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Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation
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Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation

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Lao ethnicity, dynasty and nation, a research in Political Anthropology

Lao ethnicity, dynasty and nation, a research in Political Anthropology

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  • 1. Lao ethnicity, dynasty, and nation ANTH 520-13A Pham Van Dung
  • 2. Pre-historic Laos (Bowman, 2000) • 10,000 – 3000 BC: ancestors of Lao Theung (Lao of the mountainside)/ Kha (slaves) were first settlers • 3000 – 1500 BC: Neolithic culture adopted (rice, pigs, cattles, pottery) • 1500 BC: Bronze Age • 1000-100 BC: Bronze Age and Megalithic culture (Plain of Jars) • 500-1 BC: Bronze drum found: contact with Vietnam and Tai in South China • 400-800 AD: Mon-Khmer influence/ control • 500: Tai-speaking people moved to remote mountains of Northeastern Laos
  • 3. Before 7th century Funan state: 1st -6th century Zhenla state: Khmer kingdom: 5th-7th century, dominated Funan Tai peole from SW China migrate south in 7th-13th centuries, assimilating local culture – 1200s set up states 1300s: Burman, Khmer, Siamese, and Lao adopted Budhism (Lockard, 2009)
  • 4. 800 – 1400: the golden age of kingdom
  • 5. Southeast Asian Kingdoms 1400-1600
  • 6. Laos and Asia by 1500 CE
  • 7. Dynastic realms Kingdom of Lan Xang (1353-1706, named 33 kings) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Fa Ngum (1353-1372) Samsenthai (1372-1417) Lan Kham Deng (1417-1428) Phommathat (1428-1429) Khamtum (Thao Khamtum) (1429) Meun Sai (1429-1430) Konekham (1430-1432) Kham-Tam Sa (1432) Lue-Sai (1432-1433) Khai Bua Ban (1433-1436) Khong Kham (1436-1438) Interregnum (1438-1441) Chaiyachakkapat-Phaenphaeo (Sao Tiakaphat) (1441-1478) Vietnamese occupation (1478-1479) Suvanna Banlang (Theng Kham) (14791485) Lahsaenthai Puvanart (1485-1495) Sompou (Samphou) (1495-1500) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Visunarat (1500-1520) Photisarath I (1520-1548) Setthathirat I (1548-1571) Saensurin (1572-1574) (1st reign) Maha Oupahat (ruled under Burmese sovereignty) (1575-1580) Saensurin (ruled again after expelling the Burmese for a brief period of time) (1580-1582) Nakhon Noi (ruled under Burmese sovereignty) (1582-1583) Vacant (1583-1591) Nokeo Koumanh (1591-1596) Voravongsa Thammikarath (1596-1622) Upanyuvarat (1622-1623) Photisarath II (1623-1627) Mon Keo (Mongkeo) (1627) Tone Kham (1627-1633) Vichai (1633-1637) Suriya Vongsa I (1637-1694) Tian Thala (1690 - 1695) Nan Tharat (1695 - 1698) Setthathirath II (1698 - 1706 ))
  • 8. Dynastic realms • Kingdoms of Luang Prabang (1707-1904), 12 kings 1707–1713 Kingkitsarat (succeeded to Luang Prabang upon partition of Laos c.1707) 1713–1723 Ong Nok (cousin; deposed, died 1759) 1723–1749 Inthasom (brother of Kingkitsarat) 1749–1750 Inthaphon (son; abdicated) 1750–1771 Sotikakuman (brother; abdicated) 1771–1791 Suriyavong (brother) 1791–1816 Anuruttha (brother)
  • 9. Dynastic realms • Kingdoms of Luang Prabang (Cont) 1816–1837 Mangthaturat (son) 1837–1850 Suksoem (son) 1850–1870 Chantharat (brother) 1870–1891 Un Kham (brother; deposed, died 1895) 1891–1904 Sakkarin (son; French protectorate over Laos 1893/6–1949)
  • 10. Dynastic realms Kingdoms of Champassak (1700-1904, named 16 kings) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Nan Rath/Soysysamoun (1700-1713?) Nokasat (1713-1738) Saya Kumane (1738-1791) (regent for Nokasat from 1725 until 1738) Xiang Keo (1791) Fay Na (1791-1811) No Muong (1811) Cha Nou (1811-1813) Ma Noi (1813-1819) Thai-Vietnamese occupation (December 1819 - 1821) Rajabud Yo (1821-1827) Hui (1827-1840) Nak (1840-1851) (Regent for Hui to 1840) Boua (1851 - 1852 (Regent) Thai occupation (1852-1856) Kham Nai (1856-1858) Chu (1858-1860) (Regent) Thai occupation (1860-1863) Kham Suk (1863-28 July 1900) Ratsadanay (28 July 1900 - 22 November 1904)
