1                                                 of distinct ACC synthase genes, which are                               ...
acentric chromosome                                                                     2acentric chromosome Chromosome   ...
additive genes                                                                              3nhÊt (Ýt nhÊt mét phÇn) víi t...
adenylic acid                                                                            4adenylic acid Synonym for adenos...
AFLP                                                                                        5AFLP ViÕt t¾t cña amplified f...
Agrobacterium tumefacien                                                                6genetic engineering of plants.   ...
allele frequency                                                                        7to denote dominance, and lower ca...
allosome                                                                                 8different        species.       ...
amber stop codon                                                                          9amber stop codon bé ba kÕt thóc...
amplicon                                                                               10ampicillin Lo¹i kh¸ng sinh kiÓu p...
anaerobe                                                                                11sù ®ång hãa Mét trong sè hai cÊp...
angiogenesis                                                                            12thÓ lÖch béi Sinh vËt hoÆc tÕ bμ...
antagonist                                                                              13which the growth of one is inhib...
antibody                                                                                 14favoured because of perceived r...
anticodon                                                                              15mÉu ®Ó dÞch m·. Tõ ®ã bæ sung RNA...
antinutrient                                                                           16t¸c nh©n kh¸ng khuÈn BÊt kú t¸c n...
anti-terminator                                                                         17®«ng m¸u), chøa kh¸ng thÓ .     ...
apoptosis                                                                              18apoptosis The process of programm...
artificial medium                                                                        19 conception possible.          ...
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 1
Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 1
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Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 1
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Tu dien cong nghe sinh hoc 1

  1. 1. 1 of distinct ACC synthase genes, which are differentially regulated in response to a variety of developmental, environmental and chemical factors. enzim tæng hîp ACC ViÕt t¾t cña: 1- Aa aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylaza. Enzim xóc t¸c ph¹m vi giíi h¹n nhÞp ®é cña ®-êng mßn sinh tæng hîp ª-ti-len, vμ ®Æc biÖt quan träng khi xö lý lμm chÝn qu¶. ThùcA ViÕt t¾t cña adenine vËt tiªu biÓu mang mét sè l-îng gen tængAb kh¸ng thÓ ViÕt t¾t cña antibody. hîp ACC riªng biÖt, chóng ®-îc ®iÒu chØnhABC model Widely accepted model of kh¸c nhau ®Ó ph¶n øng l¹i sù ®a d¹ng cñaflower organ identity that appears generally c¸c t¸c nh©n ho¸ häc, m«i tr-êng vμ ph¸tapplicable to distantly related triÓn.dicotyledonous, although less well to nn acceptor control The regulation of themonocotyledonous plants.The model rate of respiration by the availability of ADP ..v vincorporates the Arabidopsis genes as a phosphate acceptor.required for flower organ identity. ®iÒu khiÓn chÊt nhËn §iÒu khiÓn nhÞp ®é ch chm« h×nh ABC M« h×nh ®-îc chÊp nhËn h« hÊp do cã s½n ADP lμm chÊt nhËn phètréng r·i vÒ sù nhËn biÕt c¬ quan hoa thùc ph¸t. sa savËt mμ xuÊt hiÖn thÝch hîp chung víi c¸c acceptor junction site The junctionc©y hai l¸ mÇm quan hÖ xa, tuy vËy Ýt thÝch between the 3 end of an intron and the 5hîp víi c©y mét l¸ mÇm. M« h×nh hîp nhÊt chch end of an exon. See: donor junction site.c¸c gen Arabidopsis cÇn thiÕt ®Ó nhËn biÕt vÞ trÝ nèi thÓ nhËn VÞ trÝ nèi gi÷a mót 3 iic¬ quan hoa. tr×nh tù kh«ng m· ho¸ vμ mót 5 tr×nh tùabiotic Absence of living organisms. ..d d m· ho¸. Xem: donor junction site.v« sinh V¾ng mÆt sinh vËt sèng. accessory bud A lateral bud occurringabscisic acid A phytohormone at the base of a terminal bud or at the w wimplicated in the control of many plant side of an axillary bud.responses to abiotic stress, such as extent mÇm phô MÇm bªn n¶y në t¹i gèc mÇm w wof stomatal opening under water deficit (i.e. ngän hoÆc ë c¹nh mÇm n¸ch.drought) conditions. acclimatization The adaptation of a livingwwaxit abscisic Hãc m«n thùc vËt liªn quan organism (plant, animal or micro-®Õn ®iÒu khiÓn ph¶n øng thùc vËt víi c¨ng organism) to a changed environment thatth¼ng v« sinh, nh- phÇn më réng khÝ khæng subjects it to physiological stress.trong ®iÒu kiÖn thiÕu n-íc (nghÜa lμ h¹n Acclimatization should not be confusedh¸n) with adaptation.abzyme Xem: catalytic antibody. thuÇn ho¸ ThÝch nghi cña sinh vËt sèngacaricide A pesticide used to kill or control (thùc vËt, ®éng vËt hoÆc vi sinh vËt) víimites or ticks. m«i tr-êng thay ®æi vèn g©y c¨ng th¼ngthuèc diÖt ve N«ng d-îc ®-îc dïng ®Ó sinh lý. ThuÇn ho¸ kh«ng nªn nhÇm lÉndiÖt hoÆc h¹n chÕ ve hoÆc bÐt. víi thÝch øng.ACC synthase Abbreviation for 1- acellular Tissues or organisms that are notaminocyclopropane-1-carboxylase. The made up of separate cells but often haveenzyme catalyses the rate limiting step in more than one nucleus.the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, and is phi tÕ bμo C¸c m« hoÆc sinh vËt kh«ngparticularly significant in the fruit ripening ®-îc t¹o ra tõ nh÷ng tÕ bμo riªng biÖtprocess. Plants typically carry a number nh-ng th-êng cã h¬n mét nh©n.
  2. 2. acentric chromosome 2acentric chromosome Chromosome activated charcoal Charcoal that hasfragment lacking a centromere. been treated to remove hydrocarbons andnhiÔm s¾c thÓ kh«ng t©m §o¹n nhiÔm to increase its adsorptive properties. It actss¾c thÓ thiÕu t©m ®éng. by condensing and holding a gas or solute onto its surface; thus inhibitory substancesacetyl CoA ViÕt t¾t cña acetyl co-enzyme in nutrient medium may be adsorbed toA. charcoal included in the medium.acetyl co-enzyme A (Abbreviationt: acetyl than ho¹t tÝnh Than ®· xö lý lo¹i bá hy-CoA) A compound formed in the ®r«-cac-bon vμ lμm t¨ng tÝnh hÊp phô. T¸cmitochondria when an acetyl group dông do c« ®Æc vμ hÊp phô khÝ hoÆc chÊt(CH3CO-) - derived from breakdown of fats, tan trªn bÒ mÆt; do vËy c¸c chÊt k×m h·mproteins, or carbohydrates - combines trong m«i tr-êng dinh d-ìng cã thÓ ®-îcwith the thiol group (-SH) of co-enzyme hót b¸m vμo than cã trong m«i tr-êng.A. active transport The movement of aacetyl co-enzim A Hîp chÊt h×nh thμnh nn molecule or groups of molecules across atrong ty thÓ khi gèc axetyl (CH3CO-) - b¾t cell membrane, which requires the ..v vnguån tõ ph©n huû chÊt bÐo, protein, hoÆc expenditure of cellular energy, because thehydrat cacbon - kÕt hîp víi gèc thiol (-SH) direction of movement is against thecña co-enzyme A. ch ch prevailing concentration gradient.ACP ViÕt t¾t cña acyl carrier protein. vËn chuyÓn tÝch cùc ChuyÓn ®éng cña sa saacquired Developed in response to the ph©n tö hoÆc nhãm ph©n tö qua mμng tÕenvironment, not inherited, such as a bμo, yªu cÇu chi phÝ n¨ng l-îng tÕ bμo, v×character trait (acquired characteristic) h-íng chuyÓn ®éng lμ ng-îc l¹i víi -u thÕ chchresulting from environmental effect(s). cf gradient nång ®é. iiacclimatization. acute transfection Short-termtËp nhiÔm Ph¸t triÓn ®Ó ph¶n øng l¹i m«i ..d d transfection.tr-êng, kh«ng di truyÒn, nh- mét tÝnh tr¹ng truyÒn nhiÔm cÊp ViÕt gän transfection.riªng (®Æc tÝnh tËp nhiÔm) do ¶nh h-ëngm«i tr-êng. So s¸nh víi: acclimatization acyl carrier protein (Abbreviation: ACP). w w A class of molecules that bind acylacridine dyes A class of positively charged intermediates during the formation of long-polycyclic molecules that intercalate into w w chain fatty acids. ACPs are importantDNA and induce frameshift mutations. because of their involvement in many ofthuèc nhuém acridin Líp ph©n tö nhiÒu the reactions necessary for in vivo fattywwvßng tÝch ®iÖn d-¬ng ®-îc n¹p vμo DNA acid synthesis.vμ g©y ®ét biÕn xª dÞch khung ®äc. protªin vËn chuyÓn gèc acyl (ViÕt t¾t:acrocentric A chromosome that has its ACP). Líp ph©n tö nèi c¸c chÊt trung giancentromere near the end. acyl trong qu¸ tr×nh h×nh thμnh a-xÝt bÐo.nhiÔm s¾c thÓ t©m ngän NhiÔm s¾c thÓ ACP rÊt quan träng v× cã nhiÒu mèi liªncã t©m ®éng ë gÇn mót. quan víi c¸c ph¶n øng cÇn thiÕt ®Ó tængacropetal Arising or developing in a hîp a-xÝt bÐo trong c¬ thÓ.longitudinal sequence beginning at the adaptation Adjustment of a population tobase and proceeding towards the apex. changes in environment over generations,Opposite: basipetal. associated (at least in part) with genetich-íng ngän XuÊt hiÖn hoÆc tr×nh tù ph¸t changes resulting from selection imposedtriÓn theo chiÒu däc b¾t ®Çu ë gèc vμ tiÕp by the changed environment. Not®Õn phÝa ngän. Ng-îc víi: basipetal acclimatization.activated carbon c¸c bon ho¹t tÝnh Xem: thÝch øng §iÒu chØnh quÇn thÓ lμm thayactivated charcoal. trong m«i tr-êng qua c¸c thÕ hÖ, ®-îc hîp
