shortage lasted for several years, duringthis period some sugarcane mills were interested in selling energy to the grid, butwaited for better energy prices to invest in higher pressure boilers and turbo-generators managed to get good power purchase agreements covering the harvestingseason, with prices of energy reached values up to Rs 6-10.It was expected that sugar mills could have the largest share in biomass powergeneration with addition of surplus power generating capacity in the range of 10 to100 MW per participating mill, with the advantage that mills are normally locatednear large consuming centers. Power generation in the majority of sugar mills is stilllimited to the harvesting season (6 to 8 months/year) and at levels sufficient for theirown needs. This is achieved with steam generation in low pressure steam boilers (224
  • 5. bars). To be able to export energy, the sugarcane mill has to make significantinvestments to change to higher pressure, more efficient boilers, and turbogenerator. This change to higher pressure boilers has been done by some sugarcanemills with boilers reaching the end of their lifetime.Recent decrees have allowed major electricity consumers to become free from publicutilities. These consumers can be connected to the grid system at 13.8kV, if they buyenergy from renewable sources. This will probably benefit both the energy generatorand the consumer, with better energy prices. Today there is a wide gap between thevalue received by the energy generator and what is paid by the consumer. As it is thecase worldwide, it is expected that energy generators will get the best pricesproducing year round energy, since it will be the most demanded.This is an interesting opportunity for sugarcane mills to get a better price for thegenerated energy, guaranteeing power all year around, (possibly integrating severalenergy producers). At a global and national level, reduced CO2 emissions, increasedlabor related to energy production, improved grid balance and safety as well asimproved balance of payment are benefits to this option.Situation in Sugarcane Mills - Most sugar cane mills generate power sufficient onlyfor their own needs. They operate at 22 bar/300oC steams with backpressure steamturbines and process steam consumption of 500 kg/ton of cane and a surplus powerproduction that can reach 10 kWh/ton of cane, with power generation only during theseason (6 to 8 months).Potential - With a small optimization in process steam consumption to 450 kg/ton ofcane and with the adoption of 65 bar/480oC steam condensation extraction steamturbines (commercial technology), it is possible to get a surplus of minimum 40kWh/ton of cane, generating energy during the harvesting season, just using bagasseas fuel. That means sugar cane mills could export 4 times more energy than presentsituation, by using available technology of higher pressure boilers, with a surpluselectric power during the harvesting season.Potential with Better Boilers and Trash - Using trash as a supplementary fuel tobagasse, reducing process steam consumption to 340 kg/ton of cane and with theadoption of 82 bar/480oC steam condensation extraction steam turbines (commercialtechnology), it is possible to get a minimum surplus of 100 kWh/ton of cane,generating energy year round.To increase the role of biomass for electric power production at sugarcane mills, itwould be necessary to achieve higher efficiency power generation systems and lowcost, abundant sources of biomass, and this would imply in the use of sugar caneagricultural residues (trash) besides bagasse as fuel. The potential of sugar cane trashdetermined was around 140 kg (dry matter) per ton of stalk mass. This is quite similar5
  • 6. to the amount of bagasse obtained per ton of milled cane (280 kg with 50% moisturecontent). Today, most of the trash is burned prior to harvesting but the percentage ofarea harvested unburned is growing due to the phase out burning legislation. Thefraction of the trash potential that is possible to be delivered to the mill is a functionof the percentage of area that will be harvested unburned, the percentage of thisarea where the trash can be removed and the recovery system efficiency.The characterization of sugar cane trash to be used as fuel showed similar parametersto bagasse (the present fuel used by the mills). Significant differences were observedonly for ash content (that is lower for bagasse), chlorine figures (that are higher fortrash, especially for the tops) and moisture content that is around 50% for bagasse,and varies for trash (10 – 40%), depending on recovery system and drying time beforerecovery. Despite the fact that trash and bagasse exhibit quite similar dry matterHeating Values, trash usually provides a superior Heating Value that can be 1.7times higher than for bagasse due to moisture content differences.Several harvesting alternatives with trash recovery were considered and tested,with technical viability (equipment and process) achieved for alternatives ofunburned chopped cane mechanically harvested, which are: Conventional harvesting - harvester operating with cleaning system on anddelivering clean cane to the transport trucks and leaving the trash in the field,with trash recovered with balers (after sunshine trash drying and windrowing). Whole material harvesting with the harvester operating with the cleaningsystem turned off, and delivering cane with the trash to the transport trucksand trash separation and processing at the mill site. Partial cleaning with the harvester operating with the cleaning system at lowspeed, leaving part of the trash in the field for agronomic purposes and therest with the cane that is loaded in the transport trucks and trash separationand processing at the mill site. Sickle sword which can be mounted to a tractor will cut standing cane andwhose trash needs to be manually harvested and collected. Cane can be put into a trasher.The studies and tests carried out during the project for the trash recoveryalternatives of “conventional harvesting (baling)”, “whole material harvesting”and “partial cleaning”, indicated preliminary costs of US$ 18.5, US$ 31.1 and US$13.7 per ton of trash - dry matter (including investment cost, operational cost andimpacts in the field and factory), with trash recovery efficiencies of 64%, 66% and50%, respectively.These costs include the agricultural impacts of trash removal in the field and trashprocessing at the mill. However they do not take into account negative impact oftrash left in the field and presented later. The gasification has shown that bothbagasse and trash are good gasifier fuels and the BIG-GT/mill integration studieshave indicated that this technology can nearly double the surplus powergeneration. Nevertheless, the need for high investment and further process6