  • 11. Dynastic realms Kingdoms of Vientiane (1707-1828, named 8 kings) • • • • • Setthathirath II (1707-1730) Ong Long (1730-1767) Ong Bun Setthathirath III (1767-1778) (1st reign) Phraya Supho (1778-1780) (Thai governor) Ong Bun Setthathirath III (1780 - November 1781) (2nd reign) • Nanthasen Setthathirath IV (21 November 1781 January 1795) • Intharavong Setthathirath V (2 February 1795 - 7 February 1805) (crowned on 23 July 1795) • Anouvong (7 February 1805 - 12 November 1828)
  • 12. Tribes/ ethnic groups • Three main tribes categorized since 1940s 1. Lao Loum – lowland – Tai-Kadai languages 2. Lao Theung - slope hills, midland – Austroasiatic family 3. Lao Soung – upland – Tibeto-Burman & Hmong-Mien (Pholsena, 2005, pp. 82-3). • 47 ethnic groups (1995 Census) (Pholsena, 2005, p. 81) • 49 ethnic groups (1999 collectiong campaign) (ibid, p. 89) • Classification out of real heterogeneity (ibid, p. 91)
  • 13. Tribes/ ethnic groups • Tai languistic family (60% of whole population) – Lao, Phutai, Phouane, Tai Nyo, Lue, Tai Deng, Tai Khao, Nung, Yay and 20 other ethnic minorities • Austroasiatic speakers (26-36%) – Khmuic (Tai Hat, Phong Laan, Phong Phene, Phong Tapouang, Kaniang, Phong Piat, Thai Then) – Vietic (Vietnamese, Ngouan, Muang, Toum, Pong) – Palaungic (Wa, Lawa, Phalik, Sam Tao, Kha Bit, man Met, Lamet, Xmet, Riang, Palaung/ Ta’ang, Rumai – Katuic (Katu, Pacoh, Nge, Ta’oy, Ong, Katang, Brou-So, Kuay-Yoe (many subgroups) – Bahnaric (Stieng, Chrau, Sre-Koho, Mnong-Biat, Tampuan, Bahnar, Taliang, Kasseng, Alak, Kyong, Rengao, Sedang, Halang, Jeh, Kacho, Brao (Lave), Jru (Laven) Nha Hoen, Sou, Suk, Sapuan, Cheng, Oy) • Miao-Yao (6-10%) – Hmong (White Hmong, Green Hmong), Yao (Iu Mien), Kim Mun, Biao Mon • Sino-Tibetan (3-4%) – Kho (Akha), Pounoy, Ho, Sila, Lusi, Lolo, Lahu, Yi
  • 14. Ethnolinguistic groups in Laos
  • 15. Linguistic map: Laos
  • 16. Symbol of three main ethnic groups
  • 17. Symbol of three main ethnic groups
  • 18. Lao Loum - lowland
  • 19. Wet rice field, Luang Namtha, Northern Laos
  • 20. Weaving, Lao Loum, Luang Phrabang
  • 21. Lao Theung, midland
  • 22. Khmu women attending meeting, Luang Prabang
  • 23. Lao Soung/ H’mong - upland
  • 24. Yao ethnic group
  • 25. La Hu men playing flutes, Luang Namtha, Northern Laos
  • 26. Rotational shifting cultivation
  • 27. Ecological vegetable cutivation
  • 28. Livestock/ cattle raising
  • 29. Religion in Laos • Buddhism since 12th century – National religion of Lan Xang kingdom and other dynasties – Communists took power (1975): Not recognized as national religion – Recent revival • Christian missionaries came before 1975. Communists seen as ‘divisive belief’ (Evans, 2003, p. 220) • Small south Indian Muslim community in Vientiane (ibid, p. 217) • The Tai: parallel of sociopolitical structure and a hierarchy of territorial spirits (Evans, 2002, p. 5) • Anamist in many ethnic groups
  • 30. Lowland Lao and Buddism Buddah statute outside temple, Xiengda village Phousi temple, Luang Prabang
  • 31. Religious belief and forest protection A ceremony in Xiangda village, LPB Buottonmay, Budda’s spirits to protect nature, Xiangda village, LPB
  • 32. Signals of religions in a village, Luang Prabang Cross inside house Worshipping place in house
  • 33. Khmu worship place in forest, Densavang village, Luang Prabang
