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San local indicators coffee vietnam august 2012

  1. 1. Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam© Sustainable Agriculture Network August 2012 Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN): Conservación y Desarrollo, Ecuador · Fundación Interamericana de Investigación Tropical, Guatemala · Fundación Natura, Colombia · ICADE, Honduras · IMAFLORA, Brazil · Nature Conservation Foundation, India · Pronatura Sur, Mexico · Rainforest Alliance · SalvaNatura, El Salvador
  2. 2. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam Copies of this document are available for free in electronic format at any Sustainable Agriculture Network member or at the following websites: If you are not able to access electronically this document, you may write to us at the following address to get hard copies at a reasonable cost-covering price: Sustainable Agriculture Network Secretariat P.O. Box 11029 1000 San José Costa Rica Please send your comments or suggestions concerning this Sustainable Agriculture Network Standards & Policy document to: Or via regular mail to: Sustainable Agriculture Network Secretariat P.O. Box 11029 1000 San José Costa RicaSAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 2
  3. 3. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam CONTENTS Introduction ____________________________________________________________ 4 The Sustainable Agriculture Network and the Rainforest Alliance ____________________ 4 The Sustainable Agriculture Network’s Mission __________________________________ 4 Standards, Criteria and Interpretation Guidelines _______________________________ 5 Objectives and Use of Interpretation Guidelines ________________________________ 5 Scope of these Interpretation Guidelines ______________________________________ 6 Geographical Scope_______________________________________________________ 6 Proceedings _____________________________________________________________ 6 Covered Aspects _________________________________________________________ 6 Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam ______________ 7 1. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ____________________ 7 2. ECOSYSTEM CONSERVATION __________________________________________ 9 4. WATER CONSERVATION _____________________________________________ 11 5. FAIR TREATMENT AND GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS FOR WORKERS ______ 13 7. COMMUNITY RELATIONS _____________________________________________ 17 8. INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT ____________________________________ 18 9. SOIL MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION ______________________________ 19 10. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT ___________________________________ 20SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 3
  4. 4. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in VietnamIntroductionThe Sustainable Agriculture Network and the Rainforest AllianceThe Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) is a coalition of independentnon-profit conservation organizations that promote the social andenvironmental sustainability of agricultural activities by developingstandards. Standard and policy development and review is coordinatedby the SAN secretariat based in San José, Costa Rica. A CertificationBody certifies farms or group administrators that comply with SAN’sstandards and policies. Certified farms or group administrators can applyfor use of the Rainforest Alliance Certified™ trademark for productsgrown on certified farms.Since 1992, more than 1,200 certificates for more than 570,000 farms - including small familyfarms of cooperatives, as well as plantations - in 39 countries have met the SAN standards onmore than 1,800,000 ha for more than 35 crops including coffee, cocoa, banana, tea,pineapple, flowers and foliage, and citrus. Other crops include aloe vera, apple, avocado,cherry, grapes, heart of palm, kiwi, macadamia, mango, pear, rubber and vanilla.The SAN has the following members: Conservación y Desarrollo (C&D), Ecuador; FundaciónInteramericana de Investigación Tropical (FIIT), Guatemala; Fundación Natura, Colombia;ICADE, Honduras; IMAFLORA, Brazil; Nature Conservation Foundation, India; PronaturaChiapas, Mexico; SalvaNatura, El Salvador; and Rainforest Alliance.The Sustainable Agriculture Network’s MissionThe Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) promotes efficient agriculture, biodiversityconservation and sustainable community development by creating social and environmentalstandards. SAN fosters best management practices across agricultural value chains byencouraging farmers to comply with SAN standards and by motivating traders and consumersto support sustainability.SAN pursues its mission by: Integrating sustainable production of crops and livestock into local and regional strategies that favor biodiversity conservation and safeguard social and environmental well-being. Raising awareness among farmers, traders, consumers and business leaders about the interdependencies among healthy ecosystems, sustainable agriculture and social responsibility. Impressing upon business leaders and consumers the importance of choosing products grown on environmentally sustainable and socially responsible farms. Stimulating dialog among environmental, social and economic groups, North and South, about the benefits of sustainable agriculture.SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 4