  3. 3. additive genes 3nhÊt (Ýt nhÊt mét phÇn) víi thay ®æi di adenosine triphosphate (adenosine 5-truyÒn b¾t nguån tõ chän läc b¾t buéc do triphosphate) (Abbreviation: ATP). Am«i tr-êng thay ®æi. Kh«ng ph¶i lμ thuÇn nucleotide of fundamental importance asho¸ khÝ hËu. the major carrier of chemical energy in alladditive genes Genes whose net effect living organisms. It is also required for RNAis the sum of their individual allelic effects, synthesis since it is a direct precursori.e. hey show neither dominance nor molecule. ATP consists of adenosine withepistasis. three phosphate groups, linked together linearly. The phosphates are attached togen céng tÝnh Gen cã ¶nh h-ëng thùc lμ adenosine through the 5-hydroxyl of itstæng céng c¸c hiÖu øng alel riªng lÎ, nghÜa ribose (sugar) portion. Upon hydrolysis,lμ chóng chØ ra kh«ng ph¶i tÝnh tréi vμ còng these bonds yield either one molecule ofkh«ng lÊn ¸t. adenosine 5-diphosphate (ADP) and theadditive genetic variance The net effect inorganic phosphate ion, or one moleculeof the expresson of additive genes, and of adenosine 5-monophosphate (AMP) nnthus the chief cause of the resemblance and pyrophosphate; in both casesbetween relatives. It represents the main ..v v releasing energy that is used to powerdeterminant of the response of a biological processes. ATP is regeneratedpopulation to selection. Formally, the by the phosphorylation of AMP and ADP. ch chvariance of breeding values. nucleotit (ViÕt t¾t: ATP) Mét nucleotit quanph-¬ng sai di truyÒn céng tÝnh ¶nh träng c¬ b¶n v× lμ thÓ mang chÝnh n¨ng sa sah-ëng râ biÓu thÞ gen céng tÝnh, vμ nh- l-îng hãa häc trong toμn bé sinh vËt sèng.vËy lμ nguyªn nh©n chÝnh cña sù gièng ATP cßn cÇn thiÕt ®Ó tæng hîp RNA khi lμ chchnhau gi÷a c¸c d¹ng th©n thuéc. §¹i diÖn ph©n tö tiÒn chÊt trùc tiÕp. ATP gåm cãcho yÕu tè quyÕt ®Þnh chÝnh cña ph¶n øng adenosine víi ba gèc phèt ph¸t, liªn kÕt iiquÇn thÓ víi chän läc. VÒ h×nh thøc, tuyÕn tÝnh víi nhau. Phèt ph¸t ®-îc g¾n ..d dph-¬ng sai gi¸ trÞ nh©n gièng sinh s¶n. liÒn víi adenosine qua 5-hydroxyl cñaadenine (Abbreviation: A). One the bases phÇn ribose (®-êng). Sau thuû ph©n, liªnfound in DNA and RNA. kÕt nμy nh¶ mét ph©n tö adenosine 5- w wadenin (ViÕt t¾t: A) Ba z¬ cã trong DNA vμ diphosphate (ADP) vμ ion phèt ph¸t v« c¬,RNA. Xem: adenosine hoÆc ph©n tö adenosine 5- monophosphate (AMP) vμ liªn kÕt cao w wadenosine The (ribo)nucleoside resulting n¨ng; trong c¶ hai tr-êng hîp n¨ng l-îngfrom the combination of the base adenine gi¶i phãng lμm t¨ng c¸c qu¸ tr×nh sinh häc.ww(A) and the sugar D-ribose. The ATP ®-îc t¸i t¹o bëi qu¸ tr×nh phosphorylcorresponding deoxyribonucleoside is ho¸ AMP vμ ADP.called deoxyadenosine. See: adenosinetriphosphate, adenylic acid, dATP. adenovirus One of a group of DNA- containing viruses found in rodents, fowl,Ph©n tö (ribo) nucleosit b¾t nguån tõ kÕt cattle, monkeys, and man. In man they arehîp ba z¬ adenine (A) víi ®-êng D-ribose. responsible for respiratory-tract infections,Deoxyribonucleosit t-¬ng øng ®-îc gäi lμ but they have been exploited as a vectordeoxyadenosin. Xem: adenosine in gene therapy, especially for genestriphosphate, adenylic acid, dATP. targeted at the lungs.adenosine diphosphate (adenosine 5- adenovirót Mét trong nhãm virut chøadiphosphate) (viÕt t¾t: ADP). Xem: DNA cã trong c¸c loμi gËm nhÊm, gia cÇm,adenosine triphosphate. thó nu«i, khØ, vμ ng-êi.Trong c¬ thÓ ng-êiadenosine monophosphate (adenosine chóng lμ nguyªn nh©n nhiÔm bÖnh theo5-monophosphate) (ViÕt t¾t: AMP). ®-êng h« hÊp, nh-ng chóng ®· ®-îc khaiXem: adenylic acid, adenosine th¸c lμm vect¬ trong liÖu ph¸p gen, ®Æctriphosphate. biÖt cho c¸c gen ®Ých ë phæi.
  4. 4. adenylic acid 4adenylic acid Synonym for adenosine l-îng hãa häc, trong mét qu¸ tr×nh lu«nmonophosphate, a (ribo)nucleotide cÇn oxi khÝ quyÓn.containing the nucleoside adenosine. The affinity chromatography A method forcorresponding deoxyribonucleotide is purifying specific components in a solutioncalled deoxyadenosine 5- by exploiting their specific binding to knownmonophosphate or deoxyadenylic acid. molecule(s). The mixed solution is passedadenylic acid Tõ ®ång nghÜa víi adenosin through a column containing a solidmonophosphat, mét (ribo)nucleotit cã chøa medium to which the binding molecule isnucleosit adenosin. Deoxyribonucleotit covalently attached. See: immunoaffinityt-¬ng øng ®-îc gäi lμ chromatography; metal affinityeoxyadenosin 5-monophosphat hoÆc chromatography; pseudo-affinity chromatographyaxÝt deoxyadenylic. s¾c ký ¸i lùc Ph-¬ng ph¸p ®Ó lμm s¹chadoptive immunization The transfer of an c¸c thμnh phÇn riªng biÖt trong dung dÞchimmune state from one animal to another nn b»ng c¸ch khai th¸c mèi liªn kÕt ®Æc thïby means of lymphocyte transfusions. cña chóng víi ph©n tö nhÊt ®Þnh. Dung dÞch ..v vmiÔn dÞch nh©n t¹o ChuyÓn giao tr¹ng hçn hîp ®i qua cét cã chøa m«i tr-êng r¾nth¸i miÔn dÞch tõ mét ®éng vËt nμy sang ®Ó ph©n tö liªn kÕt ®-îc g¾n liªn kÕt ®ång ch ch®éng vËt kh¸c b»ng c¸ch truyÒn lymph« hãa trÞ. Xem: immunoaffinitybμo. chromatography; metal affinity sa saADP ViÕt t¾t cña adenosine diphosphate. chromatography; pseudo-affinityadventitious A structure arising at sites chromatography.other than the usual ones, e.g. shoots from affinity tag An amino acid sequence that chchroots or leaves, and embryos from any cell has been engineered into a protein to iiother than a zygote. make its purification easier. The tag could be another protein or a short amino acid ..d dchåi bÊt ®Þnh CÊu tróc xuÊt hiÖn t¹i vÞ trÝthay v× b×nh th-êng, vÝ dô chåi tõ rÔ hoÆc sequence, allowing purification by affinityl¸, vμ ph«i tõ mét sè tÕ bμo nμo ®ã thay v× chromatography. Synonym: purification tag. w whîp tö.aerobe A micro-organism that grows in ®Çu ¸i lùc Tr×nh tù amino acid ®· ®-îc xöthe presence of oxygen. Opposite: lý thμnh protein ®Ó dÔ lμm s¹ch. §Çu ¸i w wanaerobe. lùc cã thÓ lμ protein kh¸c hoÆc tr×nh tù amino acid ng¾n, cho phÐp lμm s¹ch bëisinh vËt hiÕu khÝ Loμi vi sinh vËt sinhww phÐp s¾c ký ¸i lùc. Tõ ®ång nghÜa:tr-ëng khi cã oxi. Ng-îc víi: anaerobe. purification tag.aerobic Active in the presence of free aflatoxins A group of toxic compounds,oxygen, e.g. aerobic bacteria that can live produced by Aspergillus flavus, that bindin the presence of oxygen. to DNA and prevent replication andh¶o khÝ Ho¹t ®éng khi cã oxi tù do, vÝ dô transcription. Aflatoxins can cause acutevi khuÈn h¶o khÝ cã thÓ sèng khi cã oxi. liver damage and cancer. A health hazardaerobic respiration A type of respiration in certain stored foods or feed.in which foodstuffs are completely oxidized aflatoxins Nhãm hçn hîp chÊt ®éc, ®-îcto carbon dioxide and water, with the s¶n xuÊt bëi nÊm mèc Aspergillus flavus,release of chemical energy, in a process kÕt khèi víi DNA vμ ng¨n ngõa dÞch m· vμrequiring atmospheric oxygen. phiªn m·. Aflatoxin cã kh¶ n¨ng g©y tænh« hÊp h¶o khÝ KiÓu h« hÊp trong ®ã thùc th-¬ng gan cÊp vμ ung th-. Nguy h¹i søcphÈm ®-îc «xy hãa hoμn toμn thμnh c¸c khoÎ cña thùc phÈm cÊt tr÷ hoÆc nu«ib« nÝch vμ n-íc, kÌm theo gi¶i phãng n¨ng d-ìng nhÊt ®Þnh.
