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  1. 1. Plastic: Pollution-Problems-PrecautionPlastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semi synthetic organic amorphoussolid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of highmolecular weight, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs.The word Plastic derives from the Greek (plastikos), “fit for moulding”, from (plastos) “moulded”. Itrefers to their malleability or plasticity during manufacture that allows them to be cast, pressed, orextruded into an enormous variety of shapes – such as films, fibres, plates, tubes, bottles, boxes, andmuch more.Plastic is one of the few new chemical materials which pose environmental problem. Polyethylene,polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene is largely used in the manufacture of plastics.Plastic: Pollution-Problems-PrecautionFiled Under: Environment, I Care, Personal by admin — 5 CommentsJune 12, 2009Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semi synthetic organic amorphoussolid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of highmolecular weight, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs.The word Plastic derives from the Greek (plastikos), “fit for moulding”, from (plastos) “moulded”. Itrefers to their malleability or plasticity during manufacture that allows them to be cast, pressed, orextruded into an enormous variety of shapes – such as films, fibres, plates, tubes, bottles, boxes, andmuch more.Plastic PollutionPlastic is one of the few new chemical materials which pose environmental problem. Polyethylene,polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene is largely used in the manufacture of plastics.20% of solid municipal wastes in India are plastic. Non-degradable plastics accumulate at the rate of 25million tonnes per year. According to an estimate more than 100 million tonnes of plastic is producedevery year all over the world. In India use of plastic is 3 kg per person per year.Plastic ProblemsPlastics are used because they are easy and cheap to make and they can last a long time. Urbanisationhas added to the plastic pollution in concentrated form in cities. Plastic does not decompose, andrequires high energy ultra-violet light to break down.
  2. 2. Plastic thrown on land can enter into drainage lines and chokes them resulting into floods in local areasin cities as experienced in Mumbai, India in 1998. It was claimed in one of the programmes on TVChannel that eating plastic bags results in death of 100 cattle’s per day in U.P. in India. In stomach ofone dead cow, as much as 35 kg of plastic was found.More than 90% of the articles found on the sea beaches contained plastic. The plastic rubbish found onbeaches near urban areas tends to originate from use on land, such as packaging material used to wraparound other goods. On remote beaches the rubbish tends to have come from ships, such as fishingequipment used in the fishing industry.Health hazards of plasticA chemical found in plastics used in water bottles, food cans and even dental fillings, could pose aserious threat to the user’s health, researchers claim.Research on lab animals has linked the chemical to prostate enlargement, declined testosterone, pre-cancerous breast cells, prostate cancer, changes to the genital tract, early puberty in females andhyperactivity.It also acts as an endocrine disruptor meaning it can interfere with the hormone system.Precautions“Ideally, the best methods of reuse are ways that will keep these plastics out of the landfill the longest.”Plastic water and soft drink bottles are sold with the intention of single use, then recycling, they can besafely reused if cleaned and handled properly. The keys are to ensure that the bottle is not damaged,has been thoroughly cleaned before each use, and is filled with clean tap water.Different ways to reuse the plastic bags: * Use them to dust off out-of-season on shoes or seasonal articles. * Use the bags as gloves to clean dustbins, or using pesticides. * When packing a suitcase, use them to keep shoes from soiling clothes and dirty things from cleanones. * To protect small outdoor plants from rain or frost at night, cover them with bags and tie the handlestightly around the pots. Be sure to take the bags off in the morning. * Use as a barrier between you and your trash: for those with infrequent trash pickups, use as an extralayer for strong smelling kitchen waste. Or replace trash bags: use for the bathroom, the car, or even toreplace kitchen trash bags.
