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71                                                DAF Xem: DNA amplification                                              ...
ddNTP                                                                                   72synthesis since it is a direct p...
dehiscence                                                                              73dehiscence The spontaneous and o...
dendrimer                                                                               74concentration of a denaturing ch...
desiccant                                                                               75desiccant Any compound used to r...
diakinesis                                                                              76pairing configurations are well ...
differential display                                                                     77xuèng, nh- ribosom.            ...
dimethyl sulphoxide                                                                     78dimethyl sulphoxide (Abbreviatio...
directed mutagenesis                                                                   79of minisatellites. To target thes...
disease-indexing                                                                        80s¹ch bÖnh Thùc vËt hoÆc ®éng vËt...
ditype                                                                                   81cÇu disunphit Mét liªn kÕt hãa ...
DNA fingerprint                                                                        82chÈn ®o¸n DNA Sö dông tÝnh ®a h×n...
DNA replication                                                                          83bæ sung) xÊy ra tù nhiªn trong ...
dominance                                                                                   84be as small as a few amino a...
dosage compensation                                                                  85khi nhiÒu c©y l©u n¨m tån t¹i nh- t...
downstream                                                                                  86®iÒu chØnh xuèng Lμm gi¶m mø...
dual culture                                                                           87triphosphate. Required for DNA sy...
88                                               ectopic Anomalous situation or relation,                                 ...
EGS                                                                                     89trøng 1. Hîp tö ®-îc thô tinh cñ...
elite tree                                                                              90sample is added; all the antigen...
embryo sexing                                                                             91embryo sexing The determinatio...
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
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Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2
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Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2

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Tieng anh sinh hoc, tieng anh chuyen nghanh, tu dien sinh hoc, tu dien tieng anh sinh hoc

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Transcript of "Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 2"

  1. 1. 71 DAF Xem: DNA amplification fingerprinting. Dalton (Abbreviation: Da). A unit of atomic mass roughly equivalent to the mass of a Dd hydrogen atom. Used as to express molecular weight, which for biological macromolecules is usually in the range kilo- (kDa) to megaDaltons (MDa). Dalton (viÕt t¾t: Da) §¬n vÞ khèi l-îngD loop Abbreviation for displacement loop. nguyªn tö kho¶ng xÊp xØ víi khèi l-îng cñaFormed when a short stretch of RNA is nguyªn tö hy-®r«. Dïng ®Ó biÓu thÞ trängpaired with one strand of DNA. This l-îng ph©n tö, cho ®¹i ph©n tö sinh vËtdisplaces the original partner DNA; also th-êng trong ph¹m vi Kil«- (KDa) ®Õnthe displacement of a region of one strand megaDaltons (MDa). nnof duplex DNA by a single-stranded DAMD Xem: directed amplification ofinvader in the reaction catalyzed by recA. minisatellite DNA. ..v vvßng D viÕt t¾t cña: displacement loop. Darwinian cloning Selection of a cloneH×nh thμnh khi mét ®o¹n ng¾n RNA ®-îc from a large number of essentially random ch chcÆp ®«i víi mét sîi cña DNA. Nã chiÕm starting points, rather than isolating achç DNA gÇn gèc; cßn thuyªn chuyÓn vïng natural gene or making a carefully sa sacña sîi DNA xo¾n kÐp do sù to¶ sîi ®¬n designed artificial one. Molecules whichtrong ph¶n øng thuû ph©n bëi recA. are more similar to those needed are chchdA - dT tailing ®u«i dA - dT xem selected, mutated to generate newcomplementary homopolymeric tailing. variants, and re-selected. The cycle iidAb (Full term: single domain antibody). proceeds until the required molecule is ..d dAntibodies with only one (instead of two) found. The advantage of the system is thatprotein chain derived from only one of the the selection is from a vast number oftwo domains of the normal antibody possibilities. w wstructure. Exploits the finding that for some nh©n dßng theo Darwin Chän läc dßngantibodies, half of the molecule binds to v« tÝnh tõ sè lín ®iÓm ban ®Çu ngÉu nhiªnits target antigen almost as well as the cã thùc, thay v× ph©n lËp gen tù nhiªn hoÆc w wwhole molecule. The major advantage of t¹o mét lo¹t gen nh©n t¹o ®-îc thiÕt kÕdAbs over other antibodies is that they can cÈn thËn. Nh÷ng ph©n tö rÊt gièng víiwwbe cloned and expressed into bacteria, so chóng cÇn thiÕt ®-îc lùa chän, ®ét biÕnthat large numbers of antibodies can be ®Ó t¹o ra nh÷ng lo¹i h×nh míi, vμ chän läcgenerated and screened in parallel. l¹i. Chu tr×nh tiÕp tôc cho ®Õn khi t×m ®-îckh¸ng thÓ miÒn ®¬n (thuËt ng÷ viÕt ®Çy ph©n tö cÇn thiÕt. Lîi thÕ cña hÖ thèng nμy®ñ: single domain antibody). Kh¸ng thÓ chØ chÝnh lμ chän läc tõ nhiÒu kh¶ n¨ng.cã mét duy nhÊt (thay v× hai) chuçi protein dATP Abbreviation for deoxyadenosine 5-b¾t nguån chØ tõ mét trong hai miÒn cÊu triphosphate. dATP is required for DNAtróc kh¸ng thÓ b×nh th-êng. Khai th¸c t×m synthesis since it is a direct precursorkiÕm mét sè kh¸ng thÓ, nöa ph©n tö liªn molecule. See: adenosine, adenylic acid.kÕt víi kh¸ng nguyªn ®Ých hÇu nh- gièng dATP viÕt t¾t cña deoxyadenosine 5-toμn bé ph©n tö. Lîi thÕ chÝnh cña dAb so triphosphate. dATP cÇn thiÕt ®Ó tæng hîpvíi c¸c kh¸ng thÓ kh¸c lμ chóng cã thÓ DNA v× nã lμ mét ph©n tö tiÒn chÊt trùc®-îc t¹o dßng vμ biÓu thÞ trong nhiÒu vi tiÕp. Xem: adenosine, adenylic acid.khuÈn, do vËy mét sè l-îng lín kh¸ng thÓ dCTP Abbreviation for deoxycytidine 5-cã thÓ ®-îc ph¸t sinh vμ ®-îc hiÓn thÞ ®ång triphosphate. dCTP is required for DNAthêi.
  2. 2. ddNTP 72synthesis since it is a direct precursor nã, kh«ng cã kh¶ n¨ng phôc håi khi nhiÔmmolecule. See: cytidine, cytidylic acid. bÖnh tÕ bμo vËt chñ, nh-ng nã cã thÓ sinhdCTP ViÕt t¾t cña: deoxycytidin 5- tr-ëng khi cã mÆt virut kh¸c. Virut nμy cungtriphosphat. dCTP cÇn thiÕt ®Ó tæng hîp cÊp mét bé m¸y ph©n tö cÇn thiÕt mμ chÝnhDNA v× nã lμ mét ph©n tö tiÒn chÊt trùc virut ®Çu thiÕu.tiÕp. xem: cytidine, cytidylic acid. deficiency Lack of adequate supply ofddNTP ViÕt t¾t cña: di-deoxynucleotide. nutritional, enzymatic, or environmental requirements, so that development, growthdeath phase The final growth phase of or physiological functions are affected.cell culture, during which nutrients havebeen depleted and cell number ®o¹n khuyÕt Sù thiÕu hôt cung cÊp kh«ngdecreases. ®ñ chÊt dinh d-ìng, enzim, hoÆc c¸c yªu cÇu vÒ m«i tr-êng, v× thÕ sù ph¸t triÓn, sinhpha chÕt Pha sinh tr-ëng kÕt thóc nu«i tr-ëng hoÆc c¸c chøc n¨ng sinh lý bÞ ¶nhcÊy tÕ bμo, qu¸ tr×nh mμ chÊt dinh d-ìng h-ëng.®-îc rót hÕt vμ gi¶m sè l-îng tÕ bμo. nn defined 1. Fixed conditions of medium,deceleration phase The phase of environment and protocol for growth. 2. ..v vdeclining growth rate, following the linear Precisely known and stated elements of aphase and preceding the stationary tissue culture medium. ch chphase in most batch-suspension cultures.See: growth phase. x¸c ®Þnh 1. C¸c ®iÒu kiÖn cè ®Þnh dung dÞch, m«i tr-êng vμ c¸ch thøc ®Ó sinh sa sapha chËm Pha tèc ®é t¨ng tr-ëng gi¶m tr-ëng. 2. C¸c phÇn tö cña dung dÞch cÊydÇn, tiÕp theo pha tuyÕn tÝnh vμ tr-íc pha m« nªu ra vμ ®-îc biÕt chÝnh x¸c.tÜnh trong hÇu hÕt c¸c nu«i cÊy l« huyÒn chchphï. Xem: growth phase. degeneracy The specification of one amino acid by more than one codon. It iide-differentiation The process, in arises from the inevitable redundancyresponse to wounding and in tissue ..d d resulting from the 64 possible codonscultures, by which plant cells can become encoding only 20 amino acids.unspecialized and start to proliferate bycell division to form a mass of tho¸i hãa §Æc ®iÓm cña mét amino axit w wundifferentiated cells (or callus) which, do cã h¬n mét bé ba. Nã xuÊt hiÖn tõ d-in response to appropriate stimuli, may thõa kh«ng tr¸nh khái b¾t nguån tõ 64 w wlater differentiate again to form either the co®on cã kh¶ n¨ng m· hãa chØ 20 aminosame cell type or a different one. axit.wwV« biÖt ho¸ Qu¸ tr×nh, trong ph¶n øng degeneration 1. Changes in cells, tissuesvíi sù tæn th-¬ng vμ trong c¸c nu«i cÊy or organs due to disease. 