  • 7. optimization resulted in high energy cost (around US$ 75/MWh for the first plant),hindering the immediate use of the gasification technology.BIOSTIL 2000 which gives 3.5 litres spent wash per liter alcohol produced (@ 33% DSon A Grade Molasses). This concentrated spent wash can be mixed with press-mud anddried in Exergy Dryer to get > 80% DS in the dried mixture. Combustion Boilers havelimitations due to sublimation of K-salts and gasification is a better route to achieveZLD + Energy in cane molasses distilleries. Gasification of Spent Wash has beentested in India. All the Condensate from Exergy Dryer can be recovered and recycledback to the distillery to attain ZERO WATER IN (negligible Water Foot Print).The Exergy Dryer can be operated at, say 3.5 bar,g, to provide for the DistillationSteam without adding to the Boiler Capacity (MCR).1) Mixing the concentrated spent wash with press-mud, mill-wet bagasse, canetrash etc. and Exergy dry the Mixture to > 80% Solids DS)2) Gasification of the dried mixture to syngas3) Conversion of this syngas using Syngas to Ethanol technology of Lanzatech.What happens to Trash?Recovery of the trash left in the sugarcane fields is an alternative that has long beenunder consideration by sugarcane mills to obtain a supplementary biomass fuel tobagasse. In the past, some mills worldwide have tried to collect and use trash as afuel with no real success. Most of them have used baling as the recovery system.Nevertheless, none of them have really addressed all the logistics of sugarcaneharvesting, trash recovery, trash handling/processing and use. More than that, nostudies or tests have included field and factory impacts of trash recovery and its useas a fuel in the boilers. Besides the technical aspects, economic viability has alsobeen a strong barrier to trash use. Trash characteristics such as low density,abrasiveness and mineral impurities lead to high costs for trash recovery,transport and its processing.Trash collection and use has been pursued in many sugarcane producing countries andtrials were conducted, some of them for long periods and extended areas, but alwaysin an experimental level. Countries such as Australia, Colombia, Thailand, Brazil andothers have tried different alternatives such as trash baling, trash recovery using hayharvesters, trash recovery directly from the sugarcane harvester, trash and caneharvested together, but none of them turned to be sustainable.The main reasons are trash recovery cost and the effects with respect to thesugarcane crop, sugar and ethanol production activities, including agronomic,operation and industrial aspects of the trash recovery alternative, leading also tonegative economic impacts. The following describes various techniques used by sugarmills and their results.7
  • 8. Baling - The alternative of trash recovery with the majority of tests worldwideconsiders conventional unburned cane harvesting with trash recovery using balers.This is a straight forward solution when it is thought merely on the trash recovery asan isolated operation due to the fact that the machine is designed to collect foragematerial and it has a relatively low purchase cost.Nevertheless, trash recovery using balers involves a series of operations. Duringunburned sugarcane harvesting, sugarcane stalks are delivered to trucks and the trashseparated by the harvester is left in the field. After a period of 3 to 7 days when trashis left in the field to dry, it is recovered by balers after a windrowing operation toconcentrate the trash. The produced bales are left in the field by the baler machineand should be collected by loaders and infield trucks and stored in the field in a placeout of the cultivated area. Then, bales should be loaded into trucks and transportedto the mill site, where they should be unloaded and shredded to be used in theboilers.Series of problems are encountered using balers for trash recovery: Need of trash windrowing before baling; Excessive soil in the trash (average of 6% in weight); Timing of trash recovery (between harvesting and first sprouts comingout); High moisture content if it rains on the trash in the field before recovery; Problems with the machines that are not designed to work on bare landand with trash, high amount of soil and pieces of cane left with the trash,with significant down time and maintenance costs; low operational performance, leading to large fleet; Management of machines (balers, bale collecting machines, bale transporttrucks) and employees; Excessive traffic in the field with soil compaction and sugarcane stooldamage implying in sugarcane yield decrease, not only of the next crop,but also of the following ones until the field is replanted.Independent from trash cost resulted from baling operation the described problemshave hindered any effort in introducing this alternative in the sugarcane mills.Hay Harvesters - Hay harvesters have been tried in the operation of trash collectionin several sugarcane mills. Similarly to baling, trash is left in the field for 3 to 7 daysto dry, after conventional unburned sugarcane harvesting. Trash recovery operationtakes place after a previous windrowing of the trash. The big advantage of thisequipment is that the trash is shredded in the machine and loaded in trucks. Thetrash delivered to the mill can be fed to the boilers with no need of other shreddingoperation.Nevertheless, problems similar to the ones faced with baling are encountered here: Need of trash windrowing before baling;8