  5. 5. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in VietnamStandards, Criteria and Interpretation GuidelinesThe objective of the Sustainable Agriculture Standard is to provide a measure of each farm’ssocial and environmental performance and agricultural management practices. Compliance isevaluated by audits that measure the degree of the farm’s conformity to environmental, socialand agricultural practices indicated in the standard criteria.The sustainable agriculture standard consists of ten principles. Each principle is made up ofcriteria. The criteria describe good practices for social, environmental and agriculturalmanagement, and are evaluated by the certification process. It is important to emphasize thatcompliance with the standard is evaluated by comparison with the criteria, not with theinterpretation guidelines. Criteria are binding for the compliance evaluation process, whereasinterpretation guidelines are not.On the other hand, interpretation guidelines just describe how good or unacceptablemanagement practices appear, and often contain examples of both good and unacceptablesocial and environmental practices. In this way the interpretation guidelines guide the farm inits efforts to comply with the standard and may change according to the conditions of differentcountries, regions or cultures.Objectives and Use of Interpretation GuidelinesHow the Standard for Sustainable Agriculture with its criteria is interpreted and applied toparticular situations is determined by Interpretation Guidelines. Interpretation Guidelines are not binding for certification processes, but they are important for implementing good agricultural practices on farms and provide more detailed guidance during audit processes. Interpretation Guidelines interpret the binding criteria of the standard for local conditions and/or a specific crop and are developed by a local Workgroup.The development of Local Interpretation Guidelines is led by Workgroups which arecoordinated by SAN’s Secretariat and organized by the local technical partners. The balancedrepresentation of different stakeholders’ interests possibly influenced by these guidelines isassured and approved by SAN’s Board of Directors. SAN’s Secretariat coordinates the writingof local interpretation guidelines. The final version of guidelines is approved by the Secretariat.The members of Workgroups that develop Local Interpretation Guidelines have to comply withthe following requirements: Understanding and support for SAN’s mission and vision. Knowledge and experience with respect to the topics under discussion. Comprehension of the potential influence that this document can have. Balanced representation of the different points of view of interested stakeholders.These workgroups gather specific input for local interpretation guidelines, such as: Best farm management practices for ecosystem conservation in the region. Information about native trees that can be used in reforestation efforts. Local legislation regarding protection of ecosystems, riparian zones, endangered plants and animals, deforestation and reforestation. Also, information about local and regional conservation programs, protected areas, watersheds and corridors.SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 5
  6. 6. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam Information about local diseases, pests, necessary agricultural practices and other factors that can influence the economic sustainability of farms. Local labor and occupational health laws executed by the local health and labor ministries or related authorities that can orient farms to implement their social policies. Best practices for erosion prevention and waste management.Scope of these Interpretation GuidelinesGeographical ScopeThese guidelines are applicable to coffee production in Vietnam, and cover both the estate andsmallholder context.ProceedingsThe initial work group meetings on developing local interpretation guidelines for sustainablecoffee production in Vietnam took place in March and April 2010 and were based originally onthe September 2009 version of the Sustainable Agriculture Standard. Various coffeestakeholders joined and contributed to these two working group meetings. A first draft wasgenerated and sent to the SAN secretariat in June 2010. As by then the new July 2010 versionof the Sustainable Agriculture Standard was published, the need arose for another meetingconsidering the criteria changes made to the new standard version. Thus a small workshopwith stakeholders from the Community Development Center (CDC) was held in September2011 in Buon Ma Thuot. In parallel email communication with selected stakeholders and keyexperts supported the development of a second draft version of the Local InterpretationGuidelines for coffee in Vietnam. In March 2012 a final review workshop with altogether 30stakeholders was held in Buon Ma Thuot. The third draft of the local interpretation guidelineswas generated from the discussions and inputs during this March workshop. In addition, therecommendations from the Nescafe Better Farming Practices (NBFP) textbook were added tothe interpretations where relevant. The final version of the local interpretation guidelines forsustainable coffee production in Vietnam were approved by the SAN Secretariat in August2012.Covered AspectsCriteria within the following principles are subject to local interpretation in this document: Principle 1: Social and Environmental Management System Principle 2: Ecosystem Conservation Principle 4: Water Conservation Principle 5: Fair Treatment and Good Working Conditions for Workers Principle 7: Community Relations Principle 8: Integrated Crop Management Principle 9: Soil Management and Conservation Principle 10: Waste ManagementSAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 6
  7. 7. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in VietnamInterpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in VietnamThe following tables are organized by the relevant principle of the Sustainable AgricultureStandard and contain two main sections: 1. Upper cell: The relevant section of the criterion is referenced in bold letters as a textual copy of the valid version of SAN’s Sustainable Agriculture Standard. 2. Lower cells: The local interpretation guidelines that interpret the relevant binding criteria for the environmental and social conditions in Vietnam.1. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM1.6 The potential social and environmental impacts of new works or activities must be evaluated. These include the expansion of production areas, the construction or installation of new infrastructure, or major changes in production or processing systems. The evaluation must be carried out before the initiation of any changes or new work in accordance with applicable laws or, in their absence, based on technically accepted and recognized methods. Any evaluation must include procedures for monitoring and evaluating the significant impacts identified and not foreseen during the development of new works or activities.Group administrators and/or plantation management implement the below outlined steps: 1. Evaluate the impact of new works and activities upon environment and/or society, 2. Subsequently identify corrective actions and formulate them in a mitigation plan, 3. Implement the plan, supervise and monitor it, 4. Record and