2. The reductionm«, do ®ã tÕ bμo thùc vËt cã thÓ kh«ng in size or complete loss of organs duringchuyªn biÖt vμ b¾t ®Çu t¨ng nhanh do ph©n evolution.chia tÕ bμo ®Ó h×nh thμnh mét khèi l-îng sù tho¸i hãa 1. Nh÷ng thay ®æi trong tÕtÕ bμo ch-a ph©n hãa (hoÆc m« sÑo) ®Ó, bμo, m« hoÆc c¬ quan do bÖnh. 2. Sù gi¶mtrong ph¶n øng cã sù thóc ®Èy thÝch hîp, kÝch th-íc hoÆc thiÕu hoμn thiÖn c¸c c¬cã thÓ biÖt ho¸ chËm lÇn n÷a ®Ó h×nh thμnh quan trong qu¸ tr×nh tiÕn hãa.mét lo¹t tÕ bμo gièng hoÆc kh¸c nhau. dehalogenation The removal of halogendefective virus A virus that, by itself, is atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine)unable to reproduce when infecting its from molecules, for example duringhost cell, but that can grow in the presence biodegradation.of another virus. This other virus provides khö halogen ViÖc lo¹i bá nguyªn töthe necessary molecular machinery that halogen (Flo, clo, br«m, Iot) trong ph©n tö,the first virus lacks. vÝ dô trong qu¸ tr×nh ph©n r· sinh häc.virut cã sai sãt Mét virut mμ, do chÝnh
  3. 3. dehiscence 73dehiscence The spontaneous and often especially water. Removal methodsviolent opening of a fruit, seed pod or include distillation, electrodialysis and ionanther to release and disperse the seeds exchange. See: de-ionized water.or pollen. khö kho¸ng Lo¹i bá dung l-îng chÊtnøt nÎ Lùc më tù ®éng vμ th«ng th-êng kho¸ng (muèi, ion) tõ m«i tr-êng, ®Æc biÖtcña qu¶, vá h¹t hoÆc nhôy hoa ®Ó gi¶i lμ n-íc. C¸c ph-¬ng ph¸p lo¹i bá gåm cãphãng vμ ph¸t t¸n h¹t hoÆc phÊn hoa. ch-ng cÊt, ®iÖn ph©n vμ trao ®æi ion. xem:dehydrogenase An enzyme that de-ionized water.catalyses the removal of hydrogen atoms denature To disrupt the normal in vivoin biological reactions. conformation of a nucleic acid or (moreEnzim xóc t¸c viÖc lo¹i bá nguyªn tö hy- usually) a protein by physical or chemical®r« trong ph¶n øng sinh häc. means, usually accompanied by the loss of activity. See: denatured DNA,ehydrogenation A chemical reaction in denatured protein.which hydrogen is removed from a nncompound. biÕn tÝnh Ph¸ vì h×nh d¸ng axit nucleic hoÆc (phæ biÕn h¬n) mét protein b×nh ..v vsù khö hy-®r« Ph¶n øng hãa häc trong th-êng trong c¬ thÓ b»ng ph-¬ng ph¸p vËt®ã hy-®r« ®-îc lo¹i khái hîp chÊt. lý hoÆc hãa häc, th-êng kÌm theo mÊt ho¹t ch chde-ionized water Water from which most ®éng. Xem: denatured DNA, denaturedsalts have been removed - with varying protein. sa sadegrees of efficiency - by ion exchange. denatured DNA Double-stranded DNAn-íc khö ion N-íc ®-îc lo¹i khái hÇu hÕt that has been converted to single strandsc¸c muèi – lμm thay ®æi møc ¶nh h-ëng- chch by breaking the hydrogen bonds linkingdo trao ®æi ion. complementary nucleotide pairs. Often iideletion A mutation involving the removal reversible. Usually achieved by heating. ..d dof one or more base pairs in a DNA DNA biÕn tÝnh DNA sîi kÐp ®· ®-îcsequence. Large deletions are sometimes chuyÓn ®æi sang sîi ®¬n do ph©n gi¶i liªnmicroscopically visible in karyotype kÕt hydro nèi víi cÆp nuleotit bæ sung. Lu«n w wanalyses. cã thÓ ®¶o ng-îc. Th-êng ®¹t ®-îc b»ng®øt ®o¹n, thiÕu hôt §ét biÕn kÐo theo thiÕt bÞ lμm nãng.lo¹i bá mét hoÆc nhiÒu cÆp ba z¬ trong w w denatured protein Altering the in vivotr×nh tù DNA. Sù thiÕu hôt lín thØnh tho¶ng conformation of a protein by heat or saltcã thÓ quan s¸t ®-îc b»ng kÝnh hiÓn khi treatment, thereby destroying its biologicalwwph©n tÝch kiÓu nh©n. activity. Unlike denatured DNA, denatureddeliberate release In a biotechnology proteins are seldom able to be renatured.context, the intentional release of protein biÕn tÝnh Thay ®æi h×nh d¸nggenetically modified organisms. protein trong c¬ thÓ b»ng thiÕt bÞ lμm nãngphiªn b¶n chñ ®Þnh Trong ph¹m vi c«ng hoÆc -íp muèi, do ®ã ph¸ hñy ho¹t tÝnhnghÖ sinh häc, phiªn b¶n ®Þnh tr-íc cña sinh häc. Kh«ng gièng nh- DNA ®-îc biÕnsinh vËt biÕn ®æi di truyÒn. tÝnh, c¸c protein biÕn tÝnh Ýt khi cã kh¶ n¨ngdelta endotoxins néi ®éc tè xem:: cry håi phôc.proteins. denaturing gradient gel electrophoresisdeme A group of organisms in the same (Abbreviation: DGGE).taxon. An electrophoresis method for separatingnhãm Nhãm sinh vËt trong cïng ®¬n vÞ similar sized DNA fragments on the basisph©n lo¹i. of their sequence, by applying across the gel a gradient of increasingly denaturingdemineralize To remove the mineral conditions (usually by increasing thecontent (salts, ions) from a substance,
  4. 4. dendrimer 74concentration of a denaturing chemical, process of centrifugation itself (as in CsClsuch as formamide or urea). As the double- and Cs2SO4 density gradients).stranded molecules denature into a ly t©m gradient mËt ®é Ly t©m siªu tècpartially and eventually a fully single- trong ®ã c¸c ph©n tö ®-îc ph©n t¸ch trªnstranded state, their electrophoretic c¬ së mËt ®é kh¸c nhau cã sö dôngmobility changes. gradient nång ®é clo-rua can xi hoÆc chÊt®iÖn di gel møc ®é biÕn tÝnh (viÕt t¾t: ®-êng. Gradient mËt ®é nμy cã thÓ h×nhDGGE). Ph-¬ng ph¸p ®iÖn di ®Ó ph©n ra thμnh tr-íc ly t©m nhê trén hai dung dÞchc¸c ®o¹n DNA kÝch th-íc t-¬ng ®-¬ng dùa mËt ®é kh¸c nhau (nh- trong gradient mËtvμo tr×nh tù cña chóng, b»ng ¸p dông ®é chÊt ®-êng) hoÆc còng cã thÓ h×nhchuyÓn qua chÊt gel mét møc ®é c¸c ®iÒu thμnh do qu¸ tr×nh cña b¶n th©n hiÖn t-îngkiÖn lμm biÕn tÝnh gia t¨ng (th-êng do t¨ng ly t©m (nh- trong CsCl vμ c¸c gradient mËtthªm nång ®é chÊt ho¸ häc biÕn tÝnh, nh- ®é Cs2SO4).lμ formamit hoÆc u-rª). Khi c¸c ph©n tö sîi deoxyadenosine xem: adenosin, dATP.kÐp biÕn tÝnh thμnh tõng phÇn vμ cuèi cïng nn deoxycytidine xem: cytidine, dCTP.thμnh mét tr¹ng th¸i sîi ®¬n hoμn toμn, ..v vtÝnh dÔ biÕn ®æi ®iÖn di thay ®æi. deoxyguanosine xem: guanosine, dGTP.dendrimer A polymer that repeatedly ch chbranches until stopped by the physical deoxyribonuclease xem: DNase.constraint of having formed a complete, deoxyribonucleic acid xem: DNA. sa sahollow sphere. These structures possess deoxyribonucleoside xem: nucleoside.sites on their exterior surface to which DNA deoxyribonucleotide xem: nucleotide.fragments can be attached, and are thus chchuseful as carriers of DNA for transgenesis. deoxyribose (2-deoxyribose) xem: ribose. iidendrime Mét p«lime ph©n nh¸nh lÆpnhiÒu lÇn cho ®Õn khi dõng do rμng buéc deoxythymidine Strictly correct but rarely ..d dvËt lý ®· h×nh thμnh mét h×nh cÇu trän vÑn, used synonym for thymidine.rçng. C¸c cÊu tróc nμy chiÕm vÞ trÝ phÝa deoxythymidin Tõ ®ång nghÜa ®óng chÝnhmÆt ngoμi ®Ó c¸c ®o¹n DNA cã thÓ ®-îc x¸c nh-ng Ýt ®-îc dïng cho thymidin. w wg¾n, vμ h÷u Ých nh- thÓ mang cña DNA ®Ó derepression The process of “turning on”chuyÓn gen. the expression of a gene or set of genes w wdenitrification A chemical process in whose expression has been repressedwhich nitrates in the soil are reduced to (turned off), usually by the displacementwwmolecular nitrogen, which is released to of a repressor from a promoter, since,the atmosphere. when attached to the DNA, the repressorlo¹i nit¬ Qu¸ tr×nh hãa häc trong ®ã c¸c prevents transcription.muèi nitrat trong ®Êt ®-îc ph©n gi¶i cho gi¶i øc chÕ Qu¸ tr×nh “tiÕp tôc” biÓu thÞtíi nit¬ ph©n tö, vμ ®-îc gi¶i phãng vμo mét gen hoÆc bé gen mμ biÓu thÞ cña nãkhÝ quyÓn. ®· bÞ øc chÕ (ngõng), th-êng do thuyªndensity gradient centrifugation High- chuyÓn mét chÊt k×m h·m tõ ®iÓm khëi ®Çu,speed centrifugation in which molecules v×, khi ®-îc g¾n víi DNA, chÊt k×m h·mare separated on the basis of their different ng¨n ngõa phiªn m·.densities using a concentration gradient of derivative 1. Resulting from or derivedcaesium chloride or sucrose. The density from. 2. Term used to identify a variantgradient may either be formed before during meristematic cell division.centrifugation by mixing two solutions of vËt dÉn xuÊt 1. kÕt qu¶ hoÆc b¾t nguåndifferent density (as in sucrose density tõ. 2. ThuËt ng÷ dïng ®Ó x¸c nhËn métgradients) or it can be formed by the lo¹t pha kh¸c nhau trong khi ph©n chia tÕ bμo m« ph©n sinh.