  3. 3. * Use as over dirty shoes to avoid tracking mud, or to put over shoes while doing gardening. * Ask stores if they will take the bags back. Encourage your local retailer to do the same. * For those who are interested in something a little bit more long lasting, consider learning how tocraft with plastic bags, like carpet, shopping bags.Best Practice * Start saying NO to carry bag when you can carry things in your hand * Don’t forget to carry a cloth bag from home when you are heading for a purchase * Keep a set of bags always in your bike/car * Avoid packing goods in multiple plastics which can packed in a single * You can use thick/black plastic which can be recycled * Recycle a carry bag for at least 10 times before you throwConclusion“It is better to be safe than sorry”. So a better idea will be to avoid this plastic as far as we possibly can.These bags should be re-used as many times as possible to avoid entering the waste stream, butultimately avoiding plastics all together is crucial to reduce our footprint on this earth. Until it becomessecond nature, REUSE is MUST.If we neglect this today, our tomorrow might be in a problem. Realise the importance of using lessplasticsMake it a Habit and a Rule…One person can save at least 15 plastics in a week…
  4. 4. PLASTIC POLLUTIONNext time you do the shopping and carry home the things in a plastic carry bag, think and realise thatyou are contributing your share to a deadly plastic pollution whose ill effects are irreversible andcapable of reaching out to many generations to come. Plastic is one of the major toxic pollutants of ourtime. Being composed of toxic chemicals and most importantly a non biodegradable substance, plasticpollutes earth and leads to air pollution and water pollution. There is no safe way to dispose plasticwaste.Plastic causes serious damage to environment during its production process and during its disposalprocess. So the only way to reduce the hazards of plastic pollution is to reduce the use of plastic andthereby force a reduction in its production. The major chemicals that go into the making of plastic arehighly toxic and pose serious threat to living beings of all species on earth. Some of the constituents ofplastic such as benzene and vinyl chloride are proved to cause cancer, and other gases and liquidhydrocarbons spoil earth and air. The noxious substances emitted during the production of plastic aresynthetic chemicals like ethylene oxide, benzene and xylenes. Besides hitting hard the ecosystem whichis already fragile, these chemicals can cause an array of maladies ranging from birth defects to cancer,damage the nervous system and the immune system and also adversely affect the blood and thekidneys. And, many of these toxic substance are emitted during recycling of plastic too.Like in the case of all other chemical substances, ‘disposal’ of plastic is a myth. Once plastic is produced,the harm introduced is almost permanent. Plastic defies any kind of attempt at disposal, be it throughrecycling, burning or landfilling. When you recycle a hazard, you pave way for another hazard. Recyclingof a plastic merely puts it back into the market place and eventually into the environment, therebymaking no reduction in its use. The recycled plastic degrades in quality and necessitates the productionof more new plastic to make the original product.When plastic is burned, it has its own disadvantages. When burned, plastic releases a host of poisonouschemicals including dioxin into the air. Apart from these dangers, recycling of plastic is veryuneconomical, dirty and labour intensive as has been revealed by studies conducted by many PublicInterest Research Groups. Recycling of plastic is associated with skin and respiratory problemsresulting from exposure to and inhalation of toxic fumes, especially hydrocarbons and residues releasedduring the process.Plastic wastes clog the drains and thus hit especially urban sewage systems. The plastic wastes beingdumped into rivers, streams and sea contaminate the water, soil, marine life and also the air webreathe. Choked drains provide excellent breeding grounds for mosquitoes besides causing floodingduring the monsoon. Since plastic does not undergo bacterial decomposition, landfilling using plasticwould mean preserving the poison forever. Any attempt to get rid of plastic through landfills is alsodangerous. Apart form toxic seepage from the landfill resulting in the contamination of precious watersources, the waste mass impedes the flow of ground water. Landfills are also prone to leaks. Thewastes, especially cadmium and lead in the wastes, invariably mix with rain water, then seep through