  • 9.  Excessive soil in the trash, even more serious than with baling (averageof 10% in weight); Timing of trash recovery (between harvesting and first sprouts comingout); High moisture content if it rains on the trash in the field beforerecovery; Problems with the machines that are not designed to work on bare landand with trash, high amount of soil and pieces of cane left with thetrash, with serious problems of excessive down time and maintenancecosts; High wear and cost of the shredding knives; High machine purchase cost; Excessive traffic in the field.Other Techniques - In the search for a viable alternative for trash recovery, othertrash recovery systems were tried or are under development, such as:• Recovery of the trash straight from the harvester into an infield transportequipment (instead of throwing it in the field), with a previous shreddingoperation performed at the harvester to increase trash density. Trashshredding at the harvester is risky since the machine is already very complex,with several functions. Any problem with the shredding system would inhibitharvester operation with severe consequences for the whole harvesting system.Another critical point is the delivery by the harvester of trash and cane to theinfield equipment (running by the side of the harvester) in separate bins at thesame time. The system has been tried in Australia in the past, with no realsuccess.• Harvesting cane with no cleaning and taking cane with trash to the mill. Trashis then separated from the cane at the mill site. The idea has been tried inBrazil and Australia and has good potential. Nevertheless, several problemsencountered such as low truck load density, trash separation and shreddingat the mill site have to be properly addressed.Proposed Alternative for Trash Recovery - The success of a trash collection system isits adequate insertion in the whole process of sugarcane production, which is the firstpurpose of the grower. Trash recovery and use should fit in the process withouthindering the main activities of producing sugar cane, sugar and ethanol. Therefore,the best trash recovery alternative is not necessarily the one with the least apparenttrash cost. There are several aspects not considered or not measurable at first thatcan have a big impact on cost or on the technical viability of the process, includinglogistics of the operation, existence of adequate equipment, equipmentmanagement and maintenance, mineral and vegetal impurities in the cane, trash9
  • 10. recovery problems after rain, time available for trash recovery after harvestingand before cultivation or cane sprout, and impact on sugarcane yield.The alternative of trash recovery with the best chances to become a reality is thealternative of whole material harvesting that considers the transport of trash withthe cane in total. This alternative permits also the operation in the partial cleaningmode for particular situations, when it is necessary to leave some trash in the fieldfor agronomic purposes. This can be performed just by adequate operation of theharvester, extracting part of the trash from the harvested material and leaving it inthe field.The main difference in trash cost of the alternatives of whole material harvesting andpartial cleaning (US$ 31.1 and US$ 13.7 per ton of trash - dry matter – respectively aspreliminary figures) is due to the greater amount of trash with the cane present in thefirst, which reduces significantly cane load density, increasing transport costs. On theother hand, the first alternative has higher recovery efficiency (66%) than the second(50%), bringing therefore more trash to the mill. Besides that, partial cleaning has thedisadvantage that in the cleaning process, the part of the trash that is removed andleft in the field is the driest and easiest to separate, and that would be the best to beburned at the boilers.In summary, trash would be harvested with the cane. The main investment in terms oftrash recovery and processing would be performed at the mill site, where a drycleaning station (for trash and mineral separation from cane) and a trash shreddingequipment would be necessary. The interesting point of these two options is that thefield operations are almost the same as for actual sugar cane harvesting, with nospecific operations for trash recovery. There is the need to adapt/modify the caneharvester to the condition of no cleaning or partial cleaning. Probably the infieldtransport equipment and road truck fleet would be modified and its number increasedwith the purpose of transporting a greater material volume, but no significant changein operations timing, management, type of equipment and maintenance would occur.The implementation of these and other modifications and developments will reducesignificantly operational trash recovery cost.The present problems faced by sugarcane growers in commercial sugarcane fields dueto the present practice of leaving trash in the field after unburned cane harvestingindicate a beneficial shift towards trash removal that will probably reduce theagronomic cost incurred by trash removal. The reduction of the operational trashrecovery cost and the agronomic cost of trash removal might get overall trash costfor the alternative of whole material harvesting significantly down to economicallyviable figures.Driving Force - 1300 million tons of cane is grown worldwide in more than a 100countries.10
  • 11. Energy efficiency: Higher energetic efficiency in the production of sugar and ethanolcan be accomplished if economic reasons justify, since the technology needed iscommercially available.§ Efficient technology: Several studies indicated that Biomass IntegratedGasification/Gas Turbine Technology could be an interesting option togenerate power in sugar mills, but a sound economic and technicalsolution is still not defined. An intermediate option has been adopted bymost sugarcane mills interested in generating power to the grid that is toinvest in 65 to 82 bar boilers and CEST.§ Harvest unburned cane: One critical point in the implementation ofround the year power generation in sugar mills in order to makeinvestment financially viable is recovery of part of the available trash,which requires that green cane harvesting is used.Mechanization of cane harvesting, an increasing practice due to labor shortage in thepast, had an impulse with unburned cane. In areas of unburned cane harvesting, thetrash (green and dry leaves) is left in the field, forming a thick trash blanket over thefield. At first, several possible benefits of this organic matter left in the field (trash)started to be proclaimed, such as: protection of soil surface against erosion,reduction in water evaporation, incorporation of the nutrients of the trash into thesoil and weed control (with the result that the use of herbicides could be eliminated).The benefits were in fact observed in the first areas of unburned cane harvesting.Nevertheless, with the expansion of the unburned cane harvesting it was observedthat agronomic benefits and problems can vary depending on several factors,especially on climate condition and plagues of the region. Several mills started tohave serious problems with the trash blanket, such as: difficulties in carrying outmechanical cultivation