  • 34. Liengphiho (worshipping village forest spirits), Khmu in Phonsavat village, LPB Elder worshipping Community sharing afterwards
  • 35. Naosong of Hmong in Longlan village, LPB: Natural spirits worshipping and building up community regulations Ceremony in forest Voting Hmong association leaders
  • 36. Dynastic realms & French colonial time • Kingdoms of Laos (19041975) 1904–1959 Sisavangvong (son; deposed, 1945–6; king of united Laos 1946) 1959–1975 Savangvatthana (son; deposed, died 1978; People's Democratic Republic)
  • 37. Dynastic realms & French colonial time • 1893: Laos was merged with four other regions to form Indochina • 1899: a distinct administrative unit • 1907: Franco-Seamese treaty • Royal court in Luang Prabang manage its own affairs • Day-to-day management entrusted to French, Vietnamese and Laotian civil servants in Vientiane, subordinate to the résident supérieur. • Early 20th century: Nationalism and communist • Japanese occupation (1941-45) • 8 April, 1945: independent Lao Kingdom
  • 38. Civil war & Nation state • 1945-1975: Royal Lao government • 1960: Kong Le coup and neutralism • 1962-1975: Civil war: Royal Lao Government + Vang Pao (suported by America) and Pathet Lao (backed by Vietnam)
  • 39. Leaders in civil war (1962-1975) Prince Souvanna Phouma Kong Le Vang pao Kaysone Phomvihane Souphanouvong
  • 40. Civil war & Nation state Pathet Lao view, 1962 Royal Lao Government view, 1962
  • 41. Nation state • 1975-: Lao People’s Democratic Republic (LPDR) • ‘re-education camps’ & exodus • 1975-86: Centralized economic decision-making + collectivisation • Resettlement, forced minority groups to integrate into the national economy (Jerdal and Rigg, 1998, p. 825) • Hmong resistance by 1978, sporadic outbreaks • Economic growth, commercial link and the question of utility (ibid, p. 824) • Fear of cultural absorption within Greater Thailand (ibid, p. 826)
  • 42. States and tribes: the case of Khmu • Before 6th century: Khmu and Mon-Khmer are first settlers • 6th – 19th century: subdued by Lao and seen as Kha (slaves); traded to lowland and across borders • 1880s: abolishment of slavery by the French colonial regime • Early 20th century: revolt in Boloven plateau (Southern Lao) • 1950s: Belong to Lao Theung • 1995 & 2005 Census: Identified as an ethnic group, but question of self-identification and correct sub-groups • 614,000 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 704,000 • Poverty, low status and poor representative • Loose customs. Anamism converted to Buddhism, Christian -> assimilation?
  • 43. Reference • • • • • • • • Bowman, John., 2000. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. New York: Columbia University Press. Chazee, Laurent, 2002. The Peoples of Laos: Rural and Ethnic Diversities. Bangkok: White Lotus Press. Evans, Grant, 2002. A short history of Laos: The land in between. Crows Nest NSW: Allen&Unwin. http://www.oxfordreference.com.ezproxy.waikato.ac.nz/view/10.1093/acref/9780 198604730.001.0001/acref-9780198604730-e-129?rskey=AvUJSX&result=140&q Jerndan Randi and Jonathan Rigg, 1998. Making space in Laos: constructing a national identity in a ‘forgotten’country. Political Geography, Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 809–831, 1998 Lockard, Craig A., 2009. Southeast Asia in World History. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press. Mason C., 2005. A short history of Asia, New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan. Pholsena, Vatthana, 2005. “A liberal model of minority rights for an illiberal multiethnic state? The case of the Lao PDR, in Kymlicka, W. and Baogang He (eds): Multiculturalism in Asia, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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