  5. 5. desiccant 75desiccant Any compound used to remove ph¸t triÓn Tæng sè sù kiÖn ®ãng gãp chomoisture or water. qu¸ tr×nh phøc t¹p cña mét sinh vËt. HaichÊt hót Èm BÊt kú hîp chÊt nμo sö dông khÝa mÆt chÝnh cña ph¸t triÓn lμ sinh tr-ëng®Ó lo¹i trõ h¬i Èm hoÆc n-íc. vμ biÖt ho¸.desoxyribonucleic acid Obsolete deviation 1. An alteration from the typicalspelling of deoxyribonucleic acid. form, function or behaviour. Mutation or stress are the common reasons behindTªn gäi theo c¸ch cò cña deoxyribonucleic deviation. 2. A statistical term describingacid. the difference between an actualdesulphurization lo¹i trõ l-u huúnh observation and the mean of allXem: biodesulphurization. observations.detergent Substance which lowers the sai lÖch 1. Thay ®æi h×nh d¹ng, chøc n¨ngsurface tension of a solution, improving its hoÆc hμnh vi th«ng th-êng. §ét biÕn hoÆccleaning properties. sèc lμ nguyªn nh©n chung sau sai lÖch. 2. nnthuèc tÈy ChÊt ®Ó h¹ thÊp søc c¨ng bÒ ThuËt ng÷ thèng kª m« t¶ sù kh¸c nhaumÆt dung dÞch, n©ng cao c¸c thuéc tÝnh gi÷a mét quan s¸t thùc tÕ víi trung b×nh ..v vlμm s¹ch. toμn bé quan s¸t.determinate growth Growth determined dextrin An intermediate polysaccharide ch chand limited in time, with a bud or flower compound resulting from the hydrolysisterminating the growth of the main axis. of starch to maltose by amylase enzymes. sa saOnce established, it is usually irreversible. hå tinh bét Mét hîp chÊt polisacarit trungOpposite: indeterminate growth. gian kÕt qu¶ tõ thñy ph©n tinh bét thμnh chchsinh tr-ëng x¸c ®Þnh Sinh tr-ëng x¸c ®Þnh ®-êng m¹ch nha do enzim amylaza.vμ giíi h¹n thêi gian, víi mÇm hoÆc hoa dG - dC tailing tailing ®o¹n cuèi dG-dC iix¸c ®Þnh sinh tr-ëng cña trôc chÝnh. Mét Xem: complementary homopolymeric ..d dkhi ®· thiÕt lËp, nã th-êng kh«ng thÓ ®¶o tailing.ng-îc. Ng-îc víi: indeterminate growth. DGGE xem: denaturing gradient geldetermination Process by which electrophoresis. w wundifferentiated cells in an embryo dGTP Abbreviation for deoxyguanosine 5-become committed to develop into specific triphosphate. dGTP is required for DNAcell types, such as neurons, fibroblasts or w w synthesis since it is a direct precursormuscle cells. molecule. See: guanosine, guanylicx¸c ®Þnh Qu¸ tr×nh mμ bëi ®ã nh÷ng tÕww acid.bμo ch-a ph©n hãa trong ph«i ®-îc giao dGTP viÕt t¾t cña deoxyguanosine 5-phã ®Ó ph¸t triÓn thμnh kiÓu tÕ bμo riªng triphosphate. dGTP cÇn thiÕt ®Ó tæng hîpbiÖt, nh- n¬ ron, sîi nguyªn bμo hoÆc tÕ DNA v× nã lμ mét ph©n tö tiÒn chÊt trùcbμo c¬. tiÕp. xem: guanosine, guanylic acid.determined Describing embryonic tissue diagnostic procedure A test or assayat a stage when it can develop only as a used to determine the presence of acertain kind of tissue. specific substance, organism or nucleic®-îc x¸c ®Þnh M« t¶ m« ph«i ë giai ®o¹n acid sequence alteration, etc.khi nã cã thÓ ph¸t triÓn chØ nh- mét lo¹i thñ tôc chÈn ®o¸n PhÐp thö hoÆc ph©nm« nhÊt ®Þnh. tÝch dïng ®Ó x¸c ®Þnh sù cã mÆt cña métdevelopment The sum total of events that chÊt, c¬ quan hoÆc sù thay ®æi tr×nh tù axitcontribute to the progressive elaboration nucleic riªng biÖt, v©n v©n.of an organism. The two major aspects of diakinesis A stage of meiosis at the enddevelopment are growth and of prophase I, in which the contraction ofdifferentiation. the chromosomes is almost at a maximum,
  6. 6. diakinesis 76pairing configurations are well defined, the classes of flowering plants (along with thenucleolus normally disappears and the monocotyledons). Examples includenuclear envelope is disrupted. many crop plants (potato, pea, beans),giai ®o¹n h-íng cùc Giai ®o¹n gi¶m ornamentals (rose, ivy) and timber treesph©n ë cuèi k× ®Çu I, trong ®ã nhiÔm s¾c (oak, beech, lime).thÓ gi¶m gÇn nh- ë møc tèi ®a, c¸c cÊu c©y song tö ®iÖp (viÕt t¾t: dicot). Thùch×nh cÆp ®«i ®-îc x¸c ®Þnh râ, h¹ch b×nh vËt cã hai l¸ mÇm. Mét trong hai líp chÝnhth-êng biÕn mÊt vμ mμng nh©n bÞ ph¸ vì. cña thùc vËt ra hoa (cïng víi c©y ®¬n tödialysis A biochemical technique by which diÖp). C¸c mÉu gåm cã nhiÒu gièng c©ylarge molecules such as proteins in trång (khoai t©y, ®Ëu Hμ lan, ®Ëu t-¬ng),solution are separated from smaller c¸c loμi hoa (hoa hång, tr-êng xu©n) vμspecies such as salts. The technique is c©y cã gç (såi, anh ®μo, ch×a v«i).based on the properties of certain di-deoxynucleotide (Abbreviations:membrane structures, which selectively ddNTP,didN). A synthetic nnonly allow the passage of the smaller deoxynucleotide that lacks a 3-hydroxylmolecules. A frequently used method for group, and is thus unable to form the 3?5 ..v vthe purification of proteins. phosphodiester bond necessary forthÈm t¸ch Mét kü thuËt hãa sinh ®Ó nh÷ng chain elongation. Used as strand ch chph©n tö lín nh- protein trong dung dÞch terminators in the Sanger DNA sequencing®-îc ph©n t¸ch tõ c¸c lo¹i nhá h¬n nh- reaction and in the treatment of some viral sa samuèi. Kü thuËt dùa vμo thuéc tÝnh c¸c cÊu diseases.tróc mμng nhÊt ®Þnh, vμ cho chØ phÐp chän di-deoxynucleotit (viÕt t¾t: ddNTP,didN).läc c¸c ph©n tö nhá h¬n ®i qua. Ph-¬ng ChÊt deoxynucleotide tæng hîp thiÕu gèc chchph¸p ®-îc sö dông phæ biÕn ®Ó lμm s¹ch hidroxyl 3, vμ do vËy kh«ng cã kh¶ n¨ng iiprotein. ®Ó h×nh thμnh liªn kÕt phosphodiester 3 ? 5 cÇn thiÕt ®Ó kÐo dμi d·y ph©n tö. §-îc ..d ddiazotroph An organism that can fixatmospheric nitrogen. sö dông khi hoμn tÊt sîi trong ph¶n øng tr×nh tù ho¸ DNA Sanger vμ trong nghiªntù d-ìng Sinh vËt cã kh¶ n¨ng hÊp thu cøu mét sè bÖnh virut. w wnit¬ khÝ quyÓn. didN Xem: di-deoxynucleotide.dicentric chromosome A chromosome differential centrifugation A method for w whaving two active centromeres. separating sub-cellular particles accordingnhiÔm s¾c thÓ hai t©m Mét nhiÔm s¾c thÓ to their sedimentation coefficients, whichwwcã hai t©m ho¹t ®éng . are roughly proportional to their size. Celldichogamy The condition in which the extracts are subjected to a succession ofmale and the female reproductive organs centrifuge runs at progressively fasterof a flower (or certain hermaphroditic rotation speeds. Large particles, such asanimals) mature at different times, thereby nuclei or mitochondria, will be precipitatedmaking self-fertilization improbable or at relatively slow speeds; higher G forcesimpossible. will be required to sediment small particles,dichogami T×nh tr¹ng cã c¸c c¬ quan sinh such as ribosomes.s¶n ®ùc vμ c¸i cña mét hoa (hoÆc ®éng ly t©m vi ph©n Ph-¬ng ph¸p ®Ó ph©n t¸chvËt l-ìng tÝnh nhÊt ®Þnh) tr-ëng thμnh ë c¸c h¹t nhá møc d-íi tÕ bμo theo hÖ sèc¸c thêi ®iÓm kh¸c nhau, do ®ã t¹o ra Ýt l¾ng, t-¬ng xøng víi kÝch th-íc cña chóng.kh¶ n¨ng hoÆc kh«ng thÓ ®¹t ®-îc tù thô C¸c phÇn chiÕt xuÊt tÕ bμo ®-îc thùc hiÖnphÊn. víi mét lo¹t quay ly t©m tèc ®é nhanh dÇn.dicot Xem: dicotyledon. C¸c h¹t lín, nh- nh©n hoÆc c¸c ti l¹p thÓ,dicotyledon (Abbreviation: dicot). A plant sÏ ch×m xuèng khi tèc ®é chËm dÇn; lùc lywith two cotyledons. One of the two major t©m G cao h¬n cÇn thiÕt ®Ó h¹t nhá l¾ng
  7. 7. differential display 77xuèng, nh- ribosom. nμy nãi chung kh«ng thÓ ®¶o ng-îc trongdifferential display A method to identify c¬ thÓ sinh vËt bËc cao. Trong nu«i cÊymRNAs which are present at different m«, thuËt ng÷ ®-îc dïng m« t¶ sù h×nhlevels in different tissues, or in response thμnh c¸c kiÓu tÕ bμo kh¸c biÖt.to specific treatments. The mRNAs are diffusion The spontaneous movement ofconverted to cDNA, and a defined molecules from a region of higherproportion of these are amplified by the concentration to a region of lowerpolymerase chain reaction, and concentration.separated by electrophoresis. khuyÕch t¸n ChuyÓn ®éng ngÉu nhiªnhiÓn thÞ vi ph©n Ph-¬ng ph¸p x¸c ®Þnh cña c¸c ph©n tö tõ vïng mËt ®é cao ®Õnc¸c mRNA mμ biÓu hiÖn c¸c møc kh¸c vïng mËt ®é thÊp h¬n.nhau trong c¸c m« kh¸c nhau, hoÆc trong digest To treat DNA molecules with onesù ®¸p l¹i ph¶n øng ®Æc biÖt. C¸c mRNA or more restriction endonucleases inchuyÓn tíi DNA bæ sung, vμ mét tØ lÖ x¸c order to cleave them into smaller nn®Þnh khuyÕch ®¹i b»ng ph¶n øng chuçi fragments.enzim trïng hîp, vμ ph©n t¸ch do hiÖn ..v v tiªu hãa ChÕ ho¸ c¸c ph©n tö DNA víit-îng ®iÖn chuyÓn. mét hoÆc nhiÒu emzim giíi h¹n víi môcdifferentially permeable Referring to a ®Ých t¸ch chóng thμnh nh÷ng ®o¹n nhá ch chmembrane, through which different h¬n.substances diffuse at different rates. Some dihaploid An individual which arises from sa sasubstances may be unable to diffuse a doubled haploid.through such a membrane, usuallybecause they are too large to fit through ®¬n béi kÐp C¸ thÓ xuÊt hiÖn tõ mét ®¬n chchthe pores of the membrane. béi kÐp. ii®é ngÊm vi ph©n §Ò cËp ®Õn mμng tÕ dihybrid An individual that is heterozygous for two pairs of alleles; the progeny of a ..d dbμo, th«ng qua ®ã c¸c chÊt kh¸c nhaukhuÕch t¸n víi tû lÖ kh¸c nhau. Mét sè chÊt cross between homozygous parentskh«ng thÓ khuÕch t¸n qua mét mμng nh- differing at two loci. w wvËy, th-êng bëi v× chóng qu¸ lín kh«ng l-ìng hîp tö Mét c¸ thÓ lμ dÞ hîp cña haithÓ chui qua lç cña mμng. cÆp alen; con ch¸u cña mét cÆp lai chÐodifferentiation A process as a result of gi÷a cha mÑ ®ång hîp tö ph©n biÖt kh¸c w wwhich unspecialized cells develop nhau t¹i hai æ gen.structures and functions characteristic of dimer 1. A molecule formed by thewwa particular type of cell, typically during the covalent combination of two monomers,process of development from one cell to generally accompanied by elimination ofmany cells, accompanied by a modification water. 2. The reversible association of twoof the new cells for the performance of similar (or nearly similar) molecules. Theparticular functions. The process is active form of many enzymes is as a dimergenerally irreversible in vivo in higher between two non-active monomericorganisms. In tissue culture, the term is subunits.used to describe the formation of different chÊt trïng ph©n 1. Mét ph©n tö ®-îc h×nhcell types. thμnh do kÕt hîp ®ång hãa trÞ hai ®¬n ph©n,biÖt ho¸ Qu¸ tr×nh lμm cho c¸c tÕ bμo th-êng kÐo theo sù lo¹i bá n-íc. 2. Sù kÕtkh«ng chuyªn biÖt ph¸t triÓn cÊu tróc vμ hîp cã thÓ ®¶o ng-îc cña hai ph©n töchøc n¨ng ®iÓn h×nh cña mét kiÓu tÕ bμo t-¬ng ®-¬ng (hoÆc gÇn gièng nhau). D¹ngriªng biÖt, tiªu biÓu trong qu¸ tr×nh ph¸t ho¹t ®éng cña nhiÒu enzim lμ nh- mét chÊttriÓn tõ mét ®Õn nhiÒu tÕ bμo, ®-îc bæ sung trïng ph©n gi÷a hai cÊu tróc d-íi ®¬n ph©ndo biÕn ®æi cña c¸c tÕ bμo míi ®Ó thùc kh«ng ho¹t ®éng.hiÖn c¸c chøc n¨ng riªng biÖt. Qu¸ tr×nh