  5. 5. the ground and drain into nearby streams and lakes and other water bodies. Thus the water we usegets poisoned.The only way to overcome the deadly and lasting danger of plastic pollution is to cut down the use ofplastic, if possible avoid it altogether. Say NO to plastic whenever and wherever you can. Prefer tocarry your own bags for grocery shopping, a jute or cloth bag. All attempts made to put an end to plasticpollution will be a REAL BENEFIT for yourgrand children. Let us contribute our part, save ourenvironment from plastic pollution and make it a better environment for future.2.EucalyptusOverview:Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) is a tall evergreen tree native to Tasmania. Today, most commercialherbal preparations originate in Mediterranean and subtropical regions, including Spain and Morocco.The leaves and oil of the eucalyptus plant are used for medicinal purposes. Eucalyptus oil consists of thevolatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves and branch tops of the eucalyptus plant.Topical ointments containing eucalyptus oil have been used in traditional Aboriginal medicines to healwounds and fungal infections. Teas containing eucalyptus leaves were also used to reduce fevers. Thetherapeutic uses of eucalyptus soon spread to other traditional medicine systems, including Chinese,Indian (Ayurvedic), and Greco-European.Throughout the 19th century in England, eucalyptus oil was used in hospitals to clean urinary catheters.Laboratory studies later revealed that eucalyptus oil contains substances with strong antibacterialproperties. Studies in animals and test tubes also found that eucalyptus oil acts as an expectorant(loosens phlegm in the respiratory passages), antiseptic (prevents infection), and deodorant. Likeeucalyptus oil, the leaves of the eucalyptus plant contain substances that have expectorant,antibacterial, and antiseptic properties, but the leaves are also believed to help reduce inflammationand reduce fevers. In fact, one study conducted in Russia found that an alcoholic extract containingeucalyptus leaves helps relieve chronic ear infections. Many researchers believe that the beneficialeffect of the eucalyptus tincture may have been due to its anti-inflammatory properties.Plant Description:There are many species of eucalyptus. Some are the size of an ornamental shrub, and some grow to begiant trees. The type of eucalyptus that is most often used medicinally is called blue gum or Australianfever tree. It can grow as high as 230 feet. Its 4 - 12 inch leaves are dark green and shiny. Its blue-graybark peels to reveal a cream-colored inner bark.Medicinal Uses and Indications:
  6. 6. Eucalyptus has been used traditionally to treat diabetes, and a few animal studies suggest that thisfolkloric use has scientific merit. Mice with experimentally-induced diabetes respond to aqueousextracts of eucalyptus by increasing insulin production and reducing blood sugar. These results suggestthat eucalyptus may be useful as an adjunctive treatment for diabetes. More research is needed.Today, eucalyptus is commonly used in remedies to treat coughs and the common cold. It can be foundin many lozenges, cough syrups, rubs, and vapor baths throughout the United States and Europe.Herbalists recommend the use of fresh leaves in teas and gargles to soothe sore throats and treatbronchitis and sinusitis.Ointments containing eucalyptus leaves are also applied to the nose and chest to relieve congestion.Eucalyptus oil helps loosen phlegm, so many health care providers recommend inhaling eucalyptusvapors to help treat bronchitis, coughs, and the flu.On the skin, eucalyptus oil has been used to treatarthritis, boils, sores and wounds. The oil can also be rubbed on the skin as an insect repellent.Because eucalyptus has such a sharp, pungent aroma, some aromatherapists recommend using it likesmelling salts to revive someone who has fainted. Generally, most aromatherapists suggest placing adrop or two of eucalyptus oil on a cloth and holding it under the nose of the individual who has fainted.Eucalyptus oil is also rich in cineole (a potent antiseptic that kills bacteria responsible for bad breath), sosome professional herbalists may also recommend diluted eucalyptus tinctures to treat bad breath.Whats It Made Of:Eucalyptus leaves contain tannins (which are believed to help reduce inflammation), flavonoids (such asquercetin, which has antioxidant properties), and volatile oils.Eucalyptus oil is a rich source of the antiseptic substance cineole (sometimes referred to as eucalyptol).Available Forms:Eucalyptus oil is available in many products, including liquids and ointments. The leaves of theeucalyptus plant are available fresh, dried (to be used in teas), and in liquid extracts (solution made fromherb and alcohol or herb, alcohol, and water). Commercial cough drops, syrups, vaporizer fluids,liniments, toothpastes, and mouthwashes may contain eucalyptus oil or its active ingredient, cineole.Some of the familiar over-the-counter remedies that contain eucalyptus oil include Listerine,Mentholatum Cherry Chest Rub, and Vicks VapoRub.How to Take It:PediatricChildren should not ingest eucalyptus leaves or oil. Only children older than 6 years of age should takecough drops containing eucalyptus.