  5. 5. AFLP 5AFLP ViÕt t¾t cña amplified fragment a cell.length polymorphism chÊt kh¸ng Mét lo¹i thuèc, hooc-m«nAg ViÕt t¾t cña antigen. hoÆc chÊt dÉn truyÒn t¹o thμnh mét phøcagar A polysaccharide gelifying agent chÊt cã vÞ trÝ thÓ nhËn. H×nh thμnh phøc hÖused in nutrient media preparations and khëi ph¸t ph¶n øng tÝch cùc tõ tÕ bμo.obtained from Rhodophyta (red algae). Agrobacterium A genus of bacteria thatBoth the type of agar and its concentration includes several plant pathogenic species,can affect the growth and appearance of causing tumour-like symptoms.cultured explants. Agrobacterium Gièng vi khuÈn bao gåmth¹ch T¸c nh©n ho¸ gel polysaccharide mét sè loμi t¸c nh©n g©y bÖnh thùc vËt,dïng trong c¸c chÕ phÈm m«i tr-êng dinh g©y ra c¸c dÊu hiÖu gièng nh- khèi u. xem:d-ìng vμ thu ®-îc tõ Rhodophyta (t¶o ®á). Agrobacterium rhizogenes, AgrobacteriumC¸c lo¹i th¹ch vμ nång ®é ®Òu cã thÓ lμm tumefaciens.¶nh h-ëng ®Õn sinh tr-ëng vμ xuÊt hiÖn Agrobacterium rhizogenes A bacterium nnm¶nh nu«i cÊy. that causes hairy root disease in some ..v vagarose The main functional constituent plants. Similar to the crown gall diseaseof agar. caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, this is achieved by the mobilization of the ch chThμnh phÇn chøc n¨ng chÝnh cña th¹ch. bacterial Ri plasmid with the transfer toagarose gel electrophoresis A method the plant of some of the genetic material sa sato separate DNA and RNA molecules on from the plasmid. This process has beenthe basis of their size, in which samples used to insert foreign genes into plant cells,are subjected to an electric field applied to chch but to a lesser extent than thea gel made with agarose. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated ii®iÖn di trªn gel agarose Ph-¬ng ph¸p transformation system, because®Ó t¸ch riªng c¸c ph©n tö DNA vμ RNA ..d d regeneration of whole plants from hairydùa theo kÝch th-íc cña chóng, trong ®ã root cultures is problematical.c¸c mÉu tïy thuéc vμo ®iÖn tr-êng ¸p dông Agrobacterium rhizogene Lo¹i vi khuÈncho mét gel agarose. w w g©y bÖnh h¹i rÔ ë mét sè thùc vËt. T-¬ngaggregate 1. A clump or mass formed by tù bÖnh nèt sÇn ®-îc g©y ra bëigathering or collecting units. 2. A body of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, ®-îc t¹o w wloosely associated cells, such as a friable thμnh do sù huy ®éng cña Ri plasmid vicallus or cell suspension. 3. Coarse inert khuÈn cïng viÖc chuyÓn cho c©y mét sèwwmaterial, such as gravel, that is mixed with vËt chÊt di truyÒn tõ plasmid. Qu¸ tr×nh nμysoil to increase its porosity. 4. A serological ®-îc dïng ®Ó chÌn c¸c gen l¹ vμo tÕ bμoreaction in which the antibody and c©y, nh-ng ph¹m vi nhá h¬n so víiantigen react and precipitate. Agrobacterium tumefacien- hÖ biÕn n¹ptËp hîp 1. Côm hoÆc khèi h×nh thμnh do trung gian, do t¸i sinhÈc mét thùc vËt tõnhiÒu ®¬n vÞ tÝch tô hoÆc s-u tËp. 2. ThÓ viÖc nu«i cÊy rÔ t¬ lμ mét sù khã kh¨n.kÕt hîp kh«ng chÆt chÏ nhiÒu tÕ bμo, nh- Agrobacterium tumefaciens A bacteriumlμ m« sÑo rêi r¹c hoÆc huyÒn phï tÕ bμo that causes crown gall disease in some3. VËt liÖu th« tr¬, nh- lμ sái, ®-îc trén lÉn plants. The bacterium characteristicallyvíi ®Êt ®Ó t¨ng thªm ®é xèp. 4. Ph¶n øng infects a wound, and incorporates ahuyÕt thanh trong ®ã kh¸ng thÓ vμ kh¸ng segment of Ti plasmid DNA into the hostnguyªn ph¶n øng vμ kÕt tña. genome. This DNA causes the host cellagonist A drug, hormone or transmitter to grow into a tumour-like structure thatsubstance that forms a complex with a synthesizes specific opines that only thereceptor site. The formation of the pathogen can metabolize. This DNA-complex triggers an active response from transfer mechanism is exploited in the
  6. 6. Agrobacterium tumefacien 6genetic engineering of plants. cã mμu ë da, tãc vμ m¾t. C©y b¹ch t¹ngAgrobacterium tumefacien Vi khuÈn g©y thiÕu chÊt diÖp lôc.ra bÖnh nèt sÇn trong mét sè thùc vËt. Lo¹i albino 1. An organism lackingvi khuÈn nμy chuyÓn nhiÔm ®Æc tr-ng vÕt pigmentation, due to genetic factors. Theth-¬ng, vμ hîp nhÊt ®o¹n DNA Ti plasmid condition is albinism 2. A conspicuousvμo hÖ gen ký chñ. DNA khiÕn cho tÕ bμo plastid mutant involving loss ofký chñ t¨ng tr-ëng thμnh mét cÊu tróc chlorophyll.gièng nh- khèi u ®Ó tæng hîp c¸c s¶n phÈm thÓ b¹ch t¹ng 1. Sinh vËt thiÕu hÖ s¾c tè®Æc biÖt mμ chØ t¸c nh©n g©y bÖnh míi cã do nh©n tè di truyÒn. §iÒu kiÖn lμ b¹ch t¹ngthÓ chuyÓn ho¸. C¬ chÕ chuyÓn ®æi DNA 2. §ét biÕn l¹p thÓ dÔ nhËn biÕt kÐo theo®-îc khai th¸c trong kü thuËt di truyÒn thùc mÊt chÊt diÖp lôc.vËt. Xem: T - DNA. aleurone The outermost layer of theAgrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated endosperm in a seed, and the site oftransformation The process of DNA enzymes concerned with endosperm nntransfer from Agrobacterium digestion during seedling growth.tumefaciens to plants, that occurs ..v v mμng nhò Líp ngoμi cïng cña néi nhònaturally during crown gall disease, and h¹t, vμ vÞ trÝ cña c¸c enzim liªn quan ®Õncan be used as a method of tiªu ho¸ néi nhò khi n¶y mÇm. ch chtransformation. algal biomass Single-celled plants (e.g.biÕn n¹p trung gian Agrobacterium Chlorella spp. and Spirulina spp.) grown sa satumefacien Qu¸ tr×nh chuyÓn DNA tõ commercially in ponds to make feedAgrobacterium tumefacies cho thùc vËt, materials for zooplankton, which are in turnxÈy ra tù nhiªn trong bÖnh nèt sÇn, vμ cã chch harvested as feed for fish farms.thÓ dïng lμm ph-¬ng ph¸p biÕn n¹p. ii sinh khèi t¶o Thùc vËt cã cÊu t¹o tÕ bμoAHG ViÕt t¾t cña antihaemophilic ®¬n (vÝ dô t¶o Chlorella spp. vμ Spirulina ..d dglobulin. spp.) trång th-¬ng m¹i trong ao hå ®Ó t¹oAI ViÕt t¾t cña artificial insemination. nguyªn liÖu nu«i ®éng vËt phï du, ®-îcairlift fermenter A cylindrical thu ho¹ch tõng ®ît lμm thøc ¨n nu«i c¸ . w wfermentation vessel in which the cells are alginate Polysaccharide gelling agent.mixed by air introduced at the base of the T¸c nh©n t¹o gel polisacarit . w wvessel and that rises through the columnof culture medium. The cell suspension alkylating agent A class of chemicals thatcirculates around the column as a transfer alkyl (methyl, ethyl, etc.) groups;wwconsequence of the gradient of air bubbles for example to the bases in DNA. Some ofin different parts of the reactor. these (especially ethyl methane sulphonate, abbreviated EMS) have beenb×nh lªn men èng khÝ B×nh lªn men h×nh much used as mutagens.èng trong ®ã c¸c tÕ bμo ®-îc trén lÉn dokh«ng khÝ ®-a vμo t¹i ®¸y b×nh vμ ®-îc t¸c nh©n ankyl ho¸ Líp hãa chÊt chuyÓnd©ng lªn qua cét dung dÞch nu«i cÊy. giao nhãm ankyl (mª-thyl, ª-tin, etc.); vÝHuyÒn phï tÕ bμo bao quanh cét gièng nh- dô chuyÓn cho baz¬ trong DNA. Mét sèkÕt qu¶ cña gradient bät khÝ trong tõng trong ®ã (®Æc biÖt lμ ethyl methanephÇn kh¸c nhau cña b×nh ph¶n øng. sulphonate, viÕt t¾t EMS) ®-îc sö dông nhiÒu lμm t¸c nh©n g©y ®ét biÕn.albinism Hereditary absence of pigmentin an organism. Albino animals have no allele A variant form of a gene. In a diploidcolour in their skin, hair and eyes. Albino cell there are two alleles of every gene (oneplants lack chlorophyll. inherited from each parent, although they could be identical). Within a populationchøng b¹ch t¹ng ThiÕu di truyÒn s¾c tè ë there may be many alleles of a gene.sinh vËt. C¸c ®éng vËt b¹ch t¹ng kh«ng Alleles are symbolized with a capital letter
  7. 7. allele frequency 7to denote dominance, and lower case for compounds, by a plant’s roots, whichrecessive. In heterozygotes with co- inhibit the growth or reproduction ofdominant alleles, both are expressed. competitor plants.alen Mét d¹ng kh¸c cña gen. Trong tÕ bμo c¶m nhiÔm qua l¹i Sù tiÕt c¸c hãa chÊt,l-ìng béi mçi gen ®Òu cã hai alen (thõa nh- lμ hîp chÊt phenolic vμ terpenoid, bëikÕ tõ cha vμ tõ mÑ, mÆc dÇu chóng cã thÓ rÔ c©y, ®Ó ng¨n chÆn sinh tr-ëng hoÆc sinh®ång nhÊt). Trong mét quÇn thÓ mçi mét s¶n cña c©y c¹nh tranh.gen cã thÓ nhiÒu alen. C¸c alen ®-îc ký allergen An antigen that provokes anhiÖu b»ng ch÷ hoa chØ tÝnh tréi, vμ ch÷ immune response.th-êng chØ tÝnh lÆn. Trong dÞ hîp tö cã c¸c dÞ øng Mét lo¹i kh¸ng nguyªn t¹o ra ph¶nalen ®ång tréi, c¶ hai ®Òu ®-îc biÓu thÞ. øng miÔn dÞch.Xem: multiple alleles.Tõ ®ång nghÜa:allelomorph. allogamy Cross fertilization in plants. See: fertilization.allele frequency The relative number of t¹p giao Thô phÊn chÐo ë thùc vËt. Xem: nncopies of an allele in a population,expressed as a proportion of the total fertilization. ..v vnumber of copies of all alleles at a given allogenic Differing at one or more loci,locus in a population. although belonging to the same species. ch chtÇn sè alen Sè l-îng t-¬ng ®èi b¶n sao Thus an organ transplant from one humancña mét alen trong mét quÇn thÓ, biÓu thÞ donor to another is allogeneic, whereas a sa satØ lÖ cña tæng sè b¶n sao toμn bé alen t¹i transplant from a baboon to a humanmét æ gen nhÊt ®Þnh trong quÇn thÓ. would be xenogeneic. kh¸c gen Kh¸c biÖt ë mét hoÆc nhiÒu æ chchallelic (tÝnh tõ) thuéc alen xem allele gen, mÆc dï ®Òu thuéc cïng loμi. Do vËyallele-specific amplification ii m¶nh ghÐp c¬ quan tõ ng-êi nμy sang(Abbreviation: ASA). The use of the ng-êi kh¸c lμ kh¸c gen, trong khi m¶nh ..d dpolymerase chain reaction at a ghÐp tõ khØ cho ng-êi l¹i lμ gen l¹.sufficiently high stringency that only oneallele is amplified. A powerful means of allometric When the growth rate of one w wgenotyping for single-locus disorders that part of an organism differs from that ofhave been characterized at the molecular another part or of the rest of the body.level. sinh tr-ëng kh«ng ®Òu Khi tèc ®é sinh w wkhuÕch ®¹i chuyªn biÖt alen (ViÕt t¾t:ASA). sö dông ph¶n øng chuçi emzim tr-ëng cña mét bé phËn c¬ thÓ sinh vËt kh«ng gièng víi phÇn kh¸c hoÆc phÇn cßnwwtrïng hîp víi møc chÆt chÏ cao ®Ó chØ duy l¹i cña c¬ thÓ.nhÊt mét alen ®-îc khuÕch ®¹i. Ph-¬ng allopatric In the context of naturalph¸p ®ñ m¹nh gi¸m ®Þnh gen víi c¸c rèi populations of animals or plants, inhabitinglo¹n æ gen ®¬n ®-îc ®Þnh râ ®Æc ®iÓm ë distinct and separate areas.møc ph©n tö. kh¸c vïng ph©n bè Trong ph¹m vi cñaallelic exclusion A phenomenon whereby c¸c quÇn thÓ tù nhiªn ®éng vËt hoÆc thùconly one functional allele of an antibody vËt, c¸c vïng c- tró t¸ch riªng vμ ph©ngene can be assembled in a given B biÖt.lymphocyte. allopatric speciation Speciationlo¹i trõ alen HiÖn t-îng do ®ã chØ alen occurring at least in part because ofho¹t ®éng cña gen kh¸ng thÓ cã thÓ ®-îc geographic isolation.tËp hîp trong mét limph« bμo B nhÊt ®Þnh. h×nh thμnh loμi kh¸c vïng ph©n bè H×nhallelomorph t-¬ng øng alen Xem: alen. thμnh loμi xÈy ra tèi thiÓu do c¸ch ly ®Þa lý.allelopathy The secretion of chemicals, allopolyploid A polyploid organism withsuch as phenolic and terpenoid sets of chromosomes derived from