  8. 8. dimethyl sulphoxide 78dimethyl sulphoxide (Abbreviation: meiosis following the pachytene stage,DMSO). A highly hygroscopic liquid and but preceding diakinesis, in which onepowerful solvent with little odour, colour or pair of sister chromatids begin to separatetoxicity when pure. It is employed in small from the other pair.quantities to dissolve organic substances sîi kÐp Giai ®o¹n trong k× ®Çu I cña gi¶min tissue culture media preparation and ph©n tiÕp theo giai ®o¹n sîi dμy, nh-nghas uses as a cryoprotectant and in tr-íc giai ®o¹n h-íng cùc, trong ®ã métpromoting the passage of chemicals cÆp nhiÔm s¾c tö chÞ em b¾t ®Çu t¸ch ra tõthrough skin. mét cÆp kh¸c.dimethyl sulphoxit (ViÕt t¾t: DMSO). Mét diplotene (adj.) kú song ty (tÝnh tõ)xem:chÊt láng hót Èm cao vμ dung m«i m¹nh diplonema.cã mïi h-¬ng, mμu hoÆc tÝnh ®éc thÊp khi direct embryogenesis The formation inthuÇn khiÕt. §-îc dïng víi sè l-îng nhá culture, on the surface of zygotic or®Ó hoμ tan c¸c chÊt h÷u c¬ trong chÕ phÈm somatic embryos or on explant tissuesdung dÞch nu«i cÊy m« vμ ®-îc dïng khi nn (leaf section, root tip, etc.), of embryoidsb¶o qu¶n ®«ng l¹nh vμ trong viÖc xóc tiÕn without an intervening callus phase. ..v vchuyÓn c¸c ho¸ chÊt ngÊm qua da. Opposite: indirect embryogenesis.dimorphism The existence of two ph¸t sinh ph«i trùc tiÕp Sù h×nh thμnh ch chdistinctly different types of individuals trong nu«i cÊy m«, trªn bÒ mÆt hîp tö, c¸cwithin a species. An obvious example is ph«i x«ma hoÆc trªn c¸c m« ghÐp (phÇn sa sasexual dimorphism in mammals. l¸, chãp rÔ, v.v.), cña ph«i kh«ng cã giaitÝnh l-ìng h×nh Sù tån t¹i hai kiÓu kh¸c ®o¹n m« sÑo xen vμo. Ng-îc víi: indirectnhau cña c¸c c¸ thÓ trong cïng mét loμi. chch embryogenesis.Mét vÝ dô ®iÓn h×mh lμ l-ìng h×nh giíi tÝnh direct organogenesis Formation of iitrong líp ®éng vËt cã vó. organs directly on the surface of cultured ..d ddinucleotide A nucleotide dimer. intact explants. The process does notMét chÊt trïng ph©n nuleotit. involve callus formation. Opposite:dioecious A plant species in which male indirect organogenesis. w wand female flowers form on different plants. ph¸t sinh c¬ quan trùc tiÕp Sù h×nh thμnhkh¸c gèc C¸c loμi thùc vËt cã hoa c¸i vμ cña c¸c c¬ quan trùc tiÕp trªn bÒ mÆt m¶nh w whoa ®ùc h×nh thμnh trªn tõng c©y kh¸c ghÐp kh«ng søt mÎ ®-îc nu«i cÊy. Qu¸nhau. tr×nh kh«ng t¹o ra m« sÑo. Ng-îc víi: indirect embryogenesis.wwdiplochromosome Xem:endoreduplication. direct repeat Two or more stretches of DNA within a single molecule which havediploid The status of having two complete the same nucleotide sequence in thesets of chromosomes, most commonly same orientation. Direct repeats may beone set of paternal origin and the other of either adjacent to one another or far apartmaternal origin. Somatic tissues of higher on the same molecule.plants and animals are ordinarily diploid inchromosome constitution, in contrast with lÆp trùc tiÕp Hai hoÆc nhiÒu ®o¹n DNAthe haploid gametes. trong mét ph©n tö ®¬n cïng tr×nh tù nucleotit cïng h-íng. C¸c ®o¹n lÆp trùcl-ìng béi T×nh tr¹ng cã hai bé nhiÔm s¾c tiÕp cã thÓ liÒn kÒ hoÆc t¸ch rêi trªn cïngthÓ hoμn chØnh, phæ biÕn nhÊt mét bé gèc ph©n tö.cha vμ bé kh¸c gèc mÑ. C¸c m« x«ma cñathùc vËt bËc cao vμ ®éng vËt lμ l-ìng béi directed amplification of minisatellitehoμn toμn trong cÊu tróc nhiÔm s¾c thÓ, DNA (Abbreviation: DAMD). A polymerasetr¸i ng-îc víi giao tö ®¬n béi. chain reaction technique used for obtaining molecular markers in the regiondiplonema Stage in prophase I of
  9. 9. directed mutagenesis 79of minisatellites. To target these regions, ho¸ gi¶i Xãa bá mét plasmit hoÆc virut cñaone of the primers is directed to a VNTR c¸c gen lμ t¸c nh©n g©y bÖnh.core sequence. discontinuous variation Variation wherekhuÕch ®¹i ®Þnh h-íng DNA vÖ tinh nhá individuals can be classified as belonging(viÕt t¾t: DAMD) Kü thuËt ph¶n øng chuçi to one of a set of discrete, non-overlappingenzim trïng hîp ®-îc sö dông ®Ó thu classes. Generated by simple geneticnh÷ng dÊu chuÈn ph©n tö trong vïng c¸c control of a trait (one or a small number ofvÖ tinh nhá. Tíi c¸c vïng ®Ých nμy, mét genes, each of large effect) and involvingtrong nh÷ng ®o¹n måi ®-îc tiÕp xóc víi minimal non-genetic effect. Characterstr×nh tù lâi lÆp tandem sè biÕn. showing discontinuous variation aredirected mutagenesis The generation of referred to as qualitative. Opposite:changes in the nucleotide sequence of continuous variation.a cloned gene by one of several biÕn dÞ gi¸n ®o¹n BiÕn dÞ khi c¸ thÓ kh¶procedures. Undertaken to explore the n¨ng ®-îc ph©n lo¹i thuéc vÒ mét trong nnrelationship between nucleotide sequence tËp hîp c¸c líp riªng biÖt, kh«ng gèi nhau.and gene function, and to modify gene Ph¸t sinh do kiÓm so¸t di truyÒn ®¬n mét ..v vproducts. Synonym: in vitro tÝnh tr¹ng (mét hoÆc sè Ýt gen, mçi mét genmutagenesis. cã hiÖu øng réng) vμ kÐo theo hiÖu øng ch ch®ét biÕn ®Þnh h-íng Ph¸t sinh nh÷ng kh«ng di truyÒn cùc tiÓu. C¸c ®Æc ®iÓm chothay ®æi trong tr×nh tù nucleotit cña gen thÊy r»ng biÕn dÞ kh«ng liªn tôc ®-îc xem sa sa®-îc t¹o dßng b»ng mét sè ph-¬ng ph¸p. nh- ®Þnh tÝnh. Ng-îc víi: continuousB¶o ®¶m ®Ó th¨m dß mèi quan hÖ gi÷a variation.tr×nh tù nucleotit vμ chøc n¨ng gen, vμ ®Ó discordant Members of a pair showing chchsöa ®æi s¶n phÈm gen. Tõ ®ång nghÜa: in different, rather than similar, iivitro mutagenesis. characteristics. ..d ddirectional cloning The technique by tr¸i ng-îc nhau C¸c thμnh viªn cña métwhich a vector and a DNA insert are both cÆp ®«i cho thÊy c¸c ®Æc tr-ng kh¸c nhau,digested with two different restriction thay v× t-¬ng tù. w wendonucleases to create non- disease resistance The geneticallycomplementary sticky ends at either end determined ability to prevent theof both molecules, so favouring the insert reproduction of a pathogen, thereby w wto be ligated into the vector in a specific remaining healthy. Some resistancesorientation, while also preventing the operate by pathogen exclusion, some bywwvector from re-circularizing. preventing pathogen spread, and some byt¹o dßng ®Þnh h-íng Kü thuËt theo ®ã tolerating pathogen toxin.mét vect¬ vμ ®o¹n chÌn DNA ®Òu ®-îc tÝnh kh¸ng bÖnh Kh¶ n¨ng ng¨n chÆn x¸ctiªu hãa víi hai enzim giíi h¹n kh¸c biÖt ®Þnh di truyÒn ®Ó øc chÕ sinh s¶n cña vËt®Ó t¹o ra c¸c mót b¸m kh«ng bæ sung ë g©y bÖnh, do ®ã søc khoÎ ®-îc duy tr×.tõng mót cña c¶ hai ph©n tö, nh- vËy -u Mét sè kh¸ng ho¹t ®éng do lo¹i trõ vËt g©ytiªn chÌn ®Ó kÕt buéc vμo vect¬ theo bÖnh, mét sè do ng¨n ngõa lan truyÒn vËth-íng riªng biÖt, vμ cßn ng¨n ngõa vect¬ g©y bÖnh, vμ mét sè kh¸c do chÊp nhËntõ h-íng vßng l¹i. ®éc tè vËt g©y bÖnh.disaccharide A dimer consisting of two disease-free A plant or animal certifiedcovalently linked monosaccharides. through specific tests as being free ofChÊt trïng ph©n gåm cã hai ®ång hãa trÞ specified pathogens. Should beliªn kÕt c¸c monosacarit. interpreted to mean “free from any knowndisarm The deletion from a plasmid or disease” as “new” diseases may yet bevirus of genes that are pathogenic. discovered to be present.
  10. 10. disease-indexing 80s¹ch bÖnh Thùc vËt hoÆc ®éng vËt ®-îc dispense The transfer of a measuredchøng nhËn qua c¸c phÐp thö ghi râ khi volume of a solution.kh«ng mang vËt g©y bÖnh ®Æc biÖt. CÇn ph©n phèi ChuyÓn giao dung dÞch víi métthiÕt gi¶i thÝch ý nghÜa “s¹ch tõ mét sè bÖnh khèi l-îng ®-îc ®o.h¹i ®· biÕt” trong khi ®ã nh÷ng bÖnh h¹i disrupter gene Used to enforce the“míi” cã thÓ cßn ®ang ®-îc kh¸m ph¸. sterility of seed saved from a geneticallydisease-indexing Disease-indexed engineered crop. See: genetic useorganisms have been assayed for the restriction technology.presence of known diseases according to gen g©y rèi Th-êng g©y ra bÊt thô cñastandard testing procedures. h¹t gièng b¶o qu¶n tõ gièng kü thuËt dichØ sè bÖnh C¸c sinh vËt chØ sè hãa bÖnh truyÒn. Xem: genetic use restriction®-îc thö nghiÖm ®Ó thÓ hiÖn nh÷ng bÖnh technology.®· biÕt tu©n theo thñ tôc thö nghiÖm chuÈn. dissecting microscope A microscopedisinfection Attempted elimination by with a magnifying power of about 50x, used nnchemical means of internal micro- as an aid in the manipulation of smallorganisms (particularly pathogens) from a ..v v objects, e.g. excision of embryos fromculture or sample; rarely attained. See: young zygotes.sterilize (1). ch ch kÝnh hiÓn vi ph©n tÝch KÝnh hiÓn vi cã søcsù diÖt khu¶n B»ng c¸c ph-¬ng tiÖn hãa khuÕch ®¹i kho¶ng 50 x, ®-îc sö dông ®Óhäc ®Ó cè g¾ng lo¹i bá vi sinh vËt bªn trong trî gióp thao t¸c víi ®èi t-îng nhá, nh- lμ sa sa(®Æc biÖt lμ nh÷ng t¸c nh©n g©y bÖnh) tõ c¾t ph«i tõ hîp tö non.mÉu nu«i cÊy m«; ®¹t ®-îc mét c¸ch khã dissection Separation of a tissue by chchkh¨n. xem: sterilize (1). cutting into components, for analysis ordisinfestation The elimination or inhibition ii observation.of the activity of surface-adhering micro- gi¶i phÉu Ph©n t¸ch m« do c¾t thμnh c¸c ..d dorganisms and removal of insects. phÇn, ®Ó ph©n tÝch hoÆc quan s¸t.sù khö trïng Lo¹i bá hoÆc k×m h·m ho¹t distillation The process of heating a®éng cña nh÷ng vi sinh vËt dÝnh trªn bÒ w w mixture to separate the more volatile frommÆt vμ lo¹i bá s©u bä. the less volatile parts, and then condensingdisjunction Separation of homologous fractions of the resulting vapour so as to w wchromosomes during anaphase I of produce a more nearly pure or refinedmeiosis, or of sister chromatids during substance.wwanaphase of mitosis and anaphase II of ch-ng cÊt Qu¸ tr×nh ®èt nãng mét hçnmeiosis. hîp ®Ó ph©n t¸ch phÇn dÒ bay h¬i tõ phÇnsù ph©n t¸ch Ph©n chia c¸c nhiÔm s¾c khã bay h¬i, vμ sau ®ã ng-ng tô c¸c phÇnthÓ t-¬ng ®ång trong k× sau I cña gi¶m kÕt qu¶ bay h¬i nh- vËy ®Ó s¶n xuÊt métph©n, hoÆc cña nhiÔm s¾c tö chÞ em trong chÊt ®-îc tinh läc hoÆc gÇn nh- thuÇnk× sau nguyªn ph©n vμ k× sau II cña gi¶m khiÕt.ph©n. disulphide bond liªn kÕt disulphid xem:disomic (adj.) l-ìng thÓ (tÝnh tõ) Xem disulphide bridge.disomy. disulphide bridge A chemical bonddisomy The presence of a pair of a specific between pairs of sulphur atoms thathomologous chromosomes. This is the stabilizes the three-dimensional structurenorm for diploids. of proteins, and hence the protein’shiÖn t-îng l-ìng thÓ Sù cã mÆt mét cÆp normal function. These form particularly®«i nhiÔm s¾c thÓ t-¬ng ®ång riªng biÖt. readily between cysteine residues in theHiÖn t-îng l-ìng thÓ lμ tiªu chuÈn cho c¸c same or different peptide molecules.thÓ l-ìng béi. Synonym: disulphide bond.