  7. 7. Use of eucalyptus as steam, salve, or chest rub may be appropriate for children. The doses for theseuses are similar to those for adults (see below). Eucalyptus oil should not be applied to the face or noseof children under age 2.Adult * Eucalyptus leaf as infusion (tea): 1/4 - 1/2 teaspoonful per cup hot water, 3 times daily. Steep for 10- 15 minutes, and drink as recommended. * Eucalyptus leaf tincture (for congestion): 10 - 30 drops daily * Eucalyptol: 0.05 - 0.2 mL (1 - 2 drops per cup boiling water) daily * Eucalyptus oil (for topical application): add ½ - 1 mL (15 - 30 drops) of oil to 1/2 cup of carrier oil(sesame, almond, olive, etc.). For inhalation, add 5 - 10 drops of oil to 2 cups boiling water. Place towelover head and inhale steam.Precautions:The use of herbs is a time-honored approach to strengthening the body and treating disease. Herbs,however, contain components that can trigger side effects and that can interact with other herbs,supplements, or medications. For these reasons, herbs should be taken with care, under the supervisionof a health care provider qualified in the field of botanical medicine.Individuals with inflammation of the kidneys or gastrointestinal tract, bile duct inflammatory disease,liver disease, or low or high blood pressure should not use eucalyptus leaf extract. Tannins in the leavesmay cause stomach upset or kidney and liver damage if leaf preparations are ingested in large amounts.People with asthma should use eucalyptus oil with caution due to the herbs potential to tigger anasthma attack.Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not use eucalyptus.When used externally, eucalyptus oil is nontoxic. When taken internally, however, eucalyptus oil is toxicand must be diluted.Possible Interactions:If you are currently being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use eucalyptuswithout first talking to your health care provider. * 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) -- In an animal study, topical eucalyptus oil enhanced the absorption of topical5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a medication used to treat cancer. * Other Possible Interactions -- Eucalyptus may increase how quickly the body eliminates somemedications, including pentobarbital, a barbiturate used as an anesthetic, and amphetamine, astimulant used for narcolepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  8. 8. Alternative Names:Australian fever tree; Blue gum; Eucalyptus globulus; Red gum * Reviewed last on: 8/26/2010* A.D.A.M. Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, and David R. Eltz. Previously reviewed by and StevenD. Ehrlich, NMD, private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ.Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network (10/27/2008).3.Basic functions of the human eyeThe basic function of the human eye is to see. Other functions involving the accessory structures andsecretions of the eye prevent foreign particles from injuring the ocular organ and pathogens fromentering the body through this route.In its simplest definition, sight is the transmission of light signals through nerve endings to the brain,which interprets the signals and produces visions of what is seen. The light reaches the nerve endings bytraveling through the eye, making the brains interpretation dependent on the accuracy of the path thelight waves travel through the structures of the eye.Lights Path Through the EyeLight enters the eye first through the cornea, a thin clear sheath covering the outer, visible portion ofthe eye. There are no blood vessels in the cornea because it must remain clear for light waves to passthrough uninterrupted. Under the cornea is a cavity containing a nutrient-filled liquid, aqueous humor,which provides nutrients to the cornea and lens. The pupil is the opening that controls how much lightpasses from the cornea to the lens. The iris, the colored portion of the eye, is actually two sets of musclefibers that control the size of the pupil.The lens is the refraction system of the eye; it is located on the other side of the aqueous humor cavity.The lens also contains no blood vessels so that light can pass through unhindered. Light is refracted andfocused onto the back of the eye where the nerve endings are present; what is seen may be out of focusif the lens is misshapen or the wrong thickness, resulting in the vision disorders near-sightedness, far-sightedness, and stigmatism. The lens is adjusted by muscles called the ciliary body, which allow light tobe focused for distance and movement.Light travels from the lens through a chamber filled with vitreous humor, a semi-solid that helps the eyekeep its shape. The vitreous humor is also what holds the retina in place. The retina is the back of theinside of the eye and contains light receptors. The receptors are nerve endings with a direct link to thebrain via the optic nerve. Alterations in the vitreal pressure due to eye injuries or diabetes can affectvision and cause retinal detachment or blindness.