and ratoon crop fertilizing; delayed ratooning and theoccurrence of gaps (discontinuity of sprouts in the line of cane), causing a reductionin cane yield; cane root rot when temperatures are low and/or the soil is very wetafter harvesting; increase in population of pests that shelter and multiply under thetrash blanket and selection of weeds that are not controlled by the trash blanket.The first step would be the implementation of sugarcane trash recovery and its use asa supplementary fuel to bagasse to generate electric power in conventional systems(boiler/steam-turbine systems – preferably 82 bar boiler and during the whole year. Inthe future, the implementation of advanced cogeneration systems such as BIG-GT thatwould further increase the power generation in the sugar mills would be a step closer,since trash recovery would be already set, adding to bagasse the necessary fuel supplyto run the plant year round.Alternative - The objective is to avoid the emissions of 4.8 Mt CO2 (direct impact), byreducing the cost and minimizing the risks associated to trash use, in addition tobagasse, for energy generation. This will maximize electric power generation in11
  • 12. sugarcane mills, which will substitute the corresponding power in thermal generationusing fossil fuels (especially natural gas).Electric power will be generated in conventional systems (boiler/steam-turbinesystems – preferably 82 bar boiler and CEST – condensing, extraction steam turbine)with the use of sugarcane trash as a supplementary fuel to bagasse, making possiblewith this extra fuel to have year round generation (season and off-season). Powerpurchase agreement will be negotiated, with the energy sold to the final consumer,obtaining better prices for the electricity. All year round electricity of 11.6 MW perstandard 1 Mt mills will be available.Consider to group sugarcane mills as potential candidates for investment, with thepurpose of implementing the project in at least 3 mills and very good perspectivesthat the technology will be replicated in the near future. The implementation of theproject in this 3 mills will lead to a total of 240.000 t of CO2 displacement per year(using natural gas generation as baseline), when the mills reach 50% of the total trashrecovery (considering average of 2 million tons of milled cane per implementedproject mill).During the process of implementation and after, the technical and economic viabilityof trash use will result in creating interest for several other mills in implementingsimilar solutions. These investments will depend basically on negotiating attractivePPAs, since the technology will not need other incentives aimed at cost reductions tomake the investment viable.Problems in the field with baling machines, soil compaction, maintenance, etc., andwith trash handling, shredding and use at the mill are hindering trash use progress. Amajor need is to actually identify potential customers and clarify wheeling andPPA clauses for this new business, since sugar mills current export electricitymainly on the spot market.The equipment for this alternative permits also the operation in the “partialcleaning” mode for particular situations, when it is necessary to leave some trash inthe field for agronomic purposes. This can be performed just by adequate operationof the harvester, extracting part of the trash from the harvested material and leavingit in the field. The alternative of “whole material harvesting”, with the bestoperational characteristics has the drawback of the highest trash cost.The proposition is to bring down the estimated trash cost of US$ 31.1 per ton of trash- dry matter for this recovery alternative to figures between US$ 10 and US$ 15through the implementation of new technologies, methodologies, cost benefitpractices and cost reviews in the field and factory. This will bring electricityproduction cost to a level compatible with PPAs in the country.The main investment in terms of trash recovery and processing would be performed atthe mill site, where a dry cleaning station (for trash and mineral separation fromcane) and a trash shredding equipment would be necessary.12
  • 13. Development of modified harvesters to operate with total trash or partial cleaning;modifications in infield equipment for volume improvement; new design for roadtruck bodies to increase transported volume; development of solution/equipmentto increase truck load density; further improvements in the existing dry cleaningstation project; development of the shredding equipment and modifications in theboilers feeding system to mix and feed bagasse and trash.i) Reduce investors risk by providing resources to cover investments inequipment considered new technology and assessing willingness to pay ofpotential electricity buyers.ii) Provide resources for assistance in all the management and technicalissues, including energy commercialization aspects.The objective is to avoid CO2 emissions by minimizing the cost and reducingassociated risks to trash use, in addition to bagasse, while maximizing electric powergeneration in sugarcane mills.Demonstrate technical viability of trash use taking into account detailed data of themills.Optimize harvesting and transport Optimize cleaning, storage, chopping and feed in Improve process energy efficiency Year round electric power generation: equipment and operationWeb-based dissemination of experiences related to trash use. In addition to seminarsand workshop as well as site visits, it is important to centralize and make availablesuch information and data. The project will secure this through the design andoperation of a web-based platform for exchanges. Main target for this web-site will bethe sugar industry worldwide and research institutes. Nevertheless, universities,consumers and lending institutions as well as governmental institutions will benefitfrom this information exchange tool. In fact, information availability both under theform of studies and with actual development of new equipment and operation of theintegrated trash recovery and cleaning, power production equipment, stakeholdersfelt they would have enough knowledge to capture and use project outputs.Sustainability - The present scenario of increasing demand for electric power, theproblems observed in several areas due to the trash left in the field, and the worldconsciousness regarding renewable energy. Nevertheless, once the trash collectionsystem is adequately inserted in the whole process of sugarcane culture, with theagronomic impacts, trash handling and use at the mill properly addressed, the successand sustainability of the project are granted. In other words, sustainability will occur13