  11. 11. ditype 81cÇu disunphit Mét liªn kÕt hãa häc gi÷a xo¾n kÐp, mÆc dÇu mét sè hÖ gen virutc¸c cÆp nguyªn tö l-u huúnh ®Ó lμm æn gåm cã mét sîi ®¬n DNA, vμ c¸c d¹ng®Þnh cÊu tróc kh«ng gian ba chiÒu protein, kh¸c cña mét RNA sîi kÐp hoÆc ®¬n. xem:vμ do vËy protein ho¹t ®éng b×nh th-êng. base pair, genetic code.Chóng h×nh thμnh mét c¸ch riªng biÖt DNA amplification Many-foldnhanh chãng gi÷a c¸c gèc cystein trong multiplication of a particular DNAcïng mét ph©n tö hoÆc peptit kh¸c biÖt. sequence either in vivo in a plasmid,Tõ ®ång nghÜa: disulphide bond. phage or other vector; or in vitro using,ditype In fungi, a tetrad that contains two most commonly, the polymerase chainkinds of meiotic products (spores), e.g. reaction.2AB and 2ab. khuÕch ®¹i DNA Nh©n gÊp mét t×nh tùthÓ ®«i Trong nÊm, mét bé bèn cã chøa DNA riªng biÖt trong c¬ thÓ c¶ tronghai lo¹i s¶n phÈm gi¶m ph©n (c¸c bμo tö), plasmit, thÓ thùc khuÈn hoÆc vect¬ kh¸c;vÝ dô 2 AB vμ 2ab. hoÆc trong èng nghiÖm phæ biÕn nhÊt lμ nndiurnal An event that occurs repetitively sö dông ph¶n øng chuçi enzim trïng hîp.on a daily basis, generally during daylight DNA amplification fingerprinting ..v vhours. (Abbreviation: DAF). A arbitrarily primedh»ng ngμy Sù kiÖn xÊy ra lÆp l¹i dùa vμo polymerase chain reaction technique for ch chngμy, th-êng lμ suèt c¸c giê chiÕu s¸ng obtaining molecular markers using veryban ngμy. short (5-8 bp) primers. sa sadizygotic twins Two-egg twins, i.e. a pair in dÊu khuÕch ®¹i DNA (viÕt t¾t: DAF).of individuals that shared the same uterus Mét kü thuËt ph¶n øng chuçi enzim trïng chchat the same time, but which arose from hîp måi tuú ý ®Ó thu ®-îc dÊu chuÈn ph©nseparate and independent fertilization of tö cã dïng måi cùc ng¾n (5 - 8 bp) . iitwo ova. DNA chip xem: micro-array. ..d dsinh ®«i nhÞ hîp tö C¸c cÆp sinh ®«i kh¸c DNA cloning nh©n dßng DNA xem: genetrøng, nghÜa lμ mét cÆp ®«i c¸ thÓ mμ ph©n cloning.chia cïng no·n t¹i cïng mét thêi ®iÓm, DNA construct A chimeric DNA molecule, w wnh-ng xÈy ra do thô tinh ®éc lËp vμ riªng carrying all the genetic informationbiÖt cña hai no·n. necessary for its transgenic expression w wDMSO xem: dimethyl sulphoxide. in a host cell.DNA Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic kiÕn tróc DNA Ph©n tö DNA thÓ qu¸i,wwacid, former spelling desoxyribonucleic mang tÊt c¶ th«ng tin di truyÒn cÇn thiÕtacid. A long chain polymer of ®Ó biÓu thÞ chuyÓn gen trong mét tÕ bμodeoxyribonucleotides. DNA constitutes chñ.the genetic material of most known DNA delivery system A generic term fororganisms and organelles, and usually is any procedure that transports DNA into ain the form of a double helix, although recipient cell.some viral genomes consist of a single hÖ thèng giao nhËn DNA ThuËt ng÷strand of DNA, and others of a single- or a chung cho bÊt kú thñ tôc nμo mμ vËndouble-stranded RNA. See: base pair, chuyÓn DNA cho tÕ bμo nhËn.genetic code. DNA diagnostics The use of DNADNA viÕt t¾t cña deoxyribonucleic acid, polymorphisms to detect the presence ofnguyªn ®¸nh vÇn lμ desoxyribonucleic a specific sequence, which could indicateacid. Chuçi p«lime dμi cña c¸c the presence of a contaminant, of adeoxyribonucleotit. DNA cÊu thμnh vËt liÖu pathogen, or of a particular allele at a targetdi truyÒn cña hÇu hÕt sinh vËt vμ bμo quan gene. Most commonly utilises the®-îc biÕt, vμ th-êng lμ trong d¹ng chuçi polymerase chain reaction.
  12. 12. DNA fingerprint 82chÈn ®o¸n DNA Sö dông tÝnh ®a h×nh DNA khai th¸c ®Ó kiÓm tra sù cã mÆt cña mét®Ó ph¸t hiÖn cã mÆt mét tr×nh tù riªng biÖt, tr×nh tù nuclªotid riªng biÖt trong mÉu DNA.cã thÓ chØ b¸o cã mÆt mét chÊt g©y « DNA ligase An enzyme that catalyses anhiÔm, mét t¸c nh©n g©y bÖnh, hoÆc mét reaction to link two separate DNAalen riªng biÖt t¹i gen ®Ých. Phæ biÕn nhÊt molecules via the formation of asö dông ph¶n øng chuçi enzim trïng hîp. phosphodiester bond between the 3-DNA fingerprint A description of the hydroxyl end of one and the 5-phosphategenotype of an individual from the pattern of the other. Its natural role lies in DNAof DNA fragments obtained from DNA repair and replication. An essential tool infingerprinting. Synonym: DNA profile. recombinant DNA technology, as it enablesdÊu DNA M« t¶ kiÓu di truyÒn cña mét c¸ the incorporation of foreign DNA intothÓ tõ khung mÉu ®o¹n DNA thu ®-îc tõ in vectors.dÊu DNA.Tõ ®ång nghÜa: DNA profile. DNA ligaza Mét lo¹i enzim xóc t¸c ph¶nDNA fingerprinting The derivation of øng liªn kÕt hai ph©n tö DNA t¸ch biÖt do nnunique patterns of DNA fragments h×nh thμnh mét liªn kÕt phosphodiesterobtained using a number of marker gi÷a mót 3- hidroxyl vμ 5- phèt ph¸t cña ..v vtechniques; historically these were RFLPs, sîi kh¸c. Vai trß tù nhiªn cña nã n»m trongbut latterly they are generally polymerase sù söa ch÷a DNA vμ sao chÐp. Mét c«ng ch chchain reaction based. Synonym: genetic cô quan träng trong kü thuËt DNA t¸i tæfingerprinting. hîp, v× nã cho phÐp hîp nhÊt DNA ngo¹i sa sa vμo c¸c vect¬.in dÊu DNA XuÊt xø c¸c mÉu duy nhÊtc¸c ®o¹n DNA thu ®-îc cã sö dông mét DNA micro-array m¶ng vi m« DNA Xem: micro-array, somatic cell hybrid panel, chchsè kü thuËt ®¸nh dÊu; tr-íc ®©y chóng lμc¸c RFLP, nh-ng gÇn ®©y nhÊt chóng radiation hybrid cell panel iith-êng ®ùa vμo ph¶n øng chuçi enzim DNA polymerase enzym trïng hîp DNA ..d dtrïng hîp.Tõ ®ång nghÜa: genetic xem: polymerase.fingerprinting. DNA polymorphism The existence of twoDNA helicase An enzyme that catalyses or more alteRNAtive alleles at a DNA- w wthe unwinding of the complementary based marker locus.strands of a DNA double helix. Synonym: tÝnh ®a h×nh DNA Sù tån t¹i cña hai hoÆcgyrase. w w nhiÒu alen thay thÕ t¹i mét æ gen ®¸nh dÊuDNA helicaza Mét lo¹i enzim xóc t¸c th¸o dùa vμo DNA.ra c¸c sîi bæ sung cña mét vßng xo¾n kÐpww DNA primase An enzyme that catalysesDNA. Tõ ®ång nghÜa: gyrase. the synthesis of the short strands of RNADNA hybridization The annealing of two that initiate the synthesis of DNA strands.single-stranded DNA molecules, possibly DNA primaza Mét lo¹i enzym xóc t¸c tængof different origin, to form a partial or hîp c¸c sîi ng¾n RNA ®Ó b¾t ®Çu tæng hîpcomplete double helix. The degree of c¸c sîi DNA.hybridization varies with the extent of DNA probe ®Çu dß DNA xem: probe.complementarity between the twomolecules, and this is exploited to test for DNA profile mÆt c¾t DNA xem: DNAthe presence of a specific nucleotide fingerprint.sequence in a DNA sample. DNA repair A variety of mechanisms thatlai gièng DNA Lμm dÎo hai ph©n tö DNA repair errors (e.g. the incorporation of asîi ®¬n, cã thÓ gèc kh¸c nhau, ®Ó h×nh non-complementary nucleotide) that occurthμnh mét vßng xo¾n kÐp tõng phÇn hoÆc naturally during DNA replication.®Çy ®ñ. Møc ®é c¸c kiÓu lai cã quy m« bæ söa ch÷a DNA Sù ®a d¹ng c¬ chÕ söasung gi÷a hai ph©n tö, vμ ®iÒu nμy ®-îc ch÷a lçi (vÝ dô hîp nhÊt mét nuleotit kh«ng
  13. 13. DNA replication 83bæ sung) xÊy ra tù nhiªn trong qu¸ tr×nh isomerase.sao chÐp DNA. men ®ång ph©n DNA Enzim xóc t¸c ®-aDNA replication The process whereby vμo hoÆc lo¹i bá c¸c ®o¹n siªu xo¾n trongDNA copies itself, under the action of and DNA. Tõ ®ång nghÜa: topo-isomerase.control of DNA polymerase. DNA transformation biÕn n¹p ADN xem:sao chÐp DNA Qu¸ tr×nh mμ b»ng c¸ch ransformation.nμo DNA tù sao chÐp, d-íi ho¹t ®éng vμ DNA vaccine A vaccine generated by thekiÓm tra cña enzim trïng hîp DNA. injection of specific DNA fragments toDNA sequencing Procedures for stimulate an immune response.determining the nucleotide sequence of a v¸c xin DNA Mét vacxin ph¸t sinh do b¬mDNA fragment. Two common methods thªm c¸c ®o¹n DNA ®Æc biÖt ®Ó t¨ng c-êngavailable: 1. The Maxam Gilbert technique, mét ph¶n øng miÔn dÞch.which uses chemicals to cleave DNA into DNAase xem: DNAse.fragments at specific bases; or, most nncommonly, 2. the Sanger technique (also DNAse Abbreviation forcalled the di-deoxy or chain-terminating deoxyribonuclease. Any enzyme that ..v vmethod) which uses DNA polymerase to catalyses the cleavage of DNAmake new DNA chains, in the presence of phosphodiester bonds. DNAse I is a ch chdi-deoxynucleotides (chain terminators) digestive endonuclease secreted by theto stop the chain randomly as it grows. In pancreas, that degrades DNA into shorter sa saboth cases, the DNA fragments are fragments. Many other endonucleases andseparated according to length by exonucleases are involved in DNA repairpolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and replication. Synonym: DNAase. See: chchenabling the sequence to be read directly restriction endonuclease. iifrom the gel. The procedure has become DNAza ViÕt t¾t cña deoxyribonuclease. BÊtincreasingly automated and large-scale in kú enzim nμo xóc t¸c nh¸nh liªn kÕt ®i phèt ..d drecent years. ph¸t DNA. DNAse I lμ endonucleaza tiªux¸c ®Þnh tr×nh tù DNA C¸c ph-¬ng ph¸p hãa ph©n tiÕt