  9. 9. Light Receptors How Vision WorksReceptors in the eye consist of rods and cones. Rods detect light regardless of wavelength and help thebrain determine light intensity, whether it is bright or dim. Cones are only active in bright light and areparticular to red, blue, or green. Each type of cone detects a particular light wavelength. Color blindnessis a disorder that occurs when a person lacks a particular type or types of cones, allowing only bright,dim, and the remaining wavelengths to be seen.There is a blind spot at the back of the eye at the point where the optic nerve passes through the eyeballand there are no receptors. With two working eyes, the blind spot is compensated for by binocularvision. There is also a spot in the retina with the greatest concentration of cones, called the maculafovea. This specialized pit in the 5-mm wide macula is important for high visual acuity. The macula hastwo layers of ganglion cells, the nerve endings communicating with the brain via the optic nerve.Other Functions of the EyeThe eye has accessory structures. The eyelids have hairs called eyelashes that protect the eye and keepout dust and harmful debris. Scratching the cornea would prevent light from passing through properlyand hinder vision. Tear ducts, called lacrimal glands, secrete a salt solution to keep the eye from dryingout as well as a lysozyme that protects the eye from bacteria.4.HUMAN PSYCHOLOGYA small number of basic human psychology facts, tips and important things are given. These facts willhelp anyone to study psychology in greater depth and understand the vastness of the subject.1. Human psychology looks to describe, elucidate, envisage, amend and improve behaviors.The 4 main objectives of human psychology are:• To portray human behavior and thought.• To explain and give details how, why, where and when these behaviors occur.• To predict how, why, where and when these behaviors will reoccur in the future.• To modify, amend and improve behaviors to better the lives of individuals and the society as a whole.2. Human psychology has many subfields. There are various branches of human psychology. Some of themajor sub fields within human psychology are developmental psychology, industrial/organizationalpsychology, clinical psychology, social psychology, counseling psychology, cognitive psychology, andpersonality psychology.3. Psychology is all around us.
  10. 10. Unlike other academic subjects, Psychology doesn’t exist only in classroom, mental health offices andresearch labs. The principles of human psychology are visible all around us in day to day circumstances.The print media, the electronic media and even the internet world heavily depends on humanpsychology to innovate and develop marketing messages that influence, sways, manipulates andpersuade people to purchase the advertised products.4. Human psychology is the scientific study of human mind, their actions, behavior and mentalprocesses.Human psychology is the scientific study of human mind, their actions, behavior and mental processes.The term psychology comes from ‘psyche’ a Greek word which means "breath, spirit, soul" and ‘logia‘which means "study of." Human psychology surfaced from biology and philosophy and is stronglyrelated to other disciplines including linguistics, sociology, medicine, and anthropology.5. Human psychology makes use of scientific methods.Human psychology relies on scientific methods to examine questions, frame postulates, conductexperiments, verify the empirical data and arrive at conclusions. Psychologists use a range of techniquesto study the human mind, actions, mental processes and behavior, including experiments, case studies,naturalistic observation, and questionnaires.6. Human psychology studies both normal and abnormal behavior.The general myth about human psychology is that it concerns itself exclusively with the diagnosis andtreatment of abnormal behavior. Nonetheless, it is important to remember that psychology studiesnormal behavior as well.7. Psychologists take many different perspectives.Any given instance will be looked upon by the psychologists in many perspectives. Some of the majorperspectives in human psychology include the evolutionary perspective, humanistic perspective,cognitive perspective, behavioral perspective, biological perspective, etc.8. Psychology is not just about therapy.Therapy is certainly a big part of psychology; but it is not the only thing that psychologists do. Humanpsychology covers other areas including teaching, research and consulting. Psychologists work in a widevariety of settings which includes…• Government offices• Private corporations• Schools• Colleges and universities