  8. 8. allosome 8different species. Opposite: interaction of a small molecule with aautopolyploid. protein molecule, resulting in a change inthÓ ®a béi Sinh vËt ®a béi cã bé nhiÔm the shape of the protein and consequents¾c thÓ b¾t nguån tõ c¸c loμi kh¸c nhau. alteration of the interaction of that proteinng-îc víi: autopolyploid. with a third molecule.allosome nhiÔm s¾c thÓ giíi tÝnh Tõ chuyÓn dÞ khèi T-¬ng t¸c cã thÓ ®¶o®ång nghÜa: sex chromosome. ng-îc cña mét ph©n tö nhá víi ph©n tö protein, lμm thay ®æi h×nh d¹ng protein vμallosteric control ®iÒu khiÓn dÞ khèi dÉn ®Õn t-¬ng t¸c cña protein víi ph©n töXem: allosteric regulation. thø ba.allosteric enzyme An enzyme that has allotetraploid An allopolyploid havingtwo structurally distinct forms, one of which two different progenitor genomes.is active and the other inactive. Activeforms tend to catalyse the initial step in a dÞ tø béi, song nhÞ béi ThÓ dÞ ®a béi mangpathway leading to the synthesis of hai hÖ gen tæ tiªn kh¸c nhau. nnmolecules. The end product of this allotype A classification of antibody ..v vsynthesis can act as a feedback inhibitor, molecules according to the antigenicity ofconverting the enzyme to the inactive form, the constant regions; a variation that isthus controlling the amount of product determined by a single allele. ch chsynthesized. Synonym: allozyme. allotip C¸ch ph©n lo¹i ph©n tö kh¸ng thÓenzim dÞ khèi Enzim cã hai d¹ng cÊu tróc theo tÝnh kh¸ng nguyªn cña vïng æn ®Þnh; sa saph©n biÖt, d¹ng ho¹t ®éng vμ d¹ng kh«ng biÕn dÞ ®-îc x¸c ®Þnh do alen ®¬n.ho¹t ®éng. D¹ng ho¹t ®éng h-íng tíi xóc allozygote A individual that is chcht¸c bé khëi ®Çu trong ®-êng mßn dÉn ®Õn heterozygous for two different mutanttæng hîp ph©n tö. S¶n phÈm cuèi cïng cña ii alleles.qu¸ tr×nh tæng hîp nμy cã thÓ lμm chÊt øc dÞ hîp tö lÆn C¸ thÓ lμ dÞ hîp tö v× hai ..d dchÕ ph¶n håi, chuyÓn enzim sang d¹ng alen ®ét biÕn kh¸c nhau.kh«ng ho¹t ®éng, do vËy ®iÒu khiÓn sèl-îng s¶n phÈm tæng hîp. Tõ ®ång nghÜa: allozyme Xem: allosteric enzyme. w wallozyme. alpha globulin Xem: haptoglobin.allosteric regulation A catalysis- alternative mRNA splicing The inclusion w wregulating process in which the binding of or exclusion of different exons to forma small effector molecule to one site on different mRNA transcripts from a singlean enzyme affects the activity at another transcription unit.wwsite.®iÒu hoμ dÞ khèi Qu¸ tr×nh ®iÒu hoμ xóct¸c trong ®ã liªn kÕt cña ph©n tö t¸c ®éngnhá víi mét vÞ trÝ enzim cã ¶nh h-ëng ®Õn ghÐp nèi mRNA kh¸c biÖt KÕt hîp hoÆc lo¹i trõ c¸c exon kh¸c biÖt ®Ó h×nh thμnh c¸c b¶n sao mRNA riªng biÖt tõ mét ®¬n vÞ phiªn m·.ho¹t ®éng ë vÞ trÝ kh¸c . Alu sequences A highly repeated familyallosteric site That part of an enzyme of 300-bp long sequences dispersedmolecule where the non-covalent binding throughout the human genome, so namedof an effector molecule can affect the because they are released by the digestionenzyme’s catalytic activity. See: of genomic DNA with the restrictionconformation, ligand. endonuclease AluI.vÞ trÝ dÞ khèi PhÇn ph©n tö enzim n¬i liªn tr×nh tù Alu Mét hä tr×nh tù dμi 300-bp lÆpkÕt kh«ng ®ång hãa trÞ cña ph©n tö t¸c nhiÒu lÇn ph©n t¸n kh¾p hÖ gen ng-êi, cã®éng cã thÓ lμm ¶nh h-ëng ®Õn ho¹t ®éng tªn nh- vËy v× chóng ®-îc t¹o ra do sùxóc t¸c enzim. Xem: conformation, ligand. tiªu hãa DNA hÖ gen víi endonucleazaallosteric transition A reversible giíi h¹n AluI.
  9. 9. amber stop codon 9amber stop codon bé ba kÕt thóc amber ®o¸n tr-íc gÇn khi sinh b»ng viÖc lÊy mÉuXem: stop codon. dÞch èi tõ ®éng vËt cã vó cã thai. C¸c tÕamino acid A compound containing both bμo ®-îc nu«i cÊy, vμ kiÓu nh©n ®-îc kiÓmamino (-NH 2 ) and carboxyl (-COOH) tra ®iÓm kh¸c th-êng ®· biÕt (vÝ dô Héigroups. In particular, any of 20 basic chøng down vμ tËt nøt ®èt sèng ë ng-êi).building blocks of proteins having the amnion The thin membrane that lines theformula NH 2 -CR-COOH, where R is fluid-filled sac in which the embryodifferent for each specific amino acid. See: develops in higher vertebrates, reptiles andannex 3. birds.axÝt amin Hîp chÊt cã chøa c¶ nhãm amin mμng èi Mμng máng lμm ng¨n tói chøa(-NH2) vμ c¸c-b«-xyn (-COOH). §Æc biÖt, ®Çy dÞch trong ®ã ph«i ph¸t triÓn cña c¸cbÊt kú cña 20 khèi x©y dùng c¬ b¶n protein ®éng vËt cã x-¬ng sèng bËc cao, bß s¸t®Òu cã c«ng thøc NH2-CR-COOH, ë ®©y vμ chim.R lμ ®iÓm kh¸c nhau cho mçi mét a xit a amniotic fluid Liquid contents of the nnmin riªng biÖt. Xem: phô lôc 3. amniotic sac of higher vertebrates,aminoacyl site (Abbreviation: A-site). One containing foetal, but not maternal cells. ..v vof two sites on ribosomes to which the dÞch mμng èi Thμnh phÇn chÊt láng mμngaminoacyl tRNA molecules can bind. èi cña nhãm ®éng vËt cã x-¬ng sèng bËc ch chvÞ trÝ a xÝt amin (viÕt t¾t: A-site). Mét trong cao, gåm cã c¸c tÕ bμo thai nhi, nh-nghai vÞ trÝ trªn ribosom ®Ó c¸c ph©n tö tRNA- kh«ng ph¶i lμ tÕ bμo mÑ. sa saa xÝt amin cã thÓ g¾n vμo. amorph A mutation that abolishes geneaminoacyl tRNA synthetase An enzyme function. Synonym: null mutation. chchthat catalyses the attachment of an amino ®ét biÕn v« hiÖu §ét biÕn b·i bá chøcacid to its specific tRNA molecule. ii n¨ng gen.Tõ ®ång nghÜa: null mutation.aminoacyl tRNA synthetaza Enzim xóc AMP ViÕt t¾t cña adenosin ..d dt¸c viÖc g¾n a xÝt amin víi ph©n tö tRNA monophotphat (AMP).chØ râ cña nã. amphidiploid A plant derived fromamitosis A cell division (including nuclear w w doubling the chromosome number of andivision through constriction of the nucleus) interspecific F 1 hybrid. Naturally foundthat occurs without chromosome hybrids of this sort are referred to as w wdifferentiation as in mitosis. The allopolyploid.mechanism whereby the genetic integrity thÓ nhÞ béi kÐp Thùc vËt b¾t nguån tõ viÖcwwis maintained during amitosis is uncertain. nh©n ®«i sè nhiÔm s¾c thÓ cña con lai F1trùc ph©n Mét kiÓu ph©n chia tÕ bμo (bao kh¸c loμi. Nh÷ng con lai t¹o thμnh trong tùgåm ph©n chia nh©n qua th¾t nh©n) xÈy nhiªn cña lo¹i nμy ®-îc xem lμ dÞ ®a béira kh«ng ph©n ho¸ nhiÔm s¾c thÓ nh- thÓ.trong gi¶m ph©n. Do c¬ chÕ nμy toμn vÑn amphimixis True sexual reproductiondi truyÒn ®-îc duy tr× trong trùc ph©n lμ involving the fusion of male and femalekh«ng ch¾c ch¾n. gametes and the formation of a zygote.amniocentesis A procedure for obtaining giao phèi h÷u tÝnh Sinh s¶n h÷u tÝnh thùcfoetal cells for prenatal diagnosis by liªn quan dung hîp gi÷a giao tö c¸i vμ ®ùcsampling the amniotic fluid from a ®Ó h×nh thμnh hîp tö.pregnant mammal. Cells are cultured, andthe karyotype is checked for known ampicillin A penicillin-type antibiotic thatirregularities (e.g. Down’s syndrome and prevents bacterial growth by interferingspina bifida in humans). with synthesis of the cell wall. Commonly used as a selectable marker in thedß mμng èi qua bông Ph-¬ng ph¸p thu creation of transgenic plants.nhËn c¸c tÕ bμo thuéc thai nhi ®Ó chÈn
  10. 10. amplicon 10ampicillin Lo¹i kh¸ng sinh kiÓu pªnixilin amplify To increase the number of copies®Ó ng¨n ngõa sinh tr-ëng vi khuÈn do g©y of a DNA sequence, either in vivo bynhiÔu tæng hîp v¸ch tÕ bμo. Th-êng ®-îc inserting into a cloning vector thatdïng lμm dÊu chuÈn chän läc khi t¹o thùc replicates within a host cell, or in vitro byvËt chuyÓn gen. polymerase chain reaction.amplicon The product of a DNA khuÕch ®¹i Lμm t¨ng thªm sè b¶n saoamplification reaction. See: polymerase cña tr×nh tù DNA, c¶ trong c¬ thÓ do chÌnchain reaction. vect¬ nh©n dßng ®Ó lÆp bªn trong tÕ bμo®¬n vÞ siªu sao chÐp S¶n phÈm ph¶n øng vËt chñ, hoÆc trong èng nghiÖm b»ng ph¶nkhuÕch ®¹i DNA. xem: polymerase chain øng chuçi enzim trïng hîp.reaction. ampometric xem: electrochemicalamplification 1. Creation of many copies sensorof a segment of DNA by the polymerase amylase Describing a wide class ofchain reaction. 2. Treatment (e.g. use of enzymes that catalyse the hydrolysis of nnchloramphenicol) designed to increase the starch.proportion of plasmid DNA relative to that ..v v amylaza M« t¶ mét líp lín enzim xóc t¸cof bacterial (host) DNA. 3. Evolutionary thñy ph©n tinh bét.expansion in copy number of a repetitive ch chDNA sequence through a process of amylolytic The capability of enzymaticallyrepeated duplication. degrading starch into sugars. sa sasù khuÕch ®¹i 1. T¹o thμnh nhiÒu b¶n sao tiªu tinh bét Kh¶ n¨ng ph©n huû enzimtõ mét ®o¹n DNA do ph¶n øng chuçi enzim biÕn tinh bét thμnh ®-êng. chchtrïng hîp 2. C¸ch xö lý (vÝ dô sö dông amylopectin A polysaccharidecloramphenicol) ®Ó t¨ng thªm tØ lÖ DNA comprising highly branched chains of iiplasmit so víi DNA vi khuÈn (ký chñ). 3. glucose residues. The water-insoluble ..d dMë réng tiÕn hãa sè l-îng b¶n sao cña portion of starch.tr×nh tù DNA lÆp th«ng qua mét qu¸ tr×nh amilopectin Mét lo¹i polisacarit bao gåmnh©n ®«i lÆp l¹i. nhiÒu nh¸nh w wamplified fragment length cao cña gèc glucoza. PhÇn kh«ng tanpolymorphism (Abbreviation: AFLP). A trong n-íc cña tinh bét.type of DNA marker, generated by the w w amylose A polysaccharide consisting ofPCR amplification of restriction linear chains of 100-1000 glucoseendonuclease treated DNA. A smallww residues. The water-soluble portion ofproportion of all restriction fragments is starch.amplified in any one reaction, so that AFLPprofiles can be analysed by gel amilose Mét lo¹i polisacarit bao gåm nhiÒuelectrophoresis. This has the important m¹ch th¼ng cña 100-1000 gèc glucoza.characteristic that many markers can be PhÇn hoμ tan ®-îc trong n-íc cña tinh bét.generated with relatively little effort. anabolic pathway A pathway by which atÝnh ®a h×nh ®é dμi ®o¹n khuÕch ®¹i (viÕt metabolite is synthesized; a biosynthetict¾t: AFLP). KiÓu dÊu chuÈn DNA, ph¸t sinh pathway.do khuÕch ®¹i PCR cña DNA ®-îc xö lý ®-êng mßn ®ång hãa §-êng mßn mμenzim giíi h¹n. Mét tØ lÖ nhá cña tÊt c¶ theo ®ã s¶n phÈm trao ®æi chÊt ®-îc tæng®o¹n giíi h¹n ®-îc khuÕch ®¹i trong bÊt hîp; mét ®-êng mßn tæng hîp sinh häc.kú mäi ph¶n øng, ®Ó cho c¸c mÉu AFLP anabolism One of the two subcategoriescã thÓ ®-îc ph©n tÝch b»ng ®iÖn di trªn of metabolism, referring to the building upgel. §iÒu nμy cã ®Æc ®iÓm quan träng lμ of complex organic molecules from simplercã nhiÒu dÊu chuÈn cã thÓ ®-îc ph¸t sinh precursors.víi t-¬ng ®èi Ýt c«ng søc.