  • 14. once the objectives of the project are attained, that is, trash recovery is performedin a way that is operational and does not hinder the normal operations of caneharvesting and tillage, trash removal benefits sugarcane culture (with thereduction of pests, increase in yield, etc), and power generation using bagasse andtrash is profitable.Financial sustainability will be granted by power purchase contracts to be set duringthe implementation project (in the case of energy to be sold to the grid) or by theavoided energy and fuel purchase (in the case of energy to the mill’s own use such asfor an annex refinery).Replicability - The present size of the sugar cane industry worldwide it isapproximately 1.3 billion tons of cane/year. Considering that unburned sugar caneharvesting is slowly, but steadily, becoming more used and is becoming a fullydeveloped and mature technology, the replication potential for energy generation atsugarcane mills using trash as a supplemental fuel to bagasse is enormous. Theinterest in power generation in sugar mills is growing worldwide.Replicability will be driven by three major forces:i) In the case of unburned cane, vegetal impurities are significantly greaterthan in burned cane. Former practice of mineral impurities removalthrough washing cannot apply to chopped cane, because of high sugarlosses. If the chosen alternative for trash recovery considers bringing thetrash to the mill with the cane, and the separation performed at a drycleaning station at the mill, not only trash will be removed from thecane but also great part of the mineral impurities, improving rawmaterial (cane) quality.ii) In the case of unburned cane harvesting, the trash is now left in thefield as a blanket. This blanket has advantages (inhibiting some weeds,increasing soil moisture content, etc.) and some disadvantages(difficulties in cane sprout, increase of some plagues, difficulties ofcultivation, etc.). Several mills are searching for a solution, and aretrying several alternatives such as trash windrowing or trash recoverywith hay harvesters, with no real success.iii) With energy production year round, contracts with final consumers anddecentralized production close to the consuming centers (reduction intransmission costs), the perspectives for better energy prices canbecome a reality, providing the mill with another important revenuesource.Stakeholder Involvement Sugarcane mills – Mills that have problems in dealing with the trash leftin the field after unburned cane harvesting or even those that intend togenerate power to the grid or for their own use are searching for a14
  • 15. viable alternative for trash recovery and use. The sugar cane sector willhave an additional source of income with the surplus power and accessto financial resources to invest in the modernization of the mills. Civil society - it will benefit of a better environment due to reductionin CO2 emissions, decentralized energy (again with less impact on theenvironment) and more jobs availability. In the specific case of jobs, it isimportant to say that mechanization, which is happening independent ofthis project implementation, is reducing the number of jobs in the field(cane cutters being substituted by the harvesters). Trash recoveryimplementation will open new more qualified job opportunities, not onlyin the field but also in the industry. The country and the federal government – the use of a natural owncountry resource will avoid the use of imported fossil fuels such asnatural gas for thermal power generation. Field and factory equipment manufacturers of the private sector -Some of them will participate directly of the process of development ofthe new technologies and implementation of the project, but evenothers will benefit of this new market built up by trash recovery and usesystems. The electric sector – The electric sector is facing a situation in whichbig investments would be necessary to supply the energy demandincrease of the coming years. This source of energy coming from thesugarcane mills, which is close to cities and distributed all over the mostpopulated region of the country. Final consumers of energy – The contact with possible final consumersfor the energy to be sold is to be established as an alternative to getbetter prices for both, the sugarcane mill (producer) and the finalconsumer. Sugarcane producers – There is a big number of cane growers thatproduce cane and deliver it to the mills. Today many of them are havingproblems with the trash left in the field. With trash recovery they canhave a solution for these problems and may also make a profit of thetrash delivered to the mill. Sugarcane research institutes worldwide – Several other institutionsthat have the purpose of transferring and developing technology to thesugarcane sector or that are dealing with RE will receive projectinformation and will have the opportunity to develop the subject oftrash recovery and do several works in this area and even implementsimilar projects. We can name some of these institutions: SRI (SugarResearch Institute - Australia), MSRI (Mauritius Sugar Industry ResearchInstitute), SMRI (Sugar Milling Research Institute - South Africa),Cenicana – Colombia, Sugarcane Research Unit USDA – USA, MINAZ(Ministry of Sugar – Cuba) and others. International financing institutions - active in RE area.15
  • 16.  Domestic financing institutions - such as national banks that actuate inthe area of energy and sugarcane sector.Trials and evaluation of transport options for trash - Current evaluations clearly showthat the main barrier for trash use relates to transport at least in terms of cost.Equipment - Define equipment performance, purchase cost and operational costs(including estimates for the equipment to be developed). Perform simulation of theoperation to quantify equipment needed. Estimate field benefits. Define all theactivities involved in project implementation and their cost, separating the activitiesrelated to the fact that this is a pioneer project from the ones that should be performedin any other implementing project of this nature. In addition, consequences of burningthis new fuel – trash – in the boilers should be carefully verified. The significantdifferences in moisture content, mineral impurities and alkalis content observed whenwe compare trash and bagasse suggests that some parameters such