file all related documents and reports.Applicable national and local regulations/laws are:  Law on Environment Protection no:52/2005/QH11,  Law on Water Resources no:1998/QH,  Law on Construction Management no: 16/2003/QH11.It is always the latest version of a law/regulation certified farms refer to.1.7 The farm must have the necessary processes for follow up, measurement and analysis, including that of claims by workers or other persons or groups, to evaluate the functioning of the social and environmental management system and farm compliance with applicable laws and the standard. The results of these processes must be recorded and incorporated into the social and environmental management system through a continual improvement plan and program. The continual improvement program must include the necessary corrective actions to rectify non-compliance situations, as well as the mechanisms needed to determine if the actions are implemented and if they result in improvements or need to be adjusted to produce the desired results.Additionally, certified farms establish and implement a system of receiving and analysing claims byworkers and other persons or groups.1.8 The farm’s service providers must commit to complying with the environmental, social and labor requirements of this standard, not only while operating on the farm but also for any outside activities related to the services provided. The farm must have mechanisms for evaluating its service providers and checking that they are complying with this standard. The farm must not use the services of suppliers or contractors that do not comply with the social, labor and environmental requirements of this standard.The group administrator or farm management has to:  Make an inventory of suppliers/service providers,SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 7
  8. 8. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam  Categorize the suppliers/service providers by type of goods and services,  Make an assessment based on o Risk according to activity (low, medium, high) o Level of liability for supplies/services provided (low, medium, high) o Availability of business license (yes, no),  Select the appropriate method and frequency of assessment according to risk category and liability level. Deselect any supplier/service provider without a valid business license,  Depending on the risk and liability level, select the appropriate assessment method: in person assessment if high risk level; self-assessment questionnaire if low risk level,  Choose the most compliant provider of the options available,  Inform them of the decision of the group’s or farm’s certification programme, and the contents of the SAN standard being relevant for the supplies/services provided,  The farm management, legal owner or group administrator can ensure the providers’ compliance with local Occupational Health & Safety regulations and labour laws through a signed letter of commitment by the supplier/service provider which also states his/her compliance with the applicable SAN criteria,  Periodically carry out evaluation of service providers concerning their compliance with the SAN standard.Overall, records of the above assessments and selections are kept - as any other document - forminimum 5 years.In case of smallholders, the group administrator shall facilitate the above described selection andassessment of suppliers/service providers.Suppliers/service providers will not be audited per se against the Sustainable Agriculture Standard –thus they do not need to comply with the continuous improvement programme.1.11 The farm must annually describe its energy sources and the amount of energy used from each source for production processes, transport and domestic use within the farm limits. The farm must have an energy efficiency plan with goals and implementation activities for increased efficiency, for reducing dependency on non-renewable sources and for increasing the use of renewable energy. Where appropriate, the use of on-farm energy sources must be preferred.Certified farms initially (in their preparation for the first certification) record their energy consumptionfor farming activities, transportation and domestic use.This includes energy sources such as:  Fuel (petrol/diesel/kerosene)  Fire wood  Gas  ElectricityThe initial records build the database that will be analyzed to establish an energy efficiency plan(feeding into the continuous improvement programme). The energy efficiency plan will specifyreduction in energy consumption by:  Type of energy  Time  Amount to be savedIn case the decision is made to change energy sources to more sustainable ones, the energyefficiency plan also needs to document those changes.Subsequently, energy consumption is monitored and recorded continuously. The performance againstthe energy efficiency plan is assessed at least annually and if required adaptations are made in theenergy efficiency plan. The farm keeps all records on energy consumption for minimum 5 years.SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 8
  9. 9. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam2. ECOSYSTEM CONSERVATION2.1 Critical Criterion. All existing natural ecosystems, both aquatic and terrestrial, must be identified, protected and restored through a conservation program. The program must include the restoration of natural ecosystems or the reforestation of areas within the farm that are unsuitable for agriculture.The conservation program demonstrates its continuous improvement during the consecutive audityears. Thus the conservation programme is monitored and evaluated on a continuous basis. Anyconservation area is indicated on a farm map (next to farming areas, water bodies, housing areas,roads, and any other on farm infrastructure).2.2 Critical Criterion. From the date of application for certification onwards, the farm must not destroy any natural ecosystem. Additionally, from November 1, 2005 onwards no high value ecosystems must have been destroyed by or due to purposeful farm management activities. If any natural ecosystems have been destroyed by or due to purposeful farm management activities between November 1, 1999 and November 1, 2005, the farm must implement the following analysis and mitigations: a. Conduct an analysis of the ecosystem destruction to document the scope and ecological impact of the destruction. b. Develop a mitigation plan with advice from a competent professional that is consistent