do tuyÕn tôy, nã ph©n t¸ch DNA thμnh nh÷ng ®o¹n ng¾n h¬n. NhiÒu w wx¸c ®Þnh tr×nh tù nucleotit cña mét ®o¹nDNA. Hai ph-¬ng ph¸p phæ biÕn ®ang tån endonucleaza vμ exonucleases kh¸c cãt¹i: 1. Kü thuËt Maxam Gilbert, kü thuËt nμy liªn quan trong viÖc söa ch÷a vμ sao chÐp w wsö dông hãa chÊt ®Ó g¾n DNA vμo c¸c DNA. Tõ ®ång nghÜa: ADNasa. Xem:®o¹n t¹i baz¬ ®Æc biÖt; hoÆc, th«ng dông restriction endonuclease.wwh¬n, 2. kü thuËt Sanger (cßn ®-îc gäi lμ Dolly The first mammal (a sheep) to beph-¬ng ph¸p di-deoxy hoÆc chain- created (via nuclear transfer) by theterminating) kü thuËt nμy sö dông enzim cloning of an adult cell (from thetrïng hîp DNA ®Ó t¹o ra c¸c d·y DNA míi, mammary tissue of a ewe). This showedtrong khi cã mÆt c¸c di-deoxynucleotid (cÊu that the process of differentiation into adulttróc ®Çu cuèi d·y) ®Ó lμm ngõng d·y ®ét tissue is not, as previously thought,ngét trong lóc ®ang sinh tr-ëng. Trong c¶ irreversible.hai tr-êng hîp, c¸c ®o¹n DNA ®-îc ph©n cõu Dolly §éng vËt cã vó ®Çu tiªn (cõu)t¸ch theo ®é dμi b»ng ®iÖn di gel ®-îc t¹o ra (nhê chuyÓn nh©n) do nh©npolycrylamit, cho phÐp tr×nh tù ®-îc ®äc dßng mét tÕ bμo tr-ëng thμnh (tõ m« vótrùc tiÕp tõ chÊt gel. Quy tr×nh trë thμnh cõu c¸i). §iÒu nμy ®· chØ ra r»ng qu¸ tr×nhquy m« lín vμ ®-îc tù ®éng hãa ngμy cμng biÖt ho¸ m« tr-ëng thμnh lμ kh«ng thÓ, nh-t¨ng trong vμi n¨m gÇn ®©y. suy nghÜ tr-íc ®©y, kh«ng ®¶o ng-îc.DNA topo-isomerase An enzyme that domain A portion of a protein or DNAcatalyses the introduction or removal of molecule that has a discrete function orsupercoils in DNA. Synonym: topo- conformation. At the protein level, can
  14. 14. dominance 84be as small as a few amino acid residues resistant to neomycin and analogousor as large as half of the entire protein. antibiotics, while cells that do not carry neormiÒn PhÇn protein hoÆc ph©n tö DNA cã are killed. See: positive selection.chøc n¨ng hoÆc h×nh th¸i riªng biÖt. T¹i chän dÊu chuÈn tréi Chän läc tÕ bμo quamøc protein, cã thÓ nhá nh- mét gèc amino gen m· hãa mét s¶n phÈm chØ cho phÐpacid hoÆc lín nh- mét nöa cña protein toμn tÕ bμo mang gen sinh tr-ëng d-íi c¸c ®iÒuphÇn. kiÖn riªng biÖt. VÝ dô, c¸c tÕ bμo thùc vËtdominance The gene action exhibited by vμ tÕ bμo ®éng vËt biÓu thÞ gen neor ®-îca dominant allele. chuyÓn lμ thÓ kh¸ng víi neomixin vμ c¸c kh¸ng sinh t-¬ng tù, trong khi nh÷ng tÕ-u thÕ T¸c ®éng gen ®-îc thÓ hiÖn do bμo kh«ng mang neor bÞ tiªu diÖt. Xem:mét alen tréi. positive selection.dominant 1. Of alleles, one whose effect dominant selectable marker A gene thatwith respect to a particular trait is the same allows the host cell to survive underin heterozygotes as in homozygotes. The nn conditions where it would otherwise die.opposite is recessive. 2. Of an individual Synonym: positive selectable marker. ..v vanimal, one that is allowed priority inaccess to food, mates, etc., by others of dÊu chuÈn lùa chän tréi Gen cho phÐpits species because of its success in tÕ bμo chñ sèng sãt d-íi c¸c ®iÒu kiÖn ë ch chprevious aggressive encounters. 3. Of an n¬i mμ tr¸i ng-îc nã sÏ chÕt. Tõ ®ånganimal or plant species, the most nghÜa: positive selectable marker. sa saconspicuously abundant and characteristic donor junction site The junction betweenin a particular location or environment. the 5 end of an exon and the 3 end of an chchtÝnh tréi 1.Cña c¸c alen, mét hiÖu øng cña intron. See: acceptor junction site.chóng cã liªnquan víi mét tÝnh tr¹ng riªng vÞ trÝ nèi thÓ cho sù nèi liÒn gi÷a mót 5 iibiÖt lμ ®iÓm gièng nhau trong dÞ hîp tö cña mét exon vμ mót 3 mét intron. Xem: ..d dcòng nh- ®ång hîp tö. Ng-îc l¹i lμ lÆn. 2. acceptor junction site.Cña mét c¸ thÓ ®éng vËt, mét c¸ thÓ cho donor plant c©y cho Xem: ortet.phÐp quyÒn -u tiªn sö dông thøc ¨n, dormancy A period in the life of an animal w wnguyªn liÖu, v.v., do sù kh¸c víi loμi cña (hibeRNAtion and aestivation) or plantnã v× nh÷ng thμnh c«ng trong c¹nh tranh during which growth slows or completelylÊn ¸t tr-íc ®©y. 3. Cña mét loμi ®éng vËt w w ceases. Evolved to allow survival ofhoÆc thùc vËt, tÝnh phong phó næi bËt vμ adverse environmental conditions. Annual®iÓn h×nh nhÊt trong mét vÞ trÝ hoÆc m«iww plants survive the winter as dormanttr-êng ®Æc biÖt. seeds, while many perennial plants survivedominant (-acting) oncogene A gene that as dormant tubers, rhizomes, or bulbs.stimulates cell proliferation and Premature breaking of seed dormancycontributes to oncogenesis when present post harvest can be a major problem forin a single copy. maintaining nutritional and/or functionalgen ung th- tréi (-ho¹t ®éng) Gen kÝch quality, while difficulties in breakingthÝch t¨ng tr-ëng tÕ bμo vμ gãp phÇn h×nh dormancy will lead to poor germinationthμnh ung th- khi cã mÆt trong b¶n sao of the crop. See: quiescent.®¬n. tr¹ng th¸i ngñ nghØ Mét giai ®o¹n sèngdominant marker selection Selection of cña ®éng vËt (ngñ ®«ng vμ ngñ hÌ) hoÆccells via a gene encoding a product that thùc vËt trong k× sinh tr-ëng chËm l¹i hoÆcenables only the cells that carry the gene hoμn toμn ngõng. §-îc tiÕn ho¸ ®Ó choto grow under particular conditions. For phÐp tån t¹i d-íi nh÷ng ®iÒu kiÖn m«iexample, plant and animal cells that tr-êng ®èi lËp. C©y mét n¨m tån t¹i mïaexpress the introduced neo r gene are ®«ng nh- c¸c h¹t gièng ngñ nghØ, trong
  15. 15. dosage compensation 85khi nhiÒu c©y l©u n¨m tån t¹i nh- th©n cñ, double helix Describes the coiling of theth©n rÔ, hoÆc loμi th©n èng. Ph¸ vì sím two strands of the double-stranded DNAh¹t gièng ngñ nghØ sau thu ho¹ch cã thÓ molecule, resembling a spiral staircase inlμ vÊn ®Ò chÝnh ®Ó duy tr× chÊt l-îng dinh which the base pairs form the steps andd-ìng vμ/ hoÆc chøc n¨ng, hÇu hÕt khã the sugar-phosphate backbones form thekh¨n trong ph¸ vì ngñ sÏ dÉn tíi h¹t gièng rails on each side. One strand runs 3?5,kÐm n¶y mÇm. Xem: quiescent. while the complementary one runs 5?3dosage compensation A regulatory xo¾n kÐp M« t¶ sù xo¾n l¹i cña hai sîimechanism for sex-linked genes, to allow ph©n tö DNA sîi kÐp, gièng cÇu thang xo¾nequivalent levels of gene expression from èc trong ®ã cÆp baz¬ h×nh thμnh bËc vμ(in mammals) XY or XX genotypes, even trôc phèt ph¸t- ®-êng h×nh thμnh ®-êngthough the gene copy number in XX is tay vÞn ë mçi bªn. Mét sîi ch¹y 3 ‘? 5 ‘,double that in XY. See: sex linkage, Barr trong khi mét bæ sung ch¹y 5 ‘? 3 ‘body. double recessive An organism nnbï liÒu l-îng C¬ chÕ ®iÒu chØnh c¸c gen homozygous for a recessive allele at eachliªn kÕt giíi tÝnh, ®Ó cho phÐp c¸c møc of two loci. ..v vt-¬ng ®-¬ng biÓu thÞ gen tõ (trong ®éng lÆn kÐp Mét sinh vËt ®ång hîp tö v× alenvËt cã vó) c¸c kiÓu di truyÒn XY hoÆc XX, lÆn t¹i mçi mét vÞ trÝ cña hai æ gen. ch chmÆc dï sè b¶n sao gen trong XX gÊp hai double-stranded complementary DNAtrong XY. Xem: sex linkage, Barr body. (Abbreviation: dscDNA). A double- sa sadouble crossing-over The formation of stranded DNA molecule created from atwo chiasmata within a chromosome arm, cDNA template.leading to the generation of a double chch DNA bæ sung sîi kÐp (viÕt t¾t: dscDNA).recombinant gamete with respect to Mét ph©n tö DNA sîi kÐp ®-îc t¹o ra tõ iigenes located within the segment defined mét khung mÉu cDNAby the two genes concerned. ..d d double-stranded DNA (Abbreviation:b¾t chÐo ngoμi kÐp Sù h×nh thμnh hai chç dsDNA). Two complementary strands ofb¾t chÐo trong mét nh¸nh nhiÔm s¾c thÓ, DNA annealed in the form of a double w wdÉn tíi ph¸t sinh mét giao tö t¸i tæ hîp kÐp helix. Synonym: duplex DNA.liªn quan c¸c gen ®Þnh vÞ bªn trong ®o¹n®-îc x¸c ®Þnh do hai gen liªn quan. DNA sîi kÐp (viÕt t¾t: dscDNA). Hai sîi w w bæ sung cña DNA ®-îc ng©m trong h×nhdouble fertilization A process, unique to d¹ng cña mét chuçi xo¾n kÐp.Tõ ®ångflowering plants, in which two male nuclei,ww nghÜa: duplex DNA.which have travelled down the pollen tube,separately fuse with different female nuclei doubling time thêi gian nh©n ®«i xem :in the embryo sac. The first male nucleus cell generation time.fuses with the egg cell to form the zygote; down promoter mutation A mutation thatthe second male nucleus fuses with the decreases the frequency of initiation oftwo polar nuclei to form a triploid nucleus transcription. This leads to a fall in thethat develops into the endosperm. level of mRNA compared to the wild typethô tinh kÐp Mét qu¸ tr×nh, duy nhÊt ®èi state.víi loμi c©y ra hoa, trong ®ã hai nh©n ®ùc, ®ét biÕn khëi ®Çu thuËn §ét biÕn lμm®-îc chuyÓn xuèng èng phÊn, kÕt hîp gi¶m tÇn sè b¾t ®Çu phiªn m·. §iÒu nμyriªng víi nh©n c¸i trong tói ph«i. Sù dung dÉn tíi gi¶m møc mRNA so víi tr¹ng th¸ihîp nh©n ®ùc thø nhÊt víi tÕ bμo trøng ®Ó kiÓu d¹i.h×nh thμnh hîp tö; sù dung hîp nh©n ®ùc down-regulate To induce genetically athø hai víi hai nh©n cùc ®Ó h×nh thμnh mét reduction in the level of a gene’sh¹t nh©n thÓ tam béi ph¸t triÓn thμnh néi expression.ph«i nhò.