as boiler operation,degradation of the furnace/boiler, NOx and particulate should be monitored.IMPACT assessment – Compute pre-feasibility elements to verify financial feasibility.Perform trash/energy cost sensitivity analysis and risk analysis. Consider alternatives forguaranteed energy production, use of energy by sugarcane mill annex refineries andcontacts with possible industrial consumers and the energy utilities. Start discussions andget intentions for a contract for power purchase with definition of energy price. Withenergy price and cost, calculate economic parameters such as investment pay-back time,interest rate, etc.Outputs1. Description of trash recovery, handling and use processes and type of equipmentinvolved necessary innovations and new equipment to bring down costs.2. Description of the transport option together with cost for this particularcomponent3. Pre-feasibility studies with energy costs and financial return estimation based onsale prices.4. A market study together with market development and dissemination strategy tobe implemented during the full size project.5. A description of needs as expressed by the mills with relation to deal brokering6. Environmental benefit and incremental cost analysis.7. A project document with executive summary together with co financingcommitment and stated intentions for private investors.JustificationNowadays, excluding a few exceptions, the sugarcane sector has faced various challengesin energy generation at the mills. This has been caused basically by the following factors: After the energy shortage period, when energy prices got to interestingfigures for the sugarcane mills, prices went down again due to the excess ofavailable energy that occurred as a result of benefits incorporated during16
  • 17. the rationing period (reeducation of the public and use of more efficientequipment). The price for the energy never rose to those figures again,even with some expectations of energy shortage in the near future ifinvestments are not made at the present. Trash recovery tests and studies carried on indicated alternatives that werenot operationally or economically viable. The project is based on three propositions: The alternative of trash recovery with trash (whole harvesting), thatis the operationally accepted route can also be economically viable(with adequate trash recovery cost). There are benefits to removing trash from the field and benefits oftrash separation at the mill site. Energy prices can be interesting for year round energy generationwhen compared to energy generation cost.It is crucial to generate sufficient information to change sugarcane mills negativeperspectives regarding energy generation.Detailed Description of Main ActivitiesOptimize harvesting and transportHarvesting and transport operations considering trash recovery with the cane requirethe development of new equipment to deal with both trash and cane. The field testsalready performed were extremely useful to evaluate what happens during this newharvesting and transport condition and point out the constrains to be overcame andhave already started discussions on the possible improvements. The optimization ofthe system will consider: Improvement (partial cleaning) or elimination (whole materialharvesting) of the harvester cleaning system. Design of a new elevator to the harvesters in order to load cane andtrash to haulages. Development of lighter trucks and trailers to transport cane and trashwith considerable volume increase. This solution has already beenexplored but requires high investment. Studies and developments to increase load density such as reducing canebillet length and using truck body vibrators, already tested in the PDFphase due to the financial weight of this component and the relativesimplicity of envisaged solutions Increase the number infield bins pulled by tractor and of trailers pulledby truck and trips per day as a result of the lower load already testeddue to the financial weight of this component and the relative simplicityof envisaged solutions.Cleaning, storage, chopping and feed in17
  • 18. The harvesting and transportation of cane and trash together to the mill require aseparation of cane and trash by means of a dry cleaning station at the mill site.Besides, it will be necessary to design further trash processing operations such astrash storage, chopping and feed in. This activity will include:• Improvements to increase actual cleaning station efficiency from 50% canpossibly be increased to 70% with the incorporation of recentdevelopments in the cleaning chambers.• Development of trash shredding equipment.• New handling systems to deal with trash and bagasse year around (millinternal transport of trash and mixing to bagasse), avoiding any lack offeeding to the boilers.• Adaptation/development of boiler feeding system to the new fuel(mixture of bagasse and trash).Economic viability of trash useDefine all operations involved in the field and factory to recover cane and trash, trashseparation, trash handling, trash processing, trash and bagasse storage, powergeneration (year round) and connection to the grid. Determine equipmentperformance and size (for factory equipment), equipment performance and number ofequipment (for field equipment) through simulation models. Determine purchase andoperational cost.For the new equipment or innovations, design and prototypes should have beendeveloped and trials carried during preparation and in Output 1.1, determiningperformance and cost parameters. A high investment must be made to implement thecleaning station at the mill site. This device is a new technology and still expensive.However, all technical solutions to be implemented at the field will aim at reducingthe investment costs including this one. The reduced level of impurities of caneshould allow such minimization.Agronomic benefitsToday it is possible to get information from several mills, considering the effect oftrash on sugarcane yield, tillage operations, herbicide use, plagues and others fordifferent regions and field conditions (soil, variety, etc.). As an example, trashblanket herbicide effect, considered sufficient to control weeds during first trials, isnow selecting weed species that coexist with trash and need herbicide control. Theseparameters should be properly addressed and the impact in harvesting costdetermined, considering trash recovery, with the gains or losses attributed to thetrash cost.18