  11. 11. anaerobe 11sù ®ång hãa Mét trong sè hai cÊp nhá Anaphase follows metaphase andtrao ®æi chÊt, liªn quan ®Õn viÖc t¹o ra c¸c precedes telophase.ph©n tö h÷u c¬ phøc t¹p tõ nh÷ng tiÒn chÊt k× sau Giai ®o¹n nguyªn ph©n hoÆc gi¶m®¬n gi¶n. ph©n trong ®ã c¸c nhiÔm s¾c thÓ con dianaerobe An organism that can grow in chuyÓn tíi cùc ®èi diÖn cña tÕ bμo (vÒ phÝathe absence of oxygen. Opposite: aerobe. c¸c mót sîi thoi). K× sau theo sau k× gi÷avi khuÈn kþ khÝ Lo¹i sinh vËt cã thÓ sinh vμ tr-íc k× cuèi.tr-ëng khi thiÕu oxi. Ng-îc víi: aerobe. anchor gene A gene that has beenanaerobic An environment or condition in positioned on both the physical map andwhich molecular oxygen is not available the linkage map of a chromosome, andfor chemical, physical or biological thereby allows their mutual alignment.processes. gen má neo Gen ®-îc ®Þnh vÞ trªn c¶ b¶nyÕm khÝ M«i tr-êng hoÆc ®iÒu kiÖn trong ®å vËt chÊt vμ b¶n ®å liªn kÕt cña nhiÔm®ã oxi ph©n tö kh«ng cã s½n cho c¸c qu¸ s¾c thÓ, vμ do vËy cho phÐp chóng s¾p nntr×nh hãa häc, vËt lý hoÆc sinh häc. xÕp thμnh hμng t-¬ng hç. ..v vanaerobic digestion Digestion of androgen Any hormone that stimulatesmaterials in the absence of oxygen. See: the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, and contributes to the ch chanaerobic respiration. control of sexual activity in vertebratetiªu hãa yÕm khÝ Tiªu hãa c¸c nguyªn animals. Usually synthesized in the testis. sa saliÖu khi thiÕu oxi. Xem: anaerobicrespiration kÝch tè tÝnh ®ùc, hãc m«n nam BÊt kú mét lo¹i hooc-m«n nμo kÝch thÝch ph¸t triÓnanaerobic respiration Respiration in chch ®Æc tr-ng giíi tÝnh thø cÊp gièng ®ùc, vμwhich foodstuffs are partially oxidized, with gãp phÇn ®Ó ®iÒu khiÓn ho¹t ®éng giíi tÝnh iithe release of chemical energy, in a ®éng vËt cã x-¬ng sèng. Th-êng ®-îc tængprocess not involving atmospheric oxygen. ..d d hîp trong tinh hoμn.A notable example is in alcoholicfermentation, where sugar is metabolized androgenesis Male parthenogenesis,into ethanol. i.e. the development of a haploid embryo w w from a male nucleus. The maternal nucleush« hÊp yÕm khÝ Sù h« hÊp trong ®ã thøc is eliminated or inactivated subsequent to¨n ®-îc «xy hãa tõng phÇn, cã gi¶i phãng w w fertilization of the ovum, and the haploidn¨ng l-îng hãa häc, trong qu¸ tr×nh kh«ng individual (referred to as androgenetic)liªn quan víi oxi khÝ quyÓn. VÝ dô lªn men contains in its cells the genome of the malewwr-îu, ë ®©y ®-êng ®-îc chuyÓn thμnh cån. gamete only. See: anther culture;analogous Features of organisms or gynogenesis.molecules that are superficially or trinh sinh ®ùc Sinh s¶n ®¬n tÝnh ®ùc,functionally similar but have evolved in a nghÜa lμ ph¸t triÓn ph«i ®¬n béi tõ nh©ndifferent way or contain different ®ùc. H¹t nh©n mÑ ®-îc lo¹i trõ hoÆc khöcompounds. ho¹t tÝnh kÕ tiÕp ®Ó thô tinh no·n, vμ c¸cïng chøc C¸c ®Æc ®iÓm cña sinh vËt thÓ ®¬n béi (®-îc xem trinh sinh ®ùc) chøahoÆc ph©n tö gièng nhau bÒ ngoμi hoÆc trong c¸c tÕ bμo chØ mét hÖ giao tö ®ùc.chøc n¨ng nh-ng ®-îc tiÕn ho¸ theo con xem: anther culture; gynogenesis.®-êng kh¸c nhau hoÆc chøa c¸c hîp chÊt aneuploid An organism or cell having akh¸c nhau. chromosome number other than theanaphase The stage of mitosis or normal somatic number. Aneuploidmeiosis during which the daughter gametes have a chromosome numberchromosomes migrate to opposite poles other than the normal haploid number.of the cell (toward the ends of the spindle). The condition is aneuploidy.
  12. 12. angiogenesis 12thÓ lÖch béi Sinh vËt hoÆc tÕ bμo cã sè produced by them with the post-translationl-îng nhiÔm s¾c thÓ kh¸c víi sè l-îng modifications normal to animals. However,nhiÔm s¾c thÓ tÕ bμo b×nh th-êng. C¸c giao because animal cells are much moretö thÓ lÖch béi cã sè l-îng nhiÔm s¾c thÓ fragile than bacterial ones, they cannotkh¸c víi sè ®¬n béi b×nh th-êng. §iÒu kiÖn tolerate a commercial fermentationlμ hiÖn t-îng lÖch béi . process.angiogenesis The formation and cè ®Þnh tÕ bμo ®éng vËt §¸nh bÉy nh÷ngdevelopment of new blood vessels in the tÕ bμo ®éng vËt trong d¹ng vËt liÖu r¾n ®Óbody, stimulated by growth factors, such s¶n xuÊt mét sè s¶n phÈm tù nhiªn hoÆcas angiogenin. The process is required protein kü thuËt di truyÒn. TÕ bμo ®éng vËtfor the spread of malignant tumours. cã lîi thÕ ë chç chóng ®· s¶n xuÊt nhiÒut¹o m¹ch H×nh thμnh vμ ph¸t triÓn c¸c lo¹i protein ®-îc d-îc häc quan t©m, vμm¹ch m¸u míi trong c¬ thÓ, ®-îc kÝch thÝch c¸c protein kü thuËt di truyÒn nμy ®-îc s¶nbëi c¸c nh©n tè sinh tr-ëng, nh- xuÊt do chóng cã nhiÒu biÕn ®æi sau dÞch m· mét c¸ch b×nh th-êng víi ®éng vËt. Tuy nnangiogenin. Qu¸ tr×nh nμy cÇn thiÕt ®Ó ph¸thuy c¸c khèi u ®éc. nhiªn, v× tÕ bμo ®éng vËt dÔ vì nhiÒu h¬n ..v v so víi vi khuÈn, nªn chóng kh«ng ®ù¬c söangiogenin One of the human angiogenic dông trong qu¸ tr×nh lªn men th-¬ng m¹i.growth factors. In addition to stimulating ch ch(normal) blood vessel formation, animal cloning nh©n dßng ®éng vËtangiogenin levels are correlated with xem: cloning sa saplacenta formation and tumour growth. anneal The pairing of complementaryangiogenin Mét trong c¸c nh©n tè sinh DNA or RNA sequences, via hydrogen bonding, to form a double-stranded chchtr-ëng t¹o m¹ch ë ng-êi. Ngoμi kÝch thÝchh×nh thμnh m¹ch m¸u (b×nh th-êng), c¸c polynucleotide. Opposite: denature. iimøc angiogenin cã t-¬ng quan víi h×nh ghÐp CÆp ®«i tr×nh tù RNA hoÆc DNA bæ ..d dthμnh rau thai vμ sinh tr-ëng khèi u. sung, qua liªn kÕt hy-®r«, ®Ó h×nh thμnhangiosperm A division of the plant polinucleotit sîi kÐp. Ng-îc víi: denature.kingdom that includes all flowering plants, annual 1. (adj:) Taking one year, or w wi.e. vascular plants in which double occurring at intervals of one year. 2. A plantfertilization occurs resulting in that completes its life cycle within one year.development of fruit containing seeds. See biennial, perennial. w wDivided into two major groups,monocotyledons and dicotyledons. hμng n¨m 1. (tÝnh tõ) MÊt mét n¨m, hoÆc xuÊt hiÖn ë kho¶ng thêi gian mét n¨m. 2.wwSee: gymnosperm Thùc vËt hoμn thμnh chu tr×nh sèng trongc©y h¹t kÝn Mét bé phËn cña giíi thùc vËt vßng mét n¨m. Xem: biennial, perennial.bao gåm tÊt c¶ c¸c loμi thùc vËt ra hoa, anonymous DNA marker A DNA markernghÜa lμ c¸c c©y m¹ch gç trong ®ã thô tinh detectable by virtue of variation in itskÐp t¹o ra ph¸t triÓn qu¶ cã chøa h¹t. §-îc sequence. The function (if any) of thechia thμnh hai nhãm chÝnh, nhãm c©y ®¬n sequence is unknown. Microsatellitestö diÖp vμ nhãm c©y song tö ®iÖp. xem: and AFLPs are typical anonymous DNAgymnosperm markers.animal cell immobilization Entrapment dÊu chuÈn DNA bÊt ®Þnh DÊu chuÈnof animal cells in some solid material in DNA cã thÓ t×m ra do hiÖu qu¶ biÕn dÞ trongorder to produce some natural product or tr×nh tù. Chøc n¨ng (nÕu cã) cña tr×nh tùgenetically engineered protein. Animal ch-a ®-îc biÕt. Nh÷ng vÖ tinh nhá vμ AFLPcells have the advantage that they already lμ nh÷ng dÊu chuÈn DNA tiªu biÓu.produce many proteins of antagonism An interaction between twopharmacological interest, and that organisms (e.g. moulds or bacteria) ingenetically engineered proteins are