with applicable legislation and that compensates for the negative impact. c. Implement the activities of this mitigation plan, including for example the set aside of a significant percentage of the farm area for conservation purposes.A separate workshop on the interpretation of this criterion is required.The workgroup of the March 2012 workshop is suggesting to contact/involve the below stakeholdersfor a more specific interpretation of criterion 2.2:  The Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment (MONRE),  Division of management of Science-Processing- Technology, at the Department of Agriculture and Rural development (DARD),  Institute Centre for Agricultural Environment, Tay Nguyen University (ICEM).2.7 The farm must establish and maintain vegetation barriers between the crop and areas of human activity, as well as between production areas and on the edges of public or frequently traveled roads passing through or around the farm. These barriers must consist of permanent native vegetation with trees, bushes or other types of plants, in order to promote biodiversity, minimize any negative visual impacts and reduce the drift of agrochemicals, dust and other substances coming from agricultural or processing activities. The distance between the crop plants and areas of human activity as defined in Annex 1 [of the Sustainable Agriculture Standard] must be respected.This criterion is differently implemented in the smallholder vs. plantation context:Smallholders:Coffee farms in VN are 0.5 to 0.6 hectares small. Mostly smallholders and their families settle withintheir farm so that keeping a certain distance between the house and the coffee field is important. Forthis reason a life hedge is maintained between the housing area and the farming area on certifiedfarms. Additionally a buffer zone of 5 m is kept between housing area and farming area.Coffee plantations:The distances indicated in Annex 1 of the Sustainable Agriculture Standard apply.SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 9
  10. 10. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in VietnamAdditionally, the use of bio-products is encouraged since they have less negative impact on humansand the environment than conventional agrochemicals. Bio-products are also recommended by theCoffee GAP (Good Agriculture Practice). However, in every case the group administrator and/orestate management is well informed on the MSDS properties of any bio-product; especially regardingits effect on the environment as well as the requirements with respect to Personal ProtectiveEquipment (PPE).2.8 Farms with agroforestry crops located in areas where the original natural vegetative cover is forest must establish and maintain a permanent agroforestry system distributed homogenously throughout the plantations. The agroforestry system’s structure must meet the following requirements: a. The tree community on the cultivated land consists of minimum 12 native species per hectare on average. b. The tree canopy comprises at least two strata or stories. c. The overall canopy density on the cultivated land is at least 40%. Farms in areas where the original natural vegetation is not forest – such as grasslands, savannas, scrublands or shrublands - must dedicate at least 30% of the farm area for conservation or recovery of the area’s typical ecosystems. These farms must implement a plan to establish or recover natural vegetation within ten years.Currently, shade tree cover on coffee farms in Vietnam is 20 to 40%. Overall the number of shadetrees required depends on the type of species as each tree species has different shade properties.Additionally, a different altitude also requires different shade management (e.g. higher altituderequires less shade, lower altitude requires more shade). Within one certified farm, there are as manydifferent native shade tree species as possible. Certified farms do preferably have native shade treesonly. Certified farms having exotic shade trees are asked to gradually change to native shade treespecies whenever replanting becomes necessary. The change from exotic to native shade treespecies is also documented in the continuous improvement plan.Rainforest Alliance certified farms preferably use native shade tree species in their coffee farms, suchas:  Senna siamea or Cassia siamea (cây muồng đen)  Wrightia tinctoria (cây lòng mức)  Erythrina variegata (cây vông nem)  Acacia leucophloea (cây keo trang)To identify further native shade trees for coffee, trainers and producers are encouraged to make useof the below link to an agroforestry database: the website by inserting “Vietnam”, ticking the box “native” and ticking the box “shade/shelter”.Then a list with a number of trees will appear (Latin names). Please select the ones you know aresuitable for coffee.Producers, trainers and auditors need to be aware that some of the exotic shade tree speciescurrently used in Vietnam are highly invasive species and should not be grown on certified farms. E.g.Leucaena leucocephala is considered one of the 100 most invasive species according to the IUCNinvasive species black list. Farms that already have highly invasive species on their farms replacethem at their next replanting cycle with native shade trees and outline those replanting activities intheir continuous improvement plan. Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 10
  11. 11. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam4. WATER CONSERVATION4.2 All surface or underground water exploited by the farm for agricultural, domestic or processing purposes must have the respective concessions and permits from the corresponding legal or environmental authorities.The Vietnamese requirements are detailed in Law No 52 2005 on Environment Protection, Article 7,and Article 9. Chapter II. Decision No 05 /2003/QĐ-BTN-MT from the 04th of Sept. 2003 and signedby the Minister of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Vietnam. If any new legislationwould update this one, it would always be the latest version that certified farms refer to.4.3 Farms that use irrigation must employ mechanisms to precisely determine and demonstrate that the volume of water applied and the duration of the application are not excessive or wasteful. The farm must demonstrate that the water quantity and the duration of the application are based on climatic information, available soil moisture, and soil properties and characteristics. The irrigation system must