  • 19. Business planDespite the deregulation of the energy market after its privatization, energy priceswere dictated by energy companies, the only allowed buyers of energy. Except for theenergy shortage period, sale-prices for the sugarcane mill’s energy never got to levelscompatible with the price of the energy sold by the energy companies. This situationhas not changed much. Nevertheless, one of the drawbacks of the energy produced bysugarcane mills has been the fact that it is generated only during the harvestingseason (6 to 8 months/year), hence not meeting a potential consumer demand.Generating all year around will increase the number of potential clients and alsoincrease the sale price allowing justifying investment. With energy generation aroundthe year, and the possible arrangements of energy producing sugarcane mills, it willbe possible to have guaranteed power. This will make this energy more demandedwith the possibility of good contracts with these “free consumers”. Arrangementsthrough the contact and workshops with interested consumers will be made, with thepossibility of pre-agreements or intention letters defining the energy sale-price.SeminarsWill be important to provide elements of decision to the wide range of stakeholderseventually involved in the investment projects be it the potential consumers,Government, specialized lending institutions, the electricity regulator or thetransmission company.PPA for investmentThe Project will consider PPA alternatives such as sales to final consumers directlyand sales to the electric utility. In order for the Project to be economically viable thePPA will have to meet a certain minimum criteria, in terms of energy sale-price,credit conditions and so on.Electric power generation at the sugarcane mills is a reality, with the production ofsurplus energy to the grid growing very slowly. The not so attractive prices obtainedfor the seasonal energy produced to the grid, with the use of bagasse only, hasinhibited larger investments in generation. Most mills that have already moved tolarger power generation scale happened to be investing in new boilers at the timewhen energy prices were high (energy shortage). Other mills that have problems withthe trash left in the field (pests and cane sprouting delay for example) will keep ontrying isolated solutions to get rid of the trash. To solve these problems, most of themills are investing in pest control, varieties less susceptible to the presence of trashand adequate equipment for tillage and other field operations.19
  • 20. It is important to point out that even during the power shortage period when severalsugarcane mills got contracts with high energy prices; none have succeeded in usingtrash. As energy prices continue to increase, many mills might invest in powergeneration systems, but trash will not be used as a fuel due to the lack of experiencewith adequate technology and a full cost-benefit evaluation. Not using trash results inthe waste of a renewable source of energy to produce energy around the year, andwill lead to Coal based thermal units as a means to provide the electric energydemand growth in the country. The baseline course of action leads to negative globalenvironmental impacts, as the main sources of new electric energy will rely on fossilfuel based resources. A successful implementation of sugarcane trash recovery and itsuse as a supplementary fuel to bagasse to generate electric power in a sugarcanemill, using conventional boiler/steam-turbine systems (preferably 65 to 82 bar boilerand CEST), would make it possible to generate a significant amount of power to thegrid and create the necessary conditions for the generation around the year (seasonand off-season). The studies of the alternative scenario will generate knowledge about trash(potential, recovery system, handling, agronomic impacts, economics, etc.)and its use for energy generation in sugarcane mills with a sufficient level oftechnology to warrant cost effective and sustainable operation. The development of the necessary new equipment, for the whole system oftrash recovery and use, with the manufacturers, will make the information andnecessary technology immediately available for the market. Being able to generate electric power around the year makes it possible tohave consumers and obtain better prices for the energy, and in turn makescogeneration projects viable, with significant amount of electric powerexported. The contact of the sugarcane sector with possible consumers will strengthenthe relationship among producers and consumers, widening the possibilities ofnew investments in energy production at the mills. Investments and operational costs incurred to solve the problems caused todayby the trash left in the field after unburned cane harvesting (pests, cane yieldreduction, etc.) would not be necessary (or can be reduced), and theseresources directed to trash recovery actions. The energy produced at the mill will be grid connected and has the advantageof decentralized electricity production. Sugarcane mills are usually close topotential consumers, reducing losses and transmission costs. The new activities performed at the mill will bring employment and othereconomic as well as social benefits of locally produced and nationally soldrenewable energy and lengthening of the local production chain withconsequential added value using renewable energy as process input. Project implementation will make a direct contribution to the reduction ofGHG emissions (to be calculated during PDF execution) by replacing fossil fuelusage with renewable energy.20
  • 21. Although world prices for sugar and petroleum products have shown spectacularvariations, the long term outlook is good, gradual increase in the price of all fossilfuels and their production stagnation, is better for the prices of sugar. This prospectexplains to a large degree, the renewed interest in the byproducts of the sugarcaneindustry which have been developed in the last decade and have shown that theoptimal use of byproducts can provide a non-negligible support to the sugarcaneindustry, although it could not, by itself, completely redress the difficult situationsugar is presently experiencing. The present world production of sugarcane hasreached the 130 million tons; quantities of these byproducts produced yearly areapproximately the following:Cane tops 400 million tonnes (fresh weight)Bagasse 120 million tonnes (bone dry weight)Filter muds 10 million tonnes (air dried weight)Molasses 32 million tonnes (at 80 percent DM)Maximum value upgrading goes with more complex processing