  16. 16. downstream 86®iÒu chØnh xuèng Lμm gi¶m møc biÓu disease-causing genes in the humanthÞ gen di truyÒn. genome, more than half have andownstream 1. With respect to DNA, the analogous gene in the Drosophila genome.nucleotides that lie in the 3 direction from ruåi dÊm bông ®en Lo¹i ruåi dÊm, ®-îcthe point of reference, which is frequently dïng trong nhiÒu n¨m lμm m« h×nh dithe site at which transcription is initiated. truyÒn häc nh©n chuÈn. Cña gÇn 300 genThis is generally designated +1, with g©y bÖnh trong hÖ gen ng-êi, h¬n mét nöadownstream nucleotides numbered +2, cã gen t-¬ng tù víi hÖ gen ruåi giÊm.+10 etc. 2. In chemical engineering, those drug thuèc xem: therapeutic agentphases of a manufacturing process that drug delivery Method by which a drug isfollow the biotransformation stage. delivered to its site of action. For traditionalUsually refers to the recovery and drugs this is another name for formulation.purification of the product of a However, biotechnology has allowed thefermentation process. See: downstream development of a range of newprocessing. nn therapeutic-agent delivery systems, suchxu«i dßng 1. Cã liªn quan víi DNA, nh÷ng as liposomes and other encapsulation ..v vnuleotit n»m theo h-íng 3 tõ ®iÓm liªn hÖ, techniques, and a range of mechanismsth-êng lμ vÞ trÝ mμ t¹i ®ã phiªn m· b¾t ®Çu. that target a therapeutic agent to a ch chë ®©y th-êng ®-îc chØ +1, víi nuleotit xu«i particular cell or tissue.dßng ghi sè +2, +10 v©n v©n. 2. Trong kü chuyÓn nhËn thuèc Ph-¬ng ph¸p ®Ó mét sa sathuËt hãa häc, c¸c giai ®o¹n cña qu¸ tr×nh lo¹i thuèc ®-îc ph©n ph¸t tíi vÞ trÝ ho¹ts¶n xuÊt tiÕp theo giai ®o¹n biÕn ®æi sinh ®éng. Víi c¸c thuèc truyÒn thèng ®©y lμhäc. Th-êng ®Ò cËp tíi kh«i phôc vμ lμm chch tªn chÝnh thøc ho¸ kh¸c. Tuy nhiªn, ngμnhs¹ch s¶n phÈm cña qu¸ tr×nh lªn men. c«ng nghÖ sinh häc ®· cho phÐp ph¸t triÓn iiXem: downstream processing. mét lo¹t c¸c hÖ thèng chuyÓn nhËn t¸cdownstream processing A general term ..d d nh©n-liÖu ph¸p ch÷a bÖnh míi, nh-for biotechnological processes which liposomes vμ c¸c kü thuËt bäc nang kh¸cfollow the biology, i.e. fermentation of a nhau, vμ mét lo¹t c¸c c¬ chÕ cïng nh»mmicro-organism or growth of a plant. w w ®Ých mét t¸c nh©n ch÷a bÖnh cho tÕ bμoParticularly relevant to fermentation hoÆc m« riªng biÖt.processes, which produce a large quantity dry weight The weight of tissue obtained w wof a dilute mixture of substances, products following sufficiently prolonged oven-dryingand micro-organisms. These must be at high temperature to remove all water.wwseparated, and the product concentrated, Freeze-drying may also be employed butpurified and converted into a useful form. generates a slightly different resultxö lý xu«i dßng Mét thuËt ng÷ chung chØ because bound water is not removed.c¸c qu¸ tr×nh c«ng nghÖ sinh häc kÕ tiÕp See: free water.sinh häc, nh- lªn men vi sinh vËt hoÆc sinh träng l-îng kh« Träng l-îng m« thu ®-îctr-ëng thùc vËt. Liªn quan ®Æc biÖt víi c¸c sau khi sÊy kÐo dμi ®Çy ®ñ ë nhiÖt ®é caoqu¸ tr×nh lªn men, ®Ó s¶n xuÊt mét sè ®Ó lo¹i bá toμn bé n-íc. §«ng kh« cã thÓl-îng lín hçn hîp nhiÒu lo¹i chÊt, s¶n còng ®-îc sö dông nh-ng ph¸t sinh kÕtphÈm vμ vi sinh vËt. Chóng cÇn ph¶i ®-îc qu¶ kh¸c nhau v× n-íc liªn kÕt ch-a ®-îcph©n t¸ch, vμ s¶n phÈm ®-îc tËp trung, lo¹i bá. Xem: free water.lμm s¹ch vμ chuyÓn ®æi thμnh d¹ng h÷uÝch. dscDNA xem: double-stranded complementary DNA.drift xu thÕ xem: genetic drift. dsDNA DNA sîi kÐp xem: dsDNA.Drosophila melanogaster The fruit fly,used for many years as a model for dTTP Rarely used but strictly correcteukaryotic genetics. Of the nearly 300 abbreviation for deoxythymidine 5-
  17. 17. dual culture 87triphosphate. Required for DNA synthesis lo¹i m« thùc vËt vμ mét lo¹i sinh vËt (nh-since it is a direct precursor molecule. See: lμ giun trßn) hoÆc mét hiÖn t-îng ký sinh/TTP. vi sinh vËt (nh- mét lo¹i nÊm) mang tÝnhdTTP RÊt Ýt khi ®-îc dïng nh-ng ch÷ viÕt b¾t buéc. Kü thuËt nu«i cÊy kÐp ®-îc söt¾t ®óng chÝnh x¸c cña deoxythymidin 5 dông v× liªn quan nhiÒu môc ®Ých, bao gåmtriphosphat. CÇn thiÕt ®Ó tæng hîp DNA v× ®¸nh gi¸ c¸c mèi t-¬ng t¸c ký sinh vËt chñnã lμ mét ph©n tö tiÒn chÊt trùc tiÕp. xem: vμ s¶n phÈm nu«i cÊy v« trïng.TTP. duplex DNA Xem: double-strandeddual culture A culture made of a plant DNA.tissue and one organism (such as a duplication Multiple occurrence of: 1. Anematode) or an obligate parasite/micro- DNA sequence within a defined length oforganism (such as a fungus). Dual culture DNA; or 2. A specific segment in the sametechniques are used for a variety of chromosome or genome.purposes, including assessing host- lÆp ®o¹n BiÕn cè phøc t¹p cña: 1. Mét tr×nh nnparasite interactions and the production ofaxenic cultures. tù DNA trong mét ®o¹n DNA ®-îc x¸c ®Þnh; ..v vnu«i cÊy kÐp Nu«i cÊy ®-îc t¹o ra do mét hoÆc 2. Mét ®o¹n ®Æc biÖt trong cïng mét nhiÔm s¾c thÓ hoÆc hÖ gen. ch ch sa sa ch ii ch ..d d w w w www
  18. 18. 88 ectopic Anomalous situation or relation, particularly with respect to pregnancy, where the foetus is implanted outside the uterus. l¹c vÞ T×nh tr¹ng hoÆc mèi liªn quan kh¸c Ee th-êng, ®Æc biÖt cã mang thai, khi bμo thai ®-îc g¾n ngoμi tö cung. edible vaccine Edible antigen-containing material, that activates the immune systemE site vÞ trÝ E xem: exit site. via gut-associated lymphoid tissues. AE. coli xem: Escherichia coli. preferred route for vaccine administration,EBV xem: estimated breeding value. particularly in areas where theEC xem: Enzyme Commission number. technological infrastructure needed for maintenance of vaccines is absent. Theecdysone A steroid hormone in insects nn vaccine is synthesized in vivo in the ediblestimulating the synthesis of proteins parts of transgenic plants (e.g. grains, ..v vinvolved in moulting and metamorphosis. tubers, fruits, etc.) or eggs.Mét hãc m«n steriod cña c«n trïng kÝch vacxin thùc phÈm VËt chÊt chøa kh¸ng ch chthÝch tæng hîp protein g©y rông l«ng vμ nguyªn ¨n ®-îc, ®Ó kÝch ho¹t hÖ thènggióp c«n trïng vò hãa. miÔn dÞch nhê c¸c m« b¹ch huyÕt kÕt hîp sa saeclosion 1. Emergence of an adult insect víi ruét non. Mét con ®-êng thÝch hîp ®Ófrom the pupal stage. 2. Initial phase of qu¶n lý vacxin, ®Æc biÖt trong c¸c vïng n¬igermination of fungal spores. cßn thiÕu c¬ së h¹ tÇng c«ng nghÖ cÇn chchsù në 1. Vò ho¸ cña c«n trïng tr-ëng thiÕt ®Ó duy tr× vacxin. Vacxin ®-îc tæng iithμnh chuyÓn tõ giai ®o¹n nhéng. 2. K× ®Çu hîp trong c¬ thÓ ë trong thμnh phÇn ¨nn¶y mÇm cña bμo tö nÊm. ®-îc cña thùc vËt chuyÓn gen (vÝ dô nh- ..d decological diversity ®a d¹ng sinh th¸i lμ h¹t, th©n cñ, qu¶, v.v.,) hoÆc trøng.häc xem: biodiversity. editing so¹n th¶o xem: splicing (1). w weconomic trait locus (Abbreviation: ETL). EDTA xem: splicing (1).A locus influencing a trait that contributes EDV viÕt t¾t cña essential derivation ofto producer’s income. w w varieties.æ gen tÝnh tr¹ng kinh tÕ (viÕt t¾t: ETL) VÞ effector cells Cells of the immune systemtrÝ gen cã ¶nh h-ëng ®Õn mét tÝnh tr¹ngww that are responsible for the production ofgãp phÇn t¨ng thu nhËp cho ng-êi s¶n cell-mediated cytotoxicity.xuÊt. tÕ bμo t¸c ®éng TÕ bμo cña hÖ thèng miÔnecosystem The complex of a living dÞch cã tr¸ch nhiÖm s¶n xuÊt cytotoxicitycommunity and its environment, ®iÒu chØnh tÕ bμo.functioning as an ecological unit in nature. effector molecule A molecule thatSee: abiotic; biotic factors. influences the behaviour of a regulatoryhÖ sinh th¸i Phøc hÖ céng ®ång sèng vμ molecule, such as a repressor protein,m«i tr-êng cña nã, chøc n¨ng nh- mét ®¬n thereby influencing gene expression.vÞ sinh th¸i trong tù nhiªn. Xem: abiotic; ph©n tö t¸c ®éng Ph©n tö cã ¶nh h-ëngbiotic factors. ®Õn sù thÓ hiÖn ph©n tö ®iÒu hoμ, nh-ecotype A population or a strain of an protein k×m h·m, do vËy lμm ¶nh h-ëngorganism that is adapted to a particular biÓu thÞ gen.habitat. egg 1. The fertilized zygote in egg-layingkiÓu sinh th¸i QuÇn thÓ hoÆc chñng sinh animals. 2. The mature femalevËt thÝch nghi víi n¬i c- tró riªng biÖt. reproductive cell in animals and plants.