be well designed and maintained so that leakage is avoided.Certified farms using irrigation have systems in place that record the water consumption. Theconsumption is recorded continuously. Certified farms demonstrate that irrigation water is usedefficiently, e.g. considering soil moisture, plant drought stress levels, water saving irrigationtechniques and avoiding leakages.Additionally the following guidance is provided in the Nescafe Better Farming Practices(NBFP) Publication: “In some countries like Vietnam and Brazil coffee irrigation is very common and a lot of water can be wasted through the use of inappropriate irrigation systems. In Brazil positive experiences with drip systems not only helped farmers reduce water usage but also the use of energy, resulting in a more economic solution.The amount of water used on the farm can relatively easy be reduced by repairing leaks. It isimportant that farmers regularly check the irrigation systems and other pipes on the farms for leaks.A good practice is to measure the amount of water used on the farm, using water measuringequipment, but simpler methods are also useful: In irrigation systems farmers can use a bucket to measure the amount of water used in one minute and multiply this for the whole irrigation period. In wet milling systems water use can be expressed per milled kilo.”4.5 Critical Criterion. The farm must not discharge or deposit industrial or domestic wastewater into natural water bodies without demonstrating that the discharged water complies with the respective legal requirements, and that the wastewater’s physical and biochemical characteristics do not degrade the receiving water body. If legal requirements do not exist, the discharged wastewater must comply with the following minimum parameters: Water Quality Parameter Value Biochemical Oxygen Demand (DBO5, 20) Less than 50 Total suspended solids mg/L pH Between 6.0 – 9.0 Grease and oils Less than 30 mg/L Fecal coliforms Absent The mixing of wastewater with uncontaminated water for discharge into the environment is prohibited.SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 11
  12. 12. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in VietnamParameters for waste water are defined by Vietnamese regulation TCVN: 5945:2005 (Standard forindustrial waste water). However, this criterion is only applicable if waste water is released into naturalwater bodies/the environment.TCVN 5945:2005 VIETNAMESE STANDARDS FOR Industrial Waste Water - Discharge Standards Table 1 Limit values of parameters and maximum allowable concentration of pollutants in industrial waste water Limit values No Parameters Unit A B C 1 Temperature oC 40 40 45 2 pH value - 6 to 9 5.5 to 9 5 to 9 3 Odour - endurable endurable - 4 Colour Co-Pt at pH=7 20 50 - 5 BOD5 (20oC) mg/l 30 50 100 6 COD mg/l 50 80 400 7 Suspended solids mg/l 50 100 200 8 Arsenic mg/l 0.05 0.1 0.5 9 Mercury mg/l 0.005 0.01 0.01 10 Lead mg/l 0,1 0,5 1 11 Cadmium mg/l 0.005 0.01 0.5 12 Chromium (VI) mg/l 0.05 0.1 0.5 13 Chromium (III) mg/l 0.2 1 2 14 Copper mg/l 2 2 5 15 Zinc mg/l 3 3 5 16 Nickel mg/l 0.2 0.5 2 17 Manganese mg/l 0.5 1 5 18 Iron mg/l 1 5 10 19 Tin mg/l 0.2 1 5 20 Cyanide mg/l 0.07 0.1 0.2 21 Total phosphorous mg/l 0,1 0,5 1 22 Mineral oil mg/l 5 5 10 23 Animal-vegetable fat and oil mg/l 10 20 30 24 Chlorine mg/l 1 2 - 25 PCBs mg/l 0.003 0.01 - 26 Pesticide: organic phosphorous mg/l 0.3 1 27 Pesticide: organic chlorine mg/l 0.1 0.1 28 Sulphide mg/l 0.2 0.5 1 29 Fluoride mg/l 5 10 15 30 Chloride mg/l 500 600 1000 31 Ammonia (as N) mg/l 5 10 15 32 Total Nitrogen mg/l 15 30 60 33 Total phosphorous mg/l 4 6 8 34 Coli form MNP/100ml 3000 5000 - 35 Bioassay 90% of fishes alive after 96 hrs in 100% waste water - 36 Gross a activity Bq/l 0.1 0.1 - 37 Gross b activity Bq/l 1 1 -SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 12
  13. 13. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam5. FAIR TREATMENT AND GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS FOR WORKERS5.3 The farm must directly hire its workforce, except when a contractor is able to provide specialized or temporary services under the same environmental, social and labor conditions required by this standard. The farm must not establish relations or contracts with third parties, form or directly participate in employee-owned companies, or use other mechanisms to avoid the direct hiring of workers and the obligations normally associated with labor contracts. Employment of foreign workers must be subject to a work permit issued by the competent government agency. The farm must not ask for money from workers in return for employment.5.4 The farm must have payment policies and procedures that guarantee the complete payment of workers on the dates agreed upon in the labor contract. Payment must take place at the workplace, or by another arrangement agreed upon by the worker. The farm must provide the worker with a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the salary paid and of any deductions made, allowing the worker to appeal in the case of perceived discrepancies. Farms with ten or more full or part-time permanent employees must maintain an up-to-date written payroll and job description for each employee with the following information, which employees must have access to: a. Worker’s name, national identity card number, and position. b. Job description and assigned salary. c. Minimum salary established by the government according to the type of activity. d. Weekly working hours established by applicable laws for the type of activity, and a comparison with the number of hours assigned each worker. e. Job requirements, for example, training or special skills. f. Payment dates. g. Gross pay for normal hours. h. Gross pay for overtime. i. Total pay: normal and overtime. j. Legal deductions and other deductions agreed upon by the worker. k. Net pay.The Vietnamese legislation requires written contracts only if workers are employed for more thanthree months. For workers less than three months a verbal contract is sufficient.Thus certified smallholder farms comply with this criterion if they record the name of the workersemployed and have it signed by the worker representative (Refer to Labour Law of Vietnam Article28, chapter 8).However, in case a certified farm employs more than ten workers, an up to date payroll with jobdescription and the information outlined in a – k of criterion 5.4 is kept.SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 13