  11. 11. • Hospitals9. Psychology offers a wide range of career options.There are vivid career paths to choose from in this field of study. It depends on an individual’seducational level and work experience. Some of the few possible options include health psychology,forensic psychology, clinical psychology and industrial-organizational psychology.10. Psychology explores both real-world and theoretical issues.Psychology is an applied and theoretical subject. Basic research includes adding information to thealready existing pool of knowledge about the human mind and behavior, while applied research focusesdirectly on solving problems and applying psychological problems to real-world situations.5.MRI scanWhat is an MRI scanMRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is a fairly new technique that has been used since the beginning ofthe 1980s.The MRI scan uses magnetic and radio waves, meaning that there is no exposure to X-rays or any otherdamaging forms of radiation.How does an MRI scanner workThe patient lies inside a large, cylinder-shaped magnet. Radio waves 10,000 to 30,000 times strongerthan the magnetic field of the earth are then sent through the body. This affects the bodys atoms,forcing the nuclei into a different position. As they move back into place they send out radio waves oftheir own. The scanner picks up these signals and a computer turns them into a picture. These picturesare based on the location and strength of the incoming signals.Our body consists mainly of water, and water contains hydrogen atoms. For this reason, the nucleus ofthe hydrogen atom is often used to create an MRI scan in the manner described above.What does an MRI scan showUsing an MRI scanner, it is possible to make pictures of almost all the tissue in the body. The tissue thathas the least hydrogen atoms (such as bones) turns out dark, while the tissue that has many hydrogenatoms (such as fatty tissue) looks much brighter. By changing the timing of the radiowave pulses it ispossible to gain information about the different types of tissues that are present.An MRI scan is also able to provide clear pictures of parts of the body that are surrounded by bonetissue, so the technique is useful when examining the brain and spinal cord.
  12. 12. Because the MRI scan gives very detailed pictures it is the best technique when it comes to findingtumours (benign or malignant abnormal growths) in the brain. If a tumour is present the scan can alsobe used to find out if it has spread into nearby brain tissue.The technique also allows us to focus on other details in the brain. For example, it makes it possible tosee the strands of abnormal tissue that occur if someone has multiple sclerosis and it is possible to seechanges occurring when there is bleeding in the brain, or find out if the brain tissue has suffered lack ofoxygen after a stroke.The MRI scan is also able to show both the heart and the large blood vessels in the surrounding tissue.This makes it possible to detect heart defects that have been building up since birth, as well as changesin the thickness of the muscles around the heart following a heart attack. The method can also be usedto examine the joints, spine and sometimes the soft parts of your body such as the liver, kidneys andspleen.How does an MRI scan differ from a CT scanWith an MRI scan it is possible to take pictures from almost every angle, whereas a CT scan only showspictures horizontally. There is no ionizing radiation (X-rays) involved in producing an MRI scan. MRI scansare generally more detailed, too. The difference between normal and abnormal tissue is often clearer onthe MRI scan than on the CT scan.How is an MRI scan performedThe scan is usually done as an outpatient procedure, which means that the patient can go home afterthe test. During the scan it is important to lie completely still. For this reason it might be necessary togive a child an anaesthetic before they are tested.Since you are exposed to a powerful magnetic field during the MRI scan, it is important not to wearjewellery or any other metal objects.It is also important for the patient to inform medical staff if they use electrical appliances, such as ahearing aid or pacemaker, or have any metal in their body such as surgical clips, butorthopaedicmetalware such as artificial hips or bone screws is not normally a problem.Is an MRI scan dangerousThere are no known dangers or side effects connected to an MRI scan. The test is not painful; youcannot feel it. Since radiation is not used, the procedure can be repeated without problems. There is asmall theoretical risk to the foetus in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, and therefore scans are notperformed on pregnant women during this time.
  13. 13. Because patients have to lie inside a large cylinder while the scans are being made some people getclaustrophobic during the test. Patients who are afraid this might happen should talk to the doctorbeforehand, who may give them some medication to help them relax.The machine also makes a banging noise while it is working, which might be unpleasant.