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169318090 0104abapdictionary-100831073625-phpapp02

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  • 1. ABAP Dictionary
  • 2. Module Objectives • Describe the basic functionality of the Data Dictionary, its objects and related transactions • Define domain and data element and how they are related • Define a table and table concepts including: – – – – – Foreign key and primary key SAP table types Creating and maintaining tables - SE11 Indexes Buffering • Define structures and views • Define search help • Describe the data browser Copyright © 2005 Accenture 2
  • 3. What is a Data Dictionary? • • • A data dictionary is a systemindependent interface to a database. A data dictionary is a “virtual database” containing metadata (data about data). A data dictionary provides tools for data manipulation and data processing. Copyright © 2005 Accenture 3
  • 4. Why a Data Dictionary? • • A data dictionary facilitates the development of platform-independent applications. A data dictionary eliminates the need for programmers to be concerned about specific storage locations, drive and directory names, etc. ABAP Program X ABAP Program X ABAP Dictionary ABAP Dictionary Unix Copyright © 2005 Accenture SAP Database (Oracle) Windows NT SAP Database (MS SQL Server) 4
  • 5. ABAP Dictionary Functionality ADMINISTRATION • ABAP Dict Objects • Where-used lists • Relationships Modification analysis • ABAP Dict Objects • Time Stamp Validation • Entries in DB Catalog ACTIVATION ANALYSIS • Records • Storage • ABAP Dictionary • Repository Info System • Documentation INTEGRATION Copyright © 2005 Accenture 5
  • 6. ABAP Dictionary Transactions • • • • • • SE80 - Repository Browser SE15 - Repository Information System SE16 - Data Browser SE17 - General Table Display SM30 - Maintain Table Views SM31 - Table Maintenance Copyright © 2005 Accenture 6
  • 7. Basic Data Dictionary Objects Table Domain uses Data Element uses Field Copyright © 2005 Accenture 7
  • 8. Levels of Abstraction Domain Data Element • Data type • Number of characters • Output length • Value table • Attributes inherited from domain • Field labels Table Field Copyright © 2005 Accenture • Field name • Primary key indicator • Attributes inherited from data element 8
  • 9. Two-Level Domain Concept City S_CITY S_FROM_CIT Departure City Copyright © 2005 Accenture S_TO_CITY Domain Data element Destination City 9
  • 10. Domain Copyright © 2005 Accenture 10
  • 11. Specifying Value Ranges for a Domain Fixed Values Example: Domain: S_CLASS (Classes for a Flight Booking) Values: C F Y (business class) (first class) (economy class) Value Table Example: Domain: Value Table: Copyright © 2005 Accenture S_CARR_ID (Carrier ID) SCARR Table: SCARR Carrier ID AA DL LH SA UA Name American Delta Lufthansa Singapore United 11
  • 12. Data Element Attributes inherited from the domain Copyright © 2005 Accenture 12
  • 13. Interdependency of ABAP Dictionary Objects Tab. From City Tab. S_FROM_CIT City S_CITY S_TO_CITY To City Tab. Tables Copyright © 2005 Accenture Data elements "semantic field description" Domains "technical field description" 13
  • 14. Table TABLE Airline Carriers Table SCARR Carrier ID Rows (tuples) Copyright © 2005 Accenture Carrier Name AA DL LH UA ... American Airlines Delta Lufthansa United Airlines ... Primary key (Field) values 14
  • 15. Relationships Between Tables: Foreign Keys Primary Key PLANETYPE SEATSMAX Check Table 747-200 A310-200 757-300 CARGOMAX 200 211 301 20000 24000 17000 Table 1: Airplane Details Table SAPLANE Foreign Key Primary Key Foreign Key Table CARRID CONNID FLDATE AA UA 1234 5678 PRICE PLANETYPE SEATSOCC 03/22/1999 500 01/06/1999 600 747-200 A310-200 125 90 Table 2: Flight Table SFLIGHT Copyright © 2005 Accenture 15
  • 16. Check Table - System Default - DOMAIN S_PLANE Value table SAPLANE - Table SFLIGHT - Field PLANETYPE Check table Copyright © 2005 Accenture SAPLANE System default 16
  • 17. Cardinality • Cardinality defines the type of relationship between two tables. • The cardinality of a foreign key indicates how many dependent records a record in a check table may have. Cardinality Types 1:1 1:C 1:N 1:CN Copyright © 2005 Accenture 17
  • 18. SAP Data Master Data • • • • G/L Accounts Vendors Materials Stock Locations System Data Copyright © 2005 Accenture • • • • Metadata Programs Documentation System Settings Configuration Data Transaction Data • • • • • • • • Currency Codes Order Types Payment Terms Field Status Codes Sales Orders Purchase Orders Journal Entries Goods Receipts 18