  14. 14. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam5.14 Housing provided by the farm for permanent or temporary workers living there must be well-designed, built and maintained to foster good hygienic, health and safety conditions. Living quarters must be separated from production areas. The farm must seek alternatives for relocating housing or camps that are currently within production areas. Workers and their families living on the farm must have access to recreation areas according to the composition of inhabitants. The design, size and construction of dormitories, barracks and other housing, type and quantity of furniture, and number and location of sanitary facilities, showers, and washing and cooking areas must comply with applicable laws. In absence of applicable laws the following elements and characteristics apply: a. The dormitories must be constructed with wooden floors above the ground or floors made from asphalt or concrete, roofs in good condition without leaks, and with appropriate ventilation and lighting. b. The ceiling must not be lower than 2.5 meters at any point. c. Five square meters of space per person in sleeping areas. d. Heating for cold climates. e. Bed, hammock or other dignified infrastructure for sleeping according to the workers’ cultural needs, at least 20 centimetres above the ground. The space in between bunk beds is greater than or equal to 120 centimetres and 90 centimetres between each bed. f. Basic furniture for storing personal belongings. g. The sanitary facilities must comply with the following characteristics: one toilet for every 15 persons; one urinal for every 25 men; sufficient supply of toilet paper; a minimum distance of 30 meters from dormitories, eating areas and kitchens; one washbasin for every six persons, or per family. h. One shower per ten persons, separated by gender. i. One large laundry sink for every 30 persons. j. In the absence of a kitchen service (kitchen and dining hall provided by the farm), there must be installations outside the living areas for preparing and eating food and for washing kitchen utensils. There must be one cooking installation per 10 persons or for every two families.Worker housing on certified farms complies with the below requirements: a. Floor made of compacted soil or concreted cement, b. Non leaking roof, c. The height of the ceiling must not be lower than 1.8m (exceptions may be made in the case of traditional housing provided by certain ethnic groups), d. Safe and hygienic housing areas (power installations, sanitary facilities, water supply), e. Good ventilation, f. Sufficient lightning through windows and electric lamps, g. 3 square metres of space per person in the case of smallholders; 5 square metres of space per person in case of larger farms/plantations, h. Thicker blankets are provided in cold climate/winter time, i. Distance of bed or hammock to the soil is 10cm, j. Provision of basic furniture for the storage of personal belongings, k. Kitchen with a good ventilation/chimney system.SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 14
  15. 15. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam5.15 All workers of the farm and persons living on the farm must have access to potable water. Sufficient supply of potable water must be provided to all workers and must be available at the work site. The farm must be able to demonstrate that the water provided complies with the physical and chemical parameters and other characteristics established in applicable laws or in their absence, with the following critical parameters defined by the World Health Organization (WHO): Parameter Value Fecal Coliforms Zero Chlorine residue or residue from other treatment 0.2 to 0.5 mg/L disinfectants Nitrates 10 mg/L as nitrates pH 6.5 to 8.5 Sodium 20 mg/L Sulphates 250 mg/L Turbidity Less than or equal to 5 NTU Non-family farms that obtain water from their own sources - water not supplied by aqueducts managed by other entities - must have a periodic drinking water monitoring and analysis program that includes: a. Identification of water sources on a map and on the farm. b. Policies and procedures for guaranteeing the protection of water sources. c. Sampling procedures and sampling locations and frequency. d. Analyses conducted by a legally recognized laboratory (certified or authorized). e. A record of the results for the last three years or since the certification process was initiated. Additional analysis may be requested in order to ensure quality when evidence of direct or indirect contamination (such as erosion) of surface or underground water exists.According to Decision No 09/2005/QĐ – BYT; 5b, the below table details the requirements fordrinking water in Vietnam.Table : Decision No 09/2005/QĐ – BYT; 5b: No. Items Unit Maximum limit Test methods Level check(*) I. Observational and inorganic components A Colors TCU 15 TCVN 6187 -1996 I (ISO 7887 -1985) 2 Flavor No odor Appearance I 3 Turbidity NTU 5 TCVN 6184 -1996 I 4 pH 6.0-8.5 (**) TCVN 6194 - 1996 I 5 Hardness mg / l 350 TCVN 6224 -1996 I 6 Ammonium (as mg / l 3 TCVN 5988 -1995 I + NH 4 ) (ISO 5664 -1984) - 7 Nitrate (as NO 3 ) mg / l 50 TCVN 6180 -1996 I (ISO 7890 -1988) - 8 Nitrite (as NO 2 ) mg / l 3 TCVN 6178 -1996 I (ISO 6777 -1984) 9 Chloride mg / l 300 TCVN 6194 -1996 I (ISO 9297 -1989) 10 Arsenic mg / l 12:05 TCVN 6182-1996 (ISO I 6595-1982)SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 15
  16. 16. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam 11 Iron mg / l 0.5 TCVN 6177 -1996 I (ISO 6332 -1988) 12 The oxygen of the mg / l 4 Conventional I KMn0 4 techniques of the Institute of Labor Medicine and Environmental Hygiene 13 Total dissolved solids mg / l 1200 TCVN 6053 -1995 II (TDS) (ISO 9696 -1992) 14 Copper, Cu, 29 mg / l 2 TCVN 6193-1996 (ISO II 8288 -1986) 15 Cyanide mg / l 12:07 TCVN 6181 -1996 II (ISO 6703 -1984) 16 Fluoride mg / l 1.5 TCVN 6195-1996 (ISO II 10 359 -1992) 17 Lead mg / l 12:01 TCVN 6193 -1996 II (ISO 8286 -1986) 18 Manganese mg / l 0.5 TCVN 6002 -1995 II (ISO 6333 -1986) 19 Mercury mg / l 0001 TCVN 5991 -1995 II (ISO 5666/1 -1983 ISO5666/3 - 1989) 5666/1 - 1983 5666/ 3 -1989 20 Zinc mg / l 3 TCVN 6193 -1996 II (ISO 8288 -1989) II. Microbiology 21 Total coliform bacteria / 50 TCVN 6187 - 1996 I 100 ml (ISO 9308 - 1990) 22 E. coli or Coliform bacteria / 0 TCVN 6187 - 1996 I Heat 100 ml (ISO 9308 -1990)SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 16