  13. 13. antagonist 13which the growth of one is inhibited by the T)) and are therefore used to stimulate theother. Opposite: synergism. growth of some cultures.®èi kh¸ng T-¬ng t¸c gi÷a hai lo¹i sinh vËt chÊt kh¸ng auxin ChÊt hãa häc h¹n chÕ(vÝ dô nÊm mèc hoÆc vi khuÈn) trong ®ã vai trß auxin, ®«i khi lμ do ng¨n ngõasù sinh tr-ëng cña sinh vËt nμy bÞ ng¨n chuyÓn vËn auxin. Mét sè chÊt kh¸ng auxinchÆn bëi sinh vËt kh¸c. Ng-îc víi: cã thÓ ®Èy m¹nh sù t¹o h×nh trong èngsynergism. nghiÖm (vÝ dô 2,3,5- tri- Iodobenzoateantagonist A compound that inhibits the (TIBA) vμ 2,4,5- trichlorophenoxyacetateeffect of an agonist in such a way that the (2,4,5-T)) vμ do vËy ®-îc sö dông ®Ó kÝchcombined biological effect of the two thÝch sinh tr-ëng mét sè nu«i cÊy.becomes smaller than the sum of their antibiosis The prevention of growth orindividual effects. development of an organism by achÊt ®èi kh¸ng Hîp chÊt ng¨n chÆn ¶nh substance or another organism.h-ëng cña chÊt kh¸ng b»ng c¸ch nh- vËy tÝnh kh¸ng sinh Sù ng¨n ngõa sinh tr-ëng nn¶nh h-ëng sinh häc kÕt hîp cña hai trë hoÆc ph¸t triÓn mét sinh vËt do mét chÊtthμnh nhá h¬n tæng sè c¸c ¶nh h-ëng riªng hoÆc mét sinh vËt kh¸c. ..v vrÏ. antibiotic A class of natural and syntheticanther The upper part of a stamen, compounds that inhibit the growth of, or ch chcontaining pollen sacs within which the kill some micro-organisms. Antibiotics arepollen develops and matures. widely used medicinally to control bacterial sa sabao phÊn PhÇn trªn cña nhÞ hoa, chøa tói pathogens, but resistance in bacteria tophÊn trong ®ã phÊn hoa ph¸t triÓn vμ particular antibiotics is often rapidly chchtr-ëng thμnh. acquired through mutation. chÊt kh¸ng sinh Líp c¸c hîp chÊt tù iianther culture The aseptic culture ofimmature anthers to generate haploid nhiªn vμ tæng hîp øc chÕ sinh tr-ëng hoÆc ..d dplants from microspores via tiªu diÖt mét sè vi sinh vËt. ChÊt kh¸ngandrogenesis. sinh ®-îc sö dông réng r·i vÒ mÆt y häc ®Ó ®iÒu khiÓn c¸c vËt g©y bÖnh vi khuÈn,nu«i cÊy bao phÊn Nu«i cÊy v« trïng c¸c w w nh-ng tÝnh kh¸ng cña vi khuÈn víi chÊtbao phÊn ch-a chÝn ®Ó t¹o ra c©y ®¬n béi kh¸ng sinh ®Æc hiÖu th-êng bÞ nhanhtõ tiÓu bμo tö nhê sinh s¶n ®¬n tÝnh ®ùc. chãng lμm quen th«ng qua ®ét biÕn. w wanthesis The period during which anthers antibiotic resistance The ability of abear mature and functional pollen. micro-organism to disable an antibiotic orwwsù në hoa Thêi kú bao phÊn mang phÊn prevent its transport into the cell.hoa tr-ëng thμnh vμ ho¹t ®éng. tÝnh kh¸ng chÊt kh¸ng sinh Kh¶ n¨nganthocyanin A water-soluble blue, purple cña vi sinh vËt ®Ó v« hiÖu hãa chÊt kh¸ngor red flavonoid pigments found in sinh hoÆc ng¨n ngõa chuyÓn vËn vμo tÕvacuoles of cells of certain plants. bμo.ant«xian Lo¹i chÊt mμu nhãm flavonoid antibiotic resistance marker genecã mμu xanh, tÝa hoÆc ®á hoμ tan trong (Abbreviation: ARMG). Genes (usually ofn-íc chøa trong kh«ng bμo cña c¸c tÕ bμo bacterial origin) used as selection markersthùc vËt nhÊt ®Þnh. in transgenesis, because their presenceantiauxin A chemical that interferes with allows cell survival in the presence ofthe auxin response, sometimes by the normally toxic antibiotic agents. Theseprevention of auxin transport. Some genes were commonly used in theantiauxins may promote morphogenesis development and release of firstin vitro (e.g. 2,3,5-tri-iodobenzoate (TIBA) generation transgenic organismsand 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4,5- (particularly crop plants), but are no longer
  14. 14. antibody 14favoured because of perceived risks antibody class The class to which anassociated with the unintentional transfer antibody belongs, depending on the typeof antibiotic resistance to other organisms. of heavy chain present. In mammals, thereSee kanr, neor. are five classes of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE,gen ®¸nh dÊu tÝnh kh¸ng chÊt kh¸ng IgG, and IgM.sinh (viÕt t¾t: ARMG ). Gen (th-êng cã líp kh¸ng thÓ Líp mμ kh¸ng thÓ phônguån gèc vi khuÈn) ®-îc dïng nh- dÊu thuéc vμo, tuú theo cã mÆt kiÓu chuçi nÆng.chÈn chän läc trong ho¹t ®éng chuyÓn gen, Trong ®éng vËt cã vó, cã n¨m líp kh¸ngbëi v× sù hiÖn diÖn cña chóng cho phÐp tÕ thÓ: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM.bμo tån t¹i khi cã t¸c nh©n kh¸ng sinh ®éc antibody structure Describes theb×nh th-êng. C¸c gen nμy th-êng ®-îc molecular architecture of an antibody,dïng ®Ó ph¸t triÓn vμ gi¶i phãng sinh vËt which consists of two identical “light” chainschuyÓn gen thÕ hÖ ®Çu (®Æc biÖt c©y trång), and two identical “heavy” chains and hasnh-ng kh«ng cßn ®-îc -u tiªn do cã nhiÒu two antigen-binding sites. Each chainrñi ro kÕt hîp víi chuyÓn ngÉu nhiªn tÝnh nn consists of a constant region which is thekh¸ng chÊt kh¸ng sinh cho sinh vËt kh¸c. same between antibodies of the same ..v vxem: kanr, Neor. class and sub-class, and a variable regionantibody (Abbreviation: Ab). An that is antibody-specific. ch chimmunological protein produced by the cÊu tróc kh¸ng thÓ M« t¶ cÊu tróc ph©nlymphocytes in response to contact with tö kh¸ng thÓ, gåm cã hai chuçi “nhÑ” vμ sa saan antigen. Each antibody recognizes just hai chuçi “nÆng” ®ång nhÊt vμ cã hai ®iÓmone antigenic determinant of one antigen g¾n kh¸ng nguyªn. Mçi chuçi gåm cã métand acts by specifically binding to it, thus vïng æn ®Þnh gièng nhau gi÷a nh÷ng kh¸ng chchrendering it harmless. Those from the IgG thÓ cïng líp vμ líp phô, vμ mét vïng biÕn iiantibody class are found in the ®æi ®Æc tr-ng kh¸ng thÓ.bloodstream and used in immunoassay. ..d d antibody-mediated immune responseSynonym: immunoglobulin. See: The synthesis of antibodies by B cells inmonoclonal antibody, polyclonal response to an encounter of the cells ofantibody. w w the immune system with a foreign antigen.kh¸ng thÓ (viÕt t¾t: A ). Protein miÔn dÞch Synonym: humoral immune response.®-îc s¶n sinh bëi limph« bμo trong ph¶n ph¶n øng miÔn dÞch qua trung gian w wøng tiÕp xóc kh¸ng nguyªn. Mçi kh¸ng thÓ kh¸ng thÓ Sù tæng hîp kh¸ng thÓ do c¸cchØ nhËn biÕt mét nh©n tè quyÕt ®Þnh kh¸ng tÕ bμo B ®Ó ph¶n øng l¹i mét b¾t cÆp tÕwwnguyªn cña mét kh¸ng nguyªn vμ t¸c dông bμo cña hÖ thèng miÔn dÞch cã kh¸ngdo liªn kÕt ®Æc biÖt víi nã, nh- vËy biÕn nã nguyªn ngo¹i. Tõ ®ång nghÜa: humoralthμnh v« h¹i. Kh¸ng thÓ tõ líp lgG cã trong immune response.m¸u vμ ®-îc dïng trong thö nghiÖm miÔndÞch. Tõ ®ång nghÜa: immunoglobulin. anticlinal The orientation of cell wall orXem: monoclonal antibody, polyclonal plane of cell division perpendicular to theantibody. surface. Opposite: periclinal.antibody binding site The part of an nÕp låi §Þnh h-íng v¸ch tÕ bμo hoÆc mÆtantibody that binds to the antigenic ph¼ng ph©n chia tÕ bμo th¼ng gãc víi bÒdeterminant. See: complementarity- mÆt. ng-îc víi: periclinal .determining regions. Synonym: anticoding strand The DNA strand usedparatope. as template for transcription. ThevÞ trÝ g¾n kh¸ng thÓ PhÇn kh¸ng thÓ liªn resulting mRNA is complementary in sequence to that of the anticoding strand.kÕt víi nh©n tè quyÕt ®Þnh kh¸ng nguyªn. Synonym: template strand.Xem: complementarity-determiningregions. Tõ ®ång nghÜa: paratope. sîi ®èi m· Sîi DNA sö dông nh- khung
  15. 15. anticodon 15mÉu ®Ó dÞch m·. Tõ ®ã bæ sung RNA th«ng thÞ mét sè kh¸ng thÓ. Xem: monoclonaltin cho tr×nh tù sîi ®èi m·. Tõ ®ång nghÜa: antibody, polyclonal antibody.Tõ ®ångtemplate strand nghÜa: epitope .anticodon A triplet of tRNA nucleotides antigenic switching The altering of athat corresponds to a complementary micro-organism’s surface antigens throughcodon in an mRNA molecule during genetic re-arrangement, to elude detectiontranslation. by the host’s immune system.®¬n vÞ ®èi m· Bé ba nuleotit tRNA mμ chuyÓn ®æi kh¸ng nguyªn BiÕn ®æit-¬ng øng víi bé ba bæ sung cña ph©n tö kh¸ng nguyªn bÒ mÆt vi sinh vËt qua s¾pRNA th«ng tin khi dÞch m·. xÕp di truyÒn, ®Ó tr¸nh bÞ hÖ thèng miÔnantigen (Abbreviation: Ag). A dÞch cña vËt chñ ph¸t hiÖn.macromolecule (usually a protein foreign antihaemophilic factor VIIIto the organism), which elicits an immune t¸c nh©n kh¸ng xuÊt huyÕt VIII xem:response on first exposure to the immune antihaemophilic globulin. nnsystem by stimulating the production of antihaemophilic globulin (Abbreviationantibodies specific to its various ..v v AHG). One of the blood clotting factors, aantigenic determinants. During soluble protein that causes the fibrinsubsequent exposures, the antigen is ch ch matrix of a blood clot to form. Used as abound and inactivated by these antibodies. treatment for haemophilia, AHG is usuallySynonym: immunogen. obtained from genetically engineered cell sa sakh¸ng nguyªn (viÕt t¾t: Ag). Mét ®¹i ph©n cultures. Synonym: antihaemophilic factortö (th-êng mét protein l¹ ®èi víi sinh vËt), VIII. chchkh¬i mμo ph¶n øng miÔn dÞch khi tiÕp xóc globulin kh¸ng xuÊt huyÕt (viÕt t¾t AHG).lÇn ®Çu víi hÖ thèng miÔn dÞch do kÝch thÝch ii Mét trong sè t¸c nh©n lμm ®«ng m¸u,s¶n xuÊt kh¸ng thÓ ®Æc hiÖu víi c¸c nh©n protein hoμ tan t¹o thμnh nÒn fibrin ®«ng ..d dtè quyÕt ®Þnh kh¸ng nguyªn kh¸c nhau. m¸u. §-îc sö dông ®iÒu trÞ chøng dÔ xuÊtTrong thêi gian tiÕp xóc kÕ tiÕp, kh¸ng huyÕt, AHG th-êng thu ®-îc tõ nu«i cÊy tÕnguyªn ®-îc liªn kÕt vμ bÞ khö ho¹t tÝnh bμo kü thuËt di truyÒn. Tõ ®ång nghÜa: w wbëi kh¸ng thÓ nμy.Tõ ®ång nghÜa: antihaemophilic factor VIII.immunogen. anti-idiotype antibody An antibody,antigenic determinant The individual w w produced by an organism, whichsurface feature of an antigen, that elicits