Monopulse Radar

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Monopulse Radar

  1. 1. H.P<br />MONOPULSERADAR<br />PHANI RAHUL G K CHAITANYA DONEPUDI<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />Basic operating principle<br />Tracking radars<br />Techniques of target detection<br />Examples of monopulse radar systems<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />2<br />
  3. 3. RADIO DETECTION AND RANGING<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />3<br /><ul><li>OBJECT DETECTION SYSTEM
  4. 4. USES ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES TO IDENTIFY TARGET CHARACTERISTICS
  5. 5. RADAR CAN FUNCTION UNDER CONDITIONS IMPERVIOUS TO OPTICAL AND INFRARED SENSORS</li></li></ul><li>RADAR FUNCTIONS<br />NORMAL RADAR FUNCTIONS<br />Range (from pulse delay)<br />Velocity (from Doppler frequency shift)<br />Azimuth and Elevation (from antenna pointing)<br />SIGNATURE ANALYSIS and INVERSE SCATTERING<br />Target size (from magnitude of return)<br />Target shape and components (return as a function of direction)<br />Moving parts (modulation of the return)<br />Material composition<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />4<br />
  6. 6. SLANT RANGE<br />5<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />P<br />DISTANCE TO TARGET = DT<br />(SLANT RANGE)<br />DT<br />E<br />N<br />ANTENNA ROTATION<br />O<br />S<br />W<br />
  7. 7. AZIMUTH ANGLE<br />6<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />P<br />AZIMUTH ANGLE = AT<br />DT<br />AT = NOPI <br />PI<br />E<br />TRUE<br />NORTH<br />N<br />AT<br />ANTENNA ROTATION<br />O<br />S<br />W<br />
  8. 8. ELEVATION ANGLE<br />7<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />H.P<br />P<br />DT<br />ANGLE OF ELEVATION = ET<br />PI<br />E<br />N<br />ET = 0PPI <br />ANTENNA ROTATION<br />O<br />S<br />W<br />
  9. 9. TRACKING RADAR<br />Measures the coordinates and provides data to determine target path<br />Tracking can be performed in range, angle and doppler<br />Classified into two types<br />Continuous tracking radar <br />Track-While-Scan radar<br />Acquisition radar designates targets to the tracking radar<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />8<br />
  10. 10. TRACKINGRADAR<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />9<br />
  11. 11. TRACKING RADAR<br />Error signal generating methods<br />Sequential lobing<br />Conical scan<br />Simultaneous lobing (monopulse)<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />10<br />
  12. 12. SEQUENTIAL LOBING<br />Two lobes are required to track in each axis, each lobe must be sequentially switched four pulses are required<br />The radar measures the returned signal levels<br />The voltages in the two switched position should be equal<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />11<br />
  13. 13. SEQUENTIAL LOBING <br />12<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />
  14. 14. CONICAL SCAN<br />13<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br /><ul><li>The antenna is continuously rotated at an offset angle.
  15. 15. Redirection of beam
  16. 16. Rotating feed
  17. 17. Nutating feed</li></li></ul><li>CONICAL SCAN<br />14<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />All target returns have the same amplitude<br /> (zero error signal)<br />Thus, no action is required<br />
  18. 18. CONICAL SCAN<br />15<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />B<br />A<br />
  19. 19. DISADVANTAGES <br />16<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />Sequential lobing<br />Angle accuracy can be no better than the size of the antenna beamwidth. <br />Variation in echo strength on a pulse-by-pulse basis changes the signal level thereby reducing tracking accuracy<br />The antenna gain is less than the peak gain in beam axis direction, reducing maximum range that can be measured<br />Conical scan<br />The antenna scan rate is limited by the scanning mechanism (mechanical or electronic)<br />Sensitive to target modulation<br />Mechanical vibration and wear and tear due to rotating feed<br />
  20. 20. SIMULTANEOUS LOBING<br />With a single pulse angular coordinates can be obtained<br />Maximum unambiguous range is limited only by PRF<br />Monopulse is free of mechanical vibrations<br />Errors due to amplitude fluctuation of target echoes are greatly reduced<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />17<br />
  21. 21. MONOPULSE BLOCK DIAGRAM<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />18<br />
  22. 22. SUM AND DIFFERENCE PATTERNS<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />19<br />
  23. 23. HYBRID JUNCTIONS<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />20<br />Hybrid T junction<br />Hybrid ring (‘RAT’ race junction)<br />
  24. 24. AMPLITUDE AND PHASE COMPARISON MONOPULSE<br />A total of four hybrid junctions generate sum, azimuth and elevation difference channel<br />Range information is extracted form the output of the sum channel after amplitude detection<br />The angular error signal is obtained by comparing echo amplitudes which actuates a servo mechanism to position the antenna<br /> The angle of arrival is determined by comparing the phase difference between signals from two separate antennas<br />Antennas of phase comparison are not offset from the axis<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br />Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />21<br />
  25. 25. COMPARISON OF TRACKERS<br />In phase comparison four antennas are placed in awkward direction and its side lobe levels are high<br />Sequential lobing suffers more losses with complex antenna and feed system<br />Amplitude comparison has high SNR <br />It has higher precision in target tracking due to the absence of target amplitude fluctuations<br />Angle error in two coordinates can be obtained by a single pulse<br />Conscan integrates no of pulses and then extracts angle measurement but vice versa in monopulse<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />22<br />
  26. 26. NIKE AJAX GUIDANCE SYSTEM<br />First missile guidance system to employ monopulse technique<br />Developed in 1953<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />23<br />
  27. 27. PATRIOT AIR DEFENCE SYSTEM<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />24<br />
  28. 28. CONCLUSION<br />It is used if extreme accuracy is needed<br />Its improved interference immunity, resolution, radar signal processing and angular accuracy made it imperative in all modern missile tracking/guidance systems<br />&quot;MONOPULSE RADAR &quot; by <br /> Phani Rahul G K and Chaitanya Donepudi<br />25<br />THANKYOU<br />QUERIES?<br />

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