  17. 17. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam7. COMMUNITY RELATIONS7.6 The farm must have a legitimate right to land use and tenure, demonstrated by presenting the appropriate official documentation. If there is no such documentation the farm must show either: a. The absence of significant disputes on land use, tenure and access, or; b. The consent of local communities, regarding the land, natural and agricultural resources.Farms have the land-use ownership certificate (Red Book). In case farms do not have this certificate,they have the land use permission by the local authority.SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 17
  18. 18. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam8. INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT8.4 Critical Criterion. The following chemical or biological substances cannot be used on certified farms: a. Biological or organic substances that are not legally registered in the country for commercial use. b. Agrochemicals that are not registered officially in the country. c. Agrochemicals that are mentioned in the List of Banned and Severely Restricted Pesticides in the U.S. by its Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or pesticides banned or severely restricted in the European Union. d. Substances that have been banned globally under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). e. Substances listed in Annex III of the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), in relation to national bans or severe restrictions for documented health or environmental reasons in at least two regions of the World. f. All Pesticide Action Network Dirty Dozen substances. List of Prohibited Pesticides – Sustainable Agriculture Network is binding for the inserts 8.4.c, 8.4.d, 8.4.e and 8.4.f of this criterion.In addition to the above, certified farms must not use any of the agrochemicals listed in the SAN Listof prohibited pesticides November 2011 and the Vietnamese list of prohibited pesticides by theDepartment of Plant Protection from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development/ MARD. Bothlists are complementary to each other.If any of the lists is updated it will always be the latest version producers of certified farms refer to.8.9 The use of fire for pest and disease management must only be used if it is the option of less environmental impact in comparison with other pest control measures. This option must be approved by competent authorities, must reflect technical considerations and focus on problematic areas only.Certified farms do not use fire to control coffee borer outbreak.Certified farms prevent the outbreak of coffee borer by: Cleaning harvested coffee farms from dropped fruit on the ground and dried fruit on the tree, The moisture level of stored coffee (dried cherries or green beans) is kept < 13% level.For more information visit the below websites. Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 18
  19. 19. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam9. SOIL MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION9.2 The farm must have a soil or crop fertilization program based on soil characteristics and properties, periodic soil or foliage sampling and analysis, and advice from a competent and impartial professional or authority. The number of soil or foliage samples must correspond with the size of the production area, types of soil, and variations in its properties, as well as results of previous analyses. The producer must keep the results of these analyses on the farm for a two-year period. Organic and non- organic fertilizers must be applied so as to avoid any potential negative impacts on the environment. The farm must give priority to organic fertilization using residues generated by the farm.The farm conducts the soil or foliage sampling in preparation for certification. Resultingrecommendations for improved soil fertility management are then incorporated into its integrated cropmanagement plan. Thereafter larger farms conduct soil sampling minimum every two years to monitorthe successes of soil fertility management and make adaption in their fertilisation plan if needed.Smallholders can opt for combined soil samples by collecting up to 10 samples from homogenousfarms within the same area (homogenous by similar soil characteristics, age of coffee trees, andcropping systems).Farms consider the below recommendations from the NBFP guide:“The first step in an effective and efficient fertilization program to enhance soil fertility is to base anyapplication of organic and/or chemical fertilizer on a soil analysis. The soil or foliar analysis should beinterpreted by an expert.An important function of the soil analysis is to correct for unbalances, such as acidity. After correctingfor acidity through the application of lime, the nutrients in fertilizers can be absorbed in moreeffectively, especially phosphorus that would otherwise be fixed by Fe, Mn or Al in insoluble forms.Take into account that investments in fertilizers are much more effective after liming. Moreover,applying organic and chemical fertilizers in a combined and precise mode might reduce costs and/orincrease productivity.When soil samples are taken, it is important to take the following recommendations into account, toensure that the sample represents the soil of the entire farm or at least the sampled part, and toensure that the sample is not contaminated:  Take samples from various spots on the farm  Remove surface litter and dig a hole up to 22.5 cm deep.  Break up the soil and mix well to make a composite soil sample of 1 kg.Do not take samples from recently fertilized areas, roadsides, ditches, marshy patches, near treesand non-representative areas.”SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 19