  19. 19. EGS 89trøng 1. Hîp tö ®-îc thô tinh cña ®éng used to resolve complex mixtures ofvËt ®Î trøng. 2.TÕ bμo sinh s¶n c¸i tr-ëng macromolecules into their components. Itsthμnh cña ®éng vËt vμ thùc vËt. principle is to subject samples to an electricEGS xem: external guide sequence. field applied across a porous matrix. Molecules will migrate under theseEIA xem: enzyme immunoassay, ELISA. conditions at a rate dependent on their netelastin A fibrous protein that is the major electric charge and/or their molecularconstituent of the yellow elastic fibres of weight. See: agarose gelanimal connective tissue. electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gelMét protein sîi lμ phÇn tö chÝnh cña sîi electrophoresis, denaturing gradient®μn håi mμu vμng cña m« liªn hîp ®éng gel electrophoresis, capillaryvËt. electrophoresis, sodium dodecylelectro-blotting The electrophoretic sulphate polyacrylamide geltransfer of DNA, RNA or protein from a electrophoresis, thermal gel gradientgel, in which they have been separated, electrophoresis pulsed-field gel nnto a support matrix, such as electrophoresis, and iso-electric ..v vnitrocellulose. A transfer technique focusing gelemployed in Southern and northern ®iÖn di Kü thuËt sinh häc ph©n tö ®-îc ch chblotting. dïng phæ biÕn, víi nhiÒu ph-¬ng ¸n,thÈm t¸ch ®iÖn ChuyÓn giao hiÖn t-îng th-êng ®Ó ph©n t¸ch hçn hîp phøc t¹p cña ®¹i ph©n tö thμnh nh÷ng phÇn nhá h¬n. sa sa®iÖn chuyÓn cña DNA, RNA hoÆc proteintõ mét chÊt gel, trong ®ã chóng ®-îc ph©n Nguyªn lý cña nã lμ ®-a mÉu thö tíi métt¸ch, thμnh hçn hîp hç trî, nh- tr-êng ®iÖn ®-îc ¸p dông qua m«i tr-êng chchnitroxeluloza. kü thuËt di chuyÓn ®-îc sö xèp. Ph©n tö sÏ di chuyÓn d-íi ®iÒu kiÖn nμy víi nhÞp ®é tïy thuéc vμo tÝch n¹p ®iÖn iidông trong lai m¹ch ®¬n Southern vμNorthern. vμ/hoÆc träng l-îng ph©n tö. Xem: (nh- ..d d trªn)electrochemical sensor Biosensors, suchas an enzyme electrode, in which a electroporation The induction of transientbiological process is harnessed to an pores in bacterial cells or protoplasts by w welectrical sensor system. Other types the application of a pulse of electricity.couple a biological event to an electrical These pores allow the entry of exogenous w wone via a range of mechanisms, including DNA into the cell. Widely used for thethe reduction of oxygen or pH change. transformation of bacteria.wwc¶m øng ®iÖn ho¸ §Çu thô c¶m sinh häc, c¶m ®iÖn C¶m øng cña lç thë t¹m thêinh- ®iÖn cùc men, trong ®ã qu¸ tr×nh sinh trong tÕ bμo vi khuÈn hoÆc thÓ nguyªn sinhhäc ®-îc khai th¸c cña hÖ thèng c¶m øng do sö dông xung ®iÖn. C¸c lç thë cho phÐp®iÖn. C¸c kiÓu cÆp ®«i tr-êng hîp sinh häc DNA ngo¹i sinh x©m nhËp vμo tÕ bμo.kh¸c víi mét ®iÖn cùc nhê mét lo¹t c¬ chÕ, §-îc sö dông réng r·i ®Ó biÕn n¹p vibao gåm gi¶m oxi hoÆc thay ®æi pH. khuÈn.electron microscope (Abbreviation: EM). ELISA Abbreviation for enzyme-linkedA microscope that uses an electron beam immunosorbent assay. An immunoassay,focussed by magnetic ‘lenses’. See: i.e. an antibody-based technique for thescanning electron microscope. diagnosis of the presence and quantity of specific molecules in a mixed sample. ItkÝnh hiÓn vi ®iÖn tö (viÕt t¾t: EM). KÝnh combines the specificity of anhiÓn vi cã sö dông mét chïm tia ®iÖn tö immunoglobulin with the detectability of®-îc tËp trung b»ng nh÷ng thÊu kÝnh an enzyme-generated coloured product. Inm¹nh. xem: scanning electron microscope. one form, the primary antibody (specificelectrophoresis A ubiquitous molecular to the test protein) is adsorbed onto a solidbiology technique, with many variants, substrate, and a known amount of the
  20. 20. elite tree 90sample is added; all the antigen in the cÊy tÕ bμo thùc vËt trong èng nghiÖm.sample is bound by the antibody. A second embryo cloning The creation of identicalantibody (conjugated with an enzyme) copies of an embryo by embryo splittingspecific for a second site on the test protein or by nuclear transfer fromis added; and the enzyme generates a undifferentiated embryonic cells.colour change in the presence of a nh©n dßng ph«i T¹o thμnh c¸c b¶n saosubstrate reagent. ®ång nhÊt cña ph«i do t¸ch ph«i hoÆcELISA ViÕt t¾t cña: thö nghiÖm chuÈn ®o¸n chuyÓn nh©n tõ tÕ bμo ph«i kh«ng ph©nmiÔn dÞch liªn kÕt enzim. Thö nghiÖm miÔn hãa.dÞch, nghÜa lμ mét kü thuËt dùa vμo kh¸ng embryo culture The culture of embryosthÓ ®Ó chÈn ®o¸n sù cã mÆt vμ sè l-îng on nutrient media.cña c¸c ph©n tö trong mÉu hçn hîp. KÕthîp tÝnh chÊt ®Æc thï cña huyÕt thanh miÔn nu«i cÊy ph«i Nu«i cÊy ph«i trªn m«idÞch víi tÝnh chÊt cã thÓ nhËn biÕt cña s¶n tr-êng chÊt dinh d-ìng.phÈm ®-îc t« mμu ph¸t sinh enzim. Trong embryo multiplication and transfer nnmét d¹ng, kh¸ng thÓ ®Çu (®Æc hiÖu víi (Abbreviation: EMT). The cloning of animal ..v vprotein thö) ®-îc hót b¸m trªn dung dÞch embryos and their subsequent transfer to®Æc, vμ thªm vμo mét l-îng mÉu nhÊt ®Þnh; recipients via artificial inembryonation. ch chtÊt c¶ kh¸ng nguyªn trong mÉu ®Òu ®-îc The cloned embryos can be derived fromkh¸ng thÓ bã chÆt. Kh¸ng thÓ thø hai (liªn embryonic or adult tissue.hîp víi enzim) ®Æc hiÖu cho vÞ trÝ thø hai sa sa nh©n vμ chuyÓn ph«i (viÕt t¾t: EMT). T¹otrªn protein thö ®-îc thªm vμo; vμ enzim dßng ph«i ®éng vËt vμ chuyÓn tiÕp theoph¸t sinh thay ®æi mμu khi cã mÆt mét chÊt cho thÓ nhËn qua ghÐp ph«i nh©n t¹o. Ph«i chcht¹o ph¶n øng thuèc thö. ®-îc t¹o dßng cã thÓ b¾t nguån tõ ph«i iielite tree A phenotypically superior tree in hoÆc tõ m« tr-ëng thμnh.a tree breeding programme. embryo rescue A sequence of tissue ..d dc©y ®¼ng cÊp C©y tèt nhÊt vÒ kiÓu h×nh culture techniques utilized to enable atrong ch-¬ng tr×nh nh©n gièng c©y trång. fertilized immature embryo resulting from an interspecific cross to continue growth w welongation factors Soluble proteinsrequired for the elongation of polypeptide and development, until it can bechains on ribosomes. regenerated into an adult plant. w wnh©n tè kÐo dμi Protein hoμ tan cÇn thiÕt cøu ph«i Tr×nh tù kü thuËt nu«i cÊy m«®Ó kÐo dμi chuçi polyeptit trªn ribosom. ®-îc dïng gióp cho ph«i ch-a tr-ëng thμnhww ®-îc thô tinh do lai kh¸c loμi ®Ó tiÕp tôcembryo An immature organism in the early sinh tr-ëng vμ ph¸t triÓn, cho ®Õn khi cãstages of development. In mammals, thÓ ®-îc t¸i sinh thμnh c©y tr-ëng thμnh.develops in the first months in the uterus.In plants, it is the structure that develops embryo sac The mature femalein the megagametophyte, as result of the gametophyte in angiosperms. Generallyfertilization of an egg cell, or occasionally a seven-celled structure - two synergids,without fertilization. Somatic embryos can one egg cell, three antipodal cells (eachoften be induced in in vitro plant cell with a single haploid nucleus) and onecultures. endosperm mother cell with two haploid nuclei.ph«i Sinh vËt non trong giai ®o¹n ph¸ttriÓn sím. Trong ®éng vËt cã vó, sù ph¸t tói ph«i ThÓ giao tö c¸i tr-ëng thμnh trongtriÓn trong c¸c th¸ng ®Çu trong tö cung. c©y h¹t kÝn. Th-êng cã cÊu tróc b¶y tÕ bμoTrong c©y trång, lμ cÊu tróc ph¸t triÓn trong - hai trî bμo, mét tÕ bμo trøng, ba tÕ bμo®¹i giao tö, kÕt qu¶ cña thô tinh tÕ bμo ®èi cùc (mçi tÕ bμo ®Òu cã mét nh©n ®¬ntrøng, hoÆc ®«i khi kh«ng thô tinh. Ph«i béi) vμ mét tÕ bμo mÑ néi ph«i nhò mangx«ma cã thÓ th-êng ®-îc t¹o ra khi nu«i hai nh©n ®¬n béi.
  21. 21. embryo sexing 91embryo sexing The determination of the transfer, multiple ovulation and embryosex of an embryo prior to birth. Typically transfer.achieved by the polymerase chain embryogenesis 1. (General)reaction-mediated amplification of DNA Development of an embryo. 2. (In plants)extracted from a sample of embryonic In vitro formation of plants from planttissue. Dependent on the availability of tissues, through a pathway closelyreliable markers for the differential sex resembling normal embryogeny from thechromosome. zygote. Somatic cell embryogenesis isx¸c ®Þnh giíi tÝnh ph«i X¸c ®Þnh giíi tÝnh an alternative technique. The generationtr-íc ph«i sinh në. Sù gi¸m ®Þnh ®¹t ®-îc of embryos has two stages: initiation anddo ph¶n À

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