specifically binds to the binding site of anthe production of a specific antibody inww antibody developed by that organismthe course of the immune response. Each against a foreign antigen. Involved withantigenic determinant, typically a few the regulation of the immune response.amino acids in size, causes the synthesis Some allergic responses are in part dueof a different antibody and thus exposure to the breakdown of this sort of regulation.to a single antigen may result in theexpression of a number of antibodies. See: kh¸ng thÓ kh¸ng liªn kÕt ®Æc hiÖu Métmonoclonal antibody, polyclonal lo¹i kh¸ng thÓ, s¶n xuÊt bëi sinh vËt, liªnantibody. Synonym: epitope. kÕt ®Æc hiÖu víi ®iÓm b¸m cña kh¸ng thÓ ®-îc ph¸t triÓn do sinh vËt chèng l¹i métyÕu tè quyÕt ®Þnh kh¸ng nguyªn §Æc kh¸ng nguyªn l¹. Liªn quan ®iÒu hoμ ph¶ntÝnh bÒ mÆt riªng cña mét kh¸ng nguyªn, øng miÔn dÞch. Mét sè ph¶n øng dÞ øngkh¬i mμo s¶n xuÊt mét kh¸ng thÓ riªng biÖt mét phÇn do ph¸ vì sù chän läc ®iÒu hoμ.trong qu¸ tr×nh ph¶n øng miÔn dÞch. MçiyÕu tè quyÕt ®Þnh kh¸ng nguyªn, mang mét antimicrobial agent Any chemical orsè Ýt amino acid tiªu biÓu cïng cì, g©y ra biological agent that inhibits the growthtæng hîp kh¸ng thÓ kh¸c vμ do vËy khi tiÕp and/or survival of micro-organisms. See:sóc kh¸ng nguyªn ®¬n cã thÓ dÉn tíi biÓu antibiotic.
  16. 16. antinutrient 16t¸c nh©n kh¸ng khuÈn BÊt kú t¸c nh©n Tuy nhiªn, kh«ng cã sù thèng nhÊt chungsinh häc hoÆc hãa häc nμo ng¨n ngõa sinh vÒ quy -íc nμy, vμ c¸c tªn gäi phï hîp lμtr-ëng vμ/ hoÆc tån t¹i cña vi sinh vËt. Xem: sîi m· ho¸ cho sîi cã tr×nh tù phï hîpantibiotic víi mRNA, vμ sîi kh«ng m· ho¸ hoÆc sîiantinutrient Compounds that inhibit the khung mÉu cho sîi bæ sung (nghÜa lμ:normal uptake or utilization of nutrients. khung mÉu phiªn m·).kh¸ng dinh d-ìng Hîp chÊt ng¨n chÆn antisense gene A gene that produces ansù hÊp thu b×nh th-êng hoÆc sö dông c¸c mRNA complementary to the transcriptchÊt dinh d-ìng. of a normal gene (usually constructed by inverting the coding region relative to theanti-oncogene A gene whose product promoter).prevents the normal growth of tissue. gen ®èi nghÜa Gen s¶n xuÊt RNA th«nggen chèng g©y ung th- Mét gen mμ s¶n tin bæ sung cho b¶n dÞch cña gen b×nhphÈm cña nã ng¨n ngõa sù sinh tr-ëng th-êng (th-êng cÊu tróc do viÖc ®¶ob×nh th-êng cña m«. nn ng-îc vïng m· ho¸ t-¬ng øng víi khëiantioxidant Compounds that slow the rate ®iÓm). ..v vof oxidation reactions. antisense RNA An RNA sequence thatchÊt chèng oxi hãa ChÊt lμm chËm nhÞp is complementary to all or part of a ch ch®é c¸c ph¶n øng «xi hãa. functional mRNA molecule, to which itantiparallel orientation The normal binds, blocking its translation. sa saarrangement of the two strands of a RNA ®èi nghÜa Tr×nh tù RNA bæ sungdouble-stranded DNA molecule, and of cho tÊt c¶ hoÆc mét phÇn ph©n tö RNAother nucleic-acid duplexes (DNA-RNA, chch th«ng tin chøc n¨ng, ®Ó liªn kÕt, ng¨n b¶nRNA-RNA), in which the two strands are dÞch cña nã. iioriented in opposite directions so that the antisense therapy The in vivo treatment5-phosphate end of one strand is aligned ..d d of a genetic disease by blockingwith the 3-hydroxyl end of the translation of a protein with a DNA or ancomplementary strand. RNA sequence that is complementary to w wh-íng ®èi song song S¾p xÕp b×nh a specific mRNA.th-êng hai sîi cña ph©n tö DNA sîi kÐp, liÖu ph¸p ®èi nghÜa §iÒu trÞ trong c¬ thÓvμ cña cÆp nucleic-acid kh¸c (DNA- RNA, w w mét bÖnh di truyÒn nhê kho¸ chÆn phiªnRNA- RNA), trong ®ã hai sîi ®-îc h-íng m· protein b»ng DNA hoÆc tr×nh tù RNAng-îc nhau ®Ó mót 5-phèt ph¸t cña mét bæ sung cho mRNA ®Æc hiÖu.wwsîi ®-îc liªn kÕt víi mót 3- hidroxyl cñasîi bæ sung. antiseptic Any substance that kills or inhibits the growth of disease-causingantisense DNA One of the two strands of micro-organism (a micro-organismdouble-stranded DNA, usually that which capable of causing sepsis), but isis complementary (hence “anti”) to the essentially non-toxic to cells of the body.mRNA, i.e. the non-transcribed strand.However, there is not universal agreement s¸t khuÈn ChÊt bÊt kú tiªu diÖt hoÆc øcon this convention, and the preferred chÕ sinh tr-ëng vi sinh vËt g©y bÖnh (videsignations are coding strand for the sinh vËt cã kh¶ n¨ng g©y nhiÔm), nh-ngstrand whose sequence matches that of b¶n chÊt kh«ng ®éc cho tÕ bμo c¬ thÓ.the mRNA, and non-coding strand or antiserum The fluid portion of the bloodtemplate strand for the complementary of an immunized animal (after coagulationstrand (i.e. the transcription template). of the blood), which retains anyDNA ®èi nghÜa Mét trong hai sîi DNA kÐp, antibodies.th«ng th-êng lμ bæ sung (do “anti”) cho kh¸ng huyÕt thanh PhÇn láng cña m¸umRNA, nghÜa lμ sîi kh«ng ®-îc phiªn m·. ®éng vËt ®-îc g©y miÔn dÞch (sau khi lμm
  17. 17. anti-terminator 17®«ng m¸u), chøa kh¸ng thÓ . apical dominance The phenomenonanti-terminator A protein which enables where growth of lateral (axillary) buds in aRNA polymerase to ignore certain plant is inhibited by the presence of thetranscriptional stop or termination signals terminal (apical) bud on the branch.and thereby produce longer than normal Explained by the export of auxins from thetranscripts. apical bud.chÊt kh¸ng kÕt thóc Mét lo¹i protein cho -u thÕ ngän HiÖn t-îng sinh tr-ëng mÇmphÐp RNA polymeraza kh«ng lμm dõng bªn (n¸ch) cña c©y bÞ øc chÕ do cã mÆtphiªn m· nhÊt ®Þnh hoÆc c¸c tÝn hiÖu kÕt chåi ®Ønh trªn c¸c nh¸nh. §-îc gi¶i thÝchthóc vμ do vËy s¶n xuÊt c¸c b¶n sao dμi do vËn chuyÓn chÊt kÝch thÝch t¨ng tr-ëngh¬n b×nh th-êng. b¾t ®Çu tõ mÇm ®Ønh.antitranspirant A compound designed to apical meristem A region of the tip of eachreduce plant transpiration. Applied to the shoot and root of a plant in which cellleaves of newly transplanted trees, shrubs division is continually occurring to produce nnetc., or cuttings in lieu of misting. Can new stem and root tissue, respectively.interfere with photosynthesis and Two regions are visible in the apical ..v vrespiration if the coating is too thick or is meristem: An outer 1-4-cell layered regionunbroken. (the tunica), where cell divisions are ch ch anticlinal; and below the tunica, (ii) thechÊt chèng tho¸t n-íc ChÊt t¹o ra ®Ó corpus, where the cells divide in allgi¶m mÊt n-íc c©y trång. §-îc ¸p dông sa sa directions, and increase in volume.cho l¸ c©y, khãm c©y... míi trång, hoÆcnh÷ng l¸t c¾t bÞ lçi. Cã thÓ ¶nh h-ëng m« ph©n sinh ®Ønh Vïng chãp cña mçi mét chåi vμ rÔ c©y trong ®ã ph©n chia tÕ chchquang hîp vμ h« hÊp nÕu phñ trªn lμ qu¸dμy hoÆc kh«ng bÞ ph©n huû. bμo xÈy ra liªn tôc ®Ó s¶n xuÊt m« th©n vμ ii rÔ míi, theo tõng c¸ch riªng. Hai vïngantixenosis The modification of the ph©n biÖt râ trong m« ph©n sinh ®Ønh: vïng ..d dbehaviour of an organism by a substance (mμng) ®-îc xÕp líp 1- 4- tõ phÝa ngoμior another organism. Particularly used in vμo, n¬i sù ph©n chia tÕ bμo lμ nÕp låi; vμthe context of a plant’s apparent resistance d-íi mμng, vïng (ii), n¬i tÕ bμo ph©n chia w wagainst insect feeding, when the insects theo tÊt c¶ c¸c h-íng, vμ lμm t¨ng thÓ tÝch.are presented with a choice of plantgenotypes. apoenzyme Inactive enzyme that has to w w be associated with a co-enzyme in orderkh¸ng thÓ l¹ Sù biÕn ®æi tËp tÝnh cña sinh to function. The apoenzyme/co-enzymevËt bëi mét chÊt hoÆc sinh vËt kh¸c. §Æcww complex is called a holoenzyme.biÖt ®-îc sö dông trong hoμn c¶nh tÝnhkh¸ng xuÊt hiÖn cña thùc vËt kh¸ng d-ìng apoenzim Enzim kh«ng ho¹t ®éng kÕt hîpc«n trïng, khi c«n trïng ®-îc chuyÓn cã víi ®ång enzim ®Ó ho¹t ®éng. Phøc hîpsù lùa chän c¸c kiÓu gen thùc vËt. apoenzim/®ång-enzim ®-îc gäi lμ enzim hoμn toμn (hai thμnh phÇn, nhÞ cÊu tö).apex The portion of a root or shootcontaining the primary or apical meristem. apomixis The production of an embryo in the absence of meiosis. Apomictic®Ønh, ngän PhÇn rÔ hoÆc chåi c©y cã m« higher plants produce asexual seeds,ph©n sinh s¬ cÊp hoÆc m« ph©n sinh ®Ønh. derived only from maternal tissue. See:apical cell A meristematic initial in the parthenogenesis.apical meristem of shoots or roots of sinh s¶n v« phèi Sinh s¶n ph«i khi thiÕuplants. gi¶m ph©n. Thùc vËt bËc cao sinh s¶n v«tÕ bμo ®Ønh TÕ bμo ®Çu tiªn ph©n sinh phèi s¶n xuÊt h¹t gièng v« tÝnh, chØ thutrong m« ph©n sinh ®Ønh cña chåi hoÆc rÔ ®-îc tõ m« mÑ. xem môc :c©y. parthenogenesis.