  20. 20. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam10. INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT10.1 The farm must have an integrated waste management program for the waste products it generates. This must be based on the concepts of refusing or reducing the use of products that have actual or potential negative impacts on the environment or human health as well as reusing and recycling waste. As part of this program, the sources and types of waste must be identified and the quantity (weight or volume) must be estimated. The activities of the integrated waste management program must be in accordance with the types and quantities of waste generated.Heavy metal waste (e.g. batteries) is disposed separately into a nylon bag. Those nylon bags aresealed and labelled before being collected by the public waste collection system.Waste that is not collected by public waste collection services (e.g. batteries domestically used intorches or radios) is buried underground on the farms if no safer recycling system is available. Thosebury sites are in a far distance to any water source and body. Caution sign boards are established atthe bury area and the distances as defined in the Annex 1 of the Sustainable Agriculture Standardare respected.Additionally producers of certified farms refer to Decision No. 155/1999/QD-TTG of July 16, 1999promulgating the Regulation on Management of HAZARDOUS WASTES.Also consider the below recommendations from the NBFP guide:“The first important step is to make sure waste is collected. Raising awareness about the importanceof waste management is an important first step in implementing this practice.Farmers can put bags or buckets in different places on the farm; this is especially important during theharvest when pickers are spending long days on the farm. In order to make waste collection aseffective as possible, the farm family could remind pickers every morning to make use of the bags andwalk around during the day to remind them about the collection. Once the waste is collected it can beseparated into different bins. People can also immediately separate their wastes in and around thestorage areas where separate waste bins are available.Expensive separation systems are not required and the use of locally available materials should bepromoted. The following waste types can be separated: 1. Kitchen waste (organic) 2. Plastic 3. Paper 4. Metals 5. Empty chemical containers 6. Crop residues (organic) 7. Fertilizer bags 8. Other hazardous waste (e.g. empty batteries)When handling inorganic matter over to persons and companies, it is important to make sure that:  They are not dumping it into the environment.  They are not incinerating wastes illegally.  They are not reusing chemical containers for other purposes.SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 20
  21. 21. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam  Receipts are kept.Organic waste becomes fertilizer when it is composted. There are different ways of composting:  Normal composting without special treatment. The place where the composting is done should not be too close to the house for hygienic reasons and it should have a roof to prevent leaching.  Small amounts of lime (3%), ash (5%) and manure (20%) can be added to improve the quality of the compost and the decomposition process.  Turn and mix the pulp every two weeks.  Efficient Microorganisms (EM) can also be added. These are naturally occurring beneficial microorganisms including phototrophic bacteria, yeast, lactic acid bacteria and fermentation yeast. The benefits of EM include accelerating the fermentation process, reduced odors and flies, increased humus content and better nutrient balance of the compost.  Another frequently used method is vermicompost. Worms are added to accelerate decomposition and improve the quality of the organic matter.  The digested material contains much more nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium than the original material. Normally the California red earthworm (Eisensis foetida) is chosen for its ability to easily adapt to the environment, breed and tolerate changes.The use of open waste dumps and open-air burning of waste are considered to be bad practices.In the design of final or semi-permanent waste disposal areas on the farm, the following measurescan be taken to reduce the risks of environmental contamination and harm to human health:  A roof over the disposal area to prevent leaching from rain water.  A fence around the disposal area for safety.  Cover deposits with soil after pits are filled.Do not deposit toxic wastes such as agrochemical containers and batteries in the disposal areas onthe farm.The burning of waste products is only allowed in an incinerator designed for that purpose, based ontechnical studies. Wastes emit toxic fumes when burned.You can use an incinerator only with:Technical studies to prove no contamination.An appropriate location.Legal permits.”SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 21
  22. 22. SAN Local Interpretation Guidelines for Sustainable Coffee Production in Vietnam10.6 The farm must implement practices to diminish its emissions of greenhouse gases and increase carbon dioxide sequestration. Such practices include soil cover management, planting trees and other perennial vegetation, proper sourcing and management of fertilizers and fuels, management of effluent ponds and manure, proper waste management, use of clean technologies, improvement of energy efficiency, reduction in tillage, and participation in local or regional initiatives aimed at greenhouse gas reduction and carbon dioxide sequestration.To limit greenhouse gases, certified farms: - Don’t burn waste openly, - Limit the use of artificial fertilizers, especially urea; - Prefer organic fertilizers, - Plant native cover crops, - Plant native shade trees, - Minimize open air anaerobic decomposition of waste water; reduce the methane emission of waste water into the atmosphere, - Increase the use of renewable energy sources vs. non-renewable sources.Also consider the below recommendations from the NBFP guide:“Inadequate waste management can be an important source of greenhouse gas production:Gases escape when wastes are burned; this can be prevented by not burning. Organic gases escapeduring composting. These can be reduced by the application of lime, EM and carbon-containingmaterials such as straw to fix nitrogen and lower the production of volatile nitrogen oxides (NOx).Wastewater from coffee de-pulping contains high levels of methane (CH4), which is formed in natureby the bacterial decomposition of organic matter under water.The production of biogas reduces the emission of gases into the atmosphere, because the digestion isanaerobic, meaning that oxygen is absent. Anaerobic digestion is widely used as a source ofrenewable energy. The process produces a biogas consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. Thisbiogas is captured and can be used directly as cooking fuel or in combined heat and power gasengines”.SAN Local Indicators Coffee Vietnam August 2012.docx 22