characterized bycapital intensity, sophisticated technical knowhow and competitive markets.Maximization of profits is not automatically linked with process complexity anddepends much more often on advantages local conditions or the proximity of aremunerative export market.The price of bagasse is generally related to its fuel value. Thus since 1 tonne of mill-run bagasse can be replaced by 0.173 tonne of fuel oil, worth US$ 80/tonne or againby 0.263 tonne of bituminous coal worth US$55/tonne, it can be said that bagasse isworth between US$ 13.8 and 14.5 per tonne (mill-run weight, 50 percent moisturecontent) and a figure of US$ 15 can be used as a rounded representative average.MAIN UTILIZATION OF BAGASSE - Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane stalk leftafter crushing and extraction of the juice. It consists of fibers, water and relativelysmall quantities of soluble solids - mostly sugar. The average composition of mill-runbagasse is the following:Fibre (including ash) 48.0 percentMoisture 50.0 "Soluble solids 2.0 "The fibre consists mainly of cellulose (27 percent), pentosans (30 percent), lignin (20percent) and ash (3 percent).The calorific value (CV) of bagasse is given by the formula:Net CV = 18 309 - 31.1 S - 207.3 W - 196.1 A (expressed in kJ/kg)Where S = soluble solids % bagasseW = moisture % bagasse, and A = ash % bagasse.If W = 0, S = 2 and A = 3, then the net CV of bone dry bagasse = 17 659 kJ/kg.If W = 50, S = 2 and A =1 1/2 then the net CV of mill run bagasse = 7 588 kJ/kg.21
  • 22. Bagasse is used for the generation of steam and power required to operate the sugarfactory. A typical factory producing raw sugarcane require, per tonne of cane, about35 kWh and 450 kg of exhaust steam. Much progress has been achieved lately and,with continuous operation of the pans, crystallizers and centrifuges and an efficientevaporation station, a modern raw sugar factory can now operate with 30 kWh and300 kg of exhaust steam per tonne of cane. Such a factory can save 50 percent ofthe bagasse it produces and this bagasse can be used to produce electricity for thegrid or saved as raw material for the production of paper, board, furfural, etc.Electricity The more straightforward solution is to produce electricity from thebagasse saved via a high pressure boiler and condensing turbo-alternator. Thissolution has found favor in a number of cane producing countries such a Hawaii,Australia, Reunion and Mauritius and with modern equipment some 450 kWh can nowbe produced per tonne of mill-run bagasse. A typical example of this use is given inTable and if mill-run bagasse is priced at US$ 15 per tonne, electricity can begenerated on a year round basis, at a cost of approximately US cents 6 to 8 per kWh,which should prove competitive with the ruling price of electricity in most ThirdWorld countries.To be economical, the generating station must work on a continuous basis; say atleast 7 800 hours yearly. This will imply bagasse storage to be able to generateduring the intercrop period. Various methods tried are dry and wet bulk storage,bale storage and pelleting. Dry bulk storage has proved uneconomical and notsuitable for large tonnages. Wet bulk storage does not apply and is utilized whenbagasse is to be used for pulp production. Pelleting is still being tested in Hawaii andin Mauritius, but appears expensive per tonne of bagasse handled. Thus bale storage,which is presently the most widely used method seem the reasonable choice,although it requires a substantial storage area and can lead to annual losses of 10percent of more of the bagasse stored.Electricityfrom bagasseBestconditionsModerateconditions1. Characteristics- Boiler (46 Bar A, 440°C) capacitytonnes steam per hour90 90- Turbo-alternator (condensing at 0.10Bar A) capacity (MW)20 20- Total capital investment forgenerating station in working order(US$ million)9 11- Electricity generated yearly (GWh) 150 120- Weight of mill-run bagasse utilized(tonnes)333 000 266 000- Acquisition cost of mill-run bagasse 15 2022
  • 23. (US$ per tonne)- Average transport cost per tonne ofbagasse (US$)4 52.Cost of electricity generated (in US$cents per kWh)- Depreciation and maintenance (10%) 0.60 0.92- Annuity repayment (0.16275 for 10years at 10% interest)0.98 1.49- Labor and administration (US$ 100000 yearly)0.07 0.08- Transport cost of bagasse 0.89 1.11- Acquisition cost of bagasse 3.33 4.48TOTAL GENERATION COST PER kWh 5.87 8.08say US cents6.00/kWhsay US cents8.00/kWhCDM/REC Eligibility: Post 2012 with the regime of CDM erased and implemented onlyfor LDC countries the opportunities arise of Regional Energy certificates of Individualnations and their trading platforms. Programmes of Activities (PoAs) are gainingpopularity under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the carbon creditscheme. PoAs bundle large numbers of replicable emission reduction activities,facilitated through separate registration of the emission reduction concept (or PoA)from the implementation of the actual activities or projects. Once the concept orumbrella is registered, CDM Project Activities (CPAs) can be added or included in ashortened procedure.With growing emissions from the transport and energy sectors throughout Asia,enormous potential for renewable-energy deployment, and 700 million people stilllacking access to electricity, Asian countries are ripe for the development ofNationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the energy, transport, waste, and othersectors. As broader policies (compared with Clean Development Mechanism projects),NAMAs can be nested in sustainable-development strategies and can attract financingfor actions that also help countries meet UNFCCC targets. With demand for CDMoffsets declining and the Green Climate Fund (GCF) likely several years away fromdisbursing funds, supported NAMAs have emerged as the most promising source ofclimate mitigation funding in the near term.Lack of an official definition of NAMAs should be viewed as an opportunity to shapethe process and concept of NAMAs rather than as a deterrent for actions. Forexample, developing and contributing countries have the ability to advance a sharedvision on the components of a successful NAMA and criteria for assessing NAMAsseeking support – through bilateral and multilateral programs in advance of the GCF’sfull implementation. Now is the opportunity to build partnerships between these23
  • 24. groups of countries and to shape the direction of the GCF and UNFCCC throughconcrete NAMA examples.24