  18. 18. apoptosis 18apoptosis The process of programmed DNA. Kü thuËt sö dông måi tuú ý ®Ócell death, which occurs naturally as a part khuyÕch ®¹i nh÷ng qu·ng che khuÊt cñaof normal development, maintenance and DNA. Xem: DNA amplificationrenewal of tissue. Differs from necrosis, fingerprinting, random amplifiedin which cell death is caused by external polymorphic DNAfactors (stress or toxin). arbitrary primer An oligonucleotidechøng chÕt dÇn Qu¸ tr×nh chÕt tÕ bμo primer whose sequence is chosen at®-îc ch-¬ng tr×nh hãa, xÈy ra tù nhiªn nh- random, rather than one whose sequencemét bé phËn ph¸t triÓn b×nh th-êng, duy matches that of a known locus. Thesetr× vμ ®æi míi m«. Kh¸c víi ho¹i tö, chÕt tÕ primers therefore amplify DNA fragmentsbμo g©y ra bëi nh©n tè bªn ngoμi (sèc hoÆc which have not been pre-selected.®éc tè). måi tuú ý Måi oligonucleotide cã tr×nh tùAP-PCR xem: arbitrarily primed ®-îc chän ngÉu nhiªn, thay v× tr×nh tù ®èipolymerase chain reaction. xøng thuéc æ gen ®· biÕt. Nh÷ng måi nμy nnaptamer A polynucleotide molecule that do vËy khuÕch ®¹i c¸c ®o¹n DNA mμbinds to a specific molecule, often a kh«ng ®-îc chän tr-íc. ..v vprotein. Archaea Single-celled life forms adaptedPh©n tö polinucleotit liªn kÕt víi ph©n tö to existence in high pressure, anaerobic, ch ch®Æc hiÖu, th-êng lμ protein. environments such as at extreme ocean depths. These organisms are seen as aaquaculture Farming of aquatic sa sa promising source of enzymes robustorganisms, including fish, molluscs, enough for a number of demandingcrustaceans and aquatic plants. industrial processes. chchnghÒ nu«i trång thñy s¶n Canh t¸c thuû Archaea C¸c d¹ng sèng ®¬n bμo thÝch iisinh vËt, bao gåm c¸, nhuyÔn thÓ, san h« nghi ®Ó tån t¹i trong m«i tr-êng ¸p suÊtvμ thùc vËt thuû sinh. ..d d cao, yÕm khÝ, nh- cùc s©u ®¸y ®¹i d-¬ng.Arabidopsis A genus of flowering plants Nh÷ng sinh vËt nμy ®-îc nh×n nhËn nh-in the Cruciferae. A. thaliana is used in nguån enzim phong phó ®Çy høa hÑn ®ñresearch as a model plant because it has w w ®¸p øng sè l-îng cho c¸c qu¸ tr×nh c«nga small fully sequenced genome, can be nghiÖp ®ang ®ßi hái cao.cultured and transformed easily, and has ARMG viÕt t¾t cña antibiotic resistance w wa rapid generation time. marker gene.Arabidopsis Mét gièng thùc vËt ra hoa ARS viÕt t¾t cña autonomous(ly)wwthuéc hä thËp tù Cruciferae. A. thaliana replicating segment (or sequence).®-îc dïng trong nghiªn cøu lμm c©y mÉubëi nã mang hÖ gen tr×nh tù ®Çy ®ñ kh«ng artificial inembryonation Non-surgicallín, cã thÓ ®-îc nu«i cÊy vμ thay ®æi dÔ, transfer of embryo(s) to a recipient female.vμ thêi gian thÕ hÖ nhanh. As in vitro embryo technology develops, artificial inembryonation may replacearbitrarily primed polymerase chain artificial insemination.reaction (Abbreviation: AP-PCR) Anapplication of the polymerase chain chuyÓn ghÐp ph«i nh©n t¹o ChuyÓnreaction to generate DNA fingerprints. ghÐp kh«ng phÉu thuËt ph«i cho mét sinhThe technique uses arbitrary primers to vËt c¸i nhËn. Khi c«ng nghÖ ph«i trongamplify anonymous stretches of DNA. See: phßng thÝ nghiÖm ph¸t triÓn, chuyÓn ghÐpDNA amplification fingerprinting, ph«i nh©n t¹o cã thÓ thay thÕ thô tinh nh©nrandom amplified polymorphic DNA. t¹o.ph¶n øng chuçi enzim tæng hîp måi tuú artificial insemination (Abbreviation: AI).ý (viÕt t¾t: AP- PCR) øng dông ph¶n øng The deposition of semen, using a syringe,chuçi polymeraza ®Ó t¹o ra dÊu chuÈn at the mouth of the uterus to make
  19. 19. artificial medium 19 conception possible. (Ascomycetes) in which ascospores arethô tinh nh©n t¹o (viÕt t¾t: AI). Sù truyÒn produced.tinh dÞch, cã sö dông èng tiªm, vμo cöa tö nang bμo (sè nhiÒu: asci) Tói sinh s¶ncung ®Ó lμm thô thai cã thÓ x¶y ra. trong giai ®o¹n h÷u tÝnh cña mét lo¹i nÊmartificial medium m«i tr-êng nh©n t¹o (nÊm tói: Ascomycetes) trong ®ã sinh raxem: culture medium. bμo tö nang.artificial seed Encapsulated or coated aseptic Sterile, free of contaminatingsomatic embryos that are planted and organisms (bacteria, fungi, algae but nottreated like seed. generally including viruses, and particularly not internal symbionts).gièng nh©n t¹o ThÓ ph«i x«ma ®-îc t¹ová hoÆc bao bäc ®Ó trång vμ xö lý nh- h¹t v« trïng TiÖt trïng, phi truyÒn nhiÔm sinhgièng. vËt (vi khuÈn, nÊm, t¶o nh-ng th-êng kh«ng bao gåm virut, vμ ®Æc biÖt kh«ngartificial selection The practice of ph¶i lμ sinh vËt céng sinh bªn trong).choosing individuals from a population for nnreproduction, usually because these asexual Reproduction not involving ..v vindividuals possess one or more desirable meiosis or the union of gametes.traits. v« tÝnh Sinh s¶n kh«ng kÐo theo gi¶m ch chchän läc nh©n t¹o C¸ch chän c¸ thÓ tõ ph©n hoÆc kÕt hîp giao tö.quÇn thÓ ®Ó sinh s¶n, th-êng v× c¸c c¸ thÓ asexual embryogenesis sinh ph«i v« sa sanμy cã mét hoÆc nhiÒu tÝnh tr¹ng quý. tÝnh. Xem: somatic cell embryogenesisASA viÕt t¾t cña allele-specific asexual propagation Vegetative, somatic,amplification. non-sexual reproduction of a plant chchascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in without fertilization. iithe peritoneal cavity, occurring naturally as lan truyÒn v« tÝnh Sinh s¶n sinh d-ìng, ..d da complication of cirrhosis of the liver, x«ma, v« tÝnh cña thùc vËt kh«ng thô phÊn.among other conditions. In the context of asexual reproduction Reproduction thatmonoclonal antibody production, does not involve the formation and union w whybridoma cells are injected into mice to of gametes from the different sexes orinduce their proliferation in the resulting mating types. It occurs mainly in lowerascites. This method has been largely animals, micro-organisms and plants. In w wsuperseded by in vitro culture of plants, asexual reproduction is byhybridomas. vegetative propagation (e.g. bulbs, tubers,wwbÖnh cæ tr-íng (trμn dÞch mμng bông ) corms) and by formation of spores.Sù tÝch tô kh«ng b×nh th-êng dÞch trong sinh s¶n v« tÝnh Sinh s¶n kh«ng kÐo theoxoang phóc m¹c, xÈy ra tù nhiªn lμ mét sù h×nh thμnh vμ kÕt hîp hoÆc kiÓu ghÐpbiÕn chøng cña bÖnh x¬ gan, tuú theo c¸c ®«i c¸c giao tö tõ giíi tÝnh kh¸c nhau. XÈy®iÒu kiÖn kh¸c nhau.Trong quy tr×nh s¶n ra chñ yÕu trong ®éng vËt bËc thÊp, vi sinhxuÊt kh¸ng thÓ ®¬n, tÕ bμo lai ®-îc tiªm vËt vμ thùc vËt. Trong thùc vËt, sinh s¶ncho chuét lμm kÕt qu¶ t¨ng nhanh. Ph-¬ng v« tÝnh lμ do ph¸t t¸n sinh d-ìng (vÝ dô:ph¸p nμy phÇn lín ®· ®-îc thay b»ng nu«i hμnh, cñ, th©n ngÇm) vμ do h×nh thμnh c¸ctrong èng nghiÖm c¸c tÕ bμo lai. bμo tö.ascospore One of the spores contained A-site vÞ trÝ A viÕt t¾t cña aminoacyl sitein the ascus of certain fungi. assay 1. To test or evaluate. 2. Thebμo tö nang Mét lo¹i bμo tö chøa trong procedure for measuring the quantity of anang bμo cña mét loμi nÊm nhÊt ®Þnh. given substance in a sample (chemicallyascus (pl.: asci) Reproductive sac in the or by other means).sexual stage of a type of fungi thö nghiÖm 1. KiÓm tra hoÆc ®¸nh gi¸.

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