  • 19. SAP Table Types Transparent ABAP Dictionary Cluster Pool ABAP Program Copyright © 2005 Accenture Internal 19
  • 20. Table Definition TRANSP table Structure table Create transp. table Create int. table Activate Activate Note: DB table will be created automatically! Copyright © 2005 Accenture 20
  • 21. Creating / Changing Tables Copyright © 2005 Accenture 21
  • 22. Technical Settings Data class  Master data  Transaction data  Organization & Customizing (System) data Table category  Number of data records in DB storage area Buffering  single  generic (must specify number of key fields)  full  not buffered Log data changes Copyright © 2005 Accenture 22
  • 23. Indexes Index ABAP Dictionary T1 S1 S2 ... Identific. Unique Desc F1 F2 ... T1_K DB T1 S1 S2 ... F1 F2 ... Copyright © 2005 Accenture T1_K F2 S1 S2 23
  • 24. Data Class TS1 ... TSn TB1 ... TBn TSYS1 ... TSYSn APPL0 (Master) APPL1 (Transaction) APPL2 (Organization & Customizing) TS1 .... TS1 TS1 .... .... TS2 TS2 TS2 TSn TSn TSn DB Copyright © 2005 Accenture 24
  • 25. Size Categories Dict Table Selection T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 Number of data records in a storage area 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 Copyright © 2005 Accenture TS1 3 TS1 = 2400K to 9800K = 9800K to 39000K 4 TS1 = 610K to 2400K 2 DB = 0 to 640K = 39000K plus TS1 25
  • 26. Exercises Exercise 1 - Create Basic ABAP Dictionary Objects, 60 minutes Exercise 2 - Create Table Indexes, 20 minutes Copyright © 2005 Accenture 26
  • 27. Buffering TABL ABAP Dictionary TABLP Buffer: 100% and generic T1 S1 S2 F1 ... T3 T1 T2 T3 T2 S1 S2 F1 ... G1 G2 S3 F1 ... Buffer: partial G1 G2 S3 ... S1 S2 F1 ... G1 G2 S3 F1 ... No 1st access 100% generic partial Change number of key fields 2 1st access Yes No Yes Generic key complete Yes Import record SELECT SINGLE record exists No No DB T1 S1 S2 F1 ... Copyright © 2005 Accenture Yes T2 G1 G2 S3 F1 ... T3 G1 G2 S3 ... 27
  • 28. Logging DD Table T1 Change S1 S2 F1 F2 F3 ... Logging Manual DB T1 System profile Copyright © 2005 Accenture Log S1 S2 F2 F3 ... Field-related log records 28
  • 29. INCLUDE Substructure US USF1 USF2 Table Field Data element T1 TRANSP S1 S2 .INCLUDE F1 ... ... ... US ... ... T2 TRANSP F1 .INCLUDE F2 ... USF3 ..... ... US ... ... Copyright © 2005 Accenture 29
  • 30. APPEND Substructure Database Field Sequence FLD1 FLDX FLD2 Table ABAP Dictionary Sequence FLD1 Field ZTBL1 FLD1 TRANSP FLD2 FLD2 FLDX Data Element ... ... .APPEND ZAZTBL1 OR Append contains definition of field FLDX .APPEND CI_ZTBL1 Customizing Include Copyright © 2005 Accenture 30
  • 31. Views FIELD A FIELD C FIELD D FIELD F VIEW 1 FIELD A FIELD B TABLE 1 Copyright © 2005 Accenture FIELD C FIELD A FIELD D FIELD E FIELD F TABLE 2 31
  • 32. Search Help The search path used the last time is displayed A B User chooses a different search path C User chooses F4 on field The chosen search path is displayed A B C Values are returned User selects row Copyright © 2005 Accenture Hit list is displayed 32
  • 33. Search Help Fields Copyright © 2005 Accenture 33
  • 34. Exercise Exercise 3 – Create an Elementary Search Help, 30 minutes Copyright © 2005 Accenture 34
  • 35. Data Browser Tools ABAP Workbench Overview Data Browser (SE16) Copyright © 2005 Accenture 35
  • 36. User Parameters Copyright © 2005 Accenture 36
  • 37. Using the Browser Copyright © 2005 Accenture 37
  • 38. Settings .... .... Personal Settings - Width of output list - Maximum number of entries to be selected - Take into account conversion exit - Column headings can be either: . Field name, or . Field text (from data element) Copyright © 2005 Accenture .... Data Browser: Table SPFLI Settings .... .... System Help List format Sort User parameters Choose Fields Fields For Selection - List table fields - Flag the fields to be used for data selection - Maximum 40 Affects the selection screen Fields to be selected ... Sort Sequence for output list ... - List table fields Fields to be used for data selection ... - List table fields - Flag the fields to be included in the the output list - Maximum 9 sort fields - Flag fields with 1 to 9 Affects the output list 38
  • 39. Exercises Exercise 4 - ABAP Dictionary Search, 30 minutes Exercise 5 - View a Table with the Data Browser, 20 minutes Copyright © 2005 Accenture 39
  • 40. Questions & Answers Any questions? Copyright © 2005 Accenture 40

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