Presentation on :Cognitive Development Presentation by: DIVYASHU SHARMA School Counsellor
BasicPrinciples of Piaget’s Theory Stages of Cognitive Development
•For a child to learn somethingnew, needs repetition on theaverage 8 times.•For a child to unlearn an oldbehaviour and replace it withnew, needs repetition on theaverage 28 times. •20 of those to eliminate old behaviour and 8 times to learn the new behaviour.
Development is driven by the process of equilibration. Equilibration encompasses Assimilation (Transforming information so that it fits within their existing thinking. ) Accommodation (Adapt thinking to incoming information.) Schemas (Describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowledge; also includes both categories of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge. )
Satisfied with their mode of thought and therefore are in a state of equilibrium. Then, become aware of the shortcomings in their existing thinking and are dissatisfied. (in a state of disequilibrium; experience cognitive conflict.) Last, adopt a more sophisticated mode of thought that eliminates the shortcomings of the old one (reach a more stable equilibrium.)
Basic Principles Metaphor of child as scientist Children are naturally curious and create theories about how the world works Schemas are mental structures or concepts in the child’s mind In assimilation, new experiences are readily incorporated into existing theories In accommodation, existing theories are modified based on experience
Basic Principles Assimilation and accommodation are usually in balance, or equilibrium When balance is upset, children reorganize their theories to restore equilibrium, a process Piaget called equilibration Process results in qualitatively different and more advanced theories
Basic Principles Children periodically reach a point where their theories are wrong most of the time and so they must reorganize thinking about the social and physical worlds Three reorganizations of theories lead to four stages of cognitive development Piaget believed all children pass through stages in same order
1. Stages of Cognitive Development The sensorimotor stage spans from birth to approximately 2 years of age Begins with reflexive responding and ends with using symbols Object permanence: understanding that objects exist independently
Sub stages of Sensorimotor stageReflexes 1 0 Circular 2 0 Circular Coordinatio 3 0 Circular Early(0-1 reactions reactions n of Reactions Representationalmonth) (1-4 months) (4-8 months) reactions (12 – 18 thoughts (18-24 months) (8 - 12 months) months)Reflexes Involves Begins to Shows Begin a period Develop symbolssuch as coordinating intentionally clearly of trail and to representsucking sensation & repeat an intentional error events or objects. experimentation Understand theand new schema. action in actions. May .Try out world throughrooting order to also combine different sounds mental trigger a schemas to or actions to get operations rather response in achieve attention. than purely the desired through actions. environment effect. Explore surrounding & imitate the observed behaviour.
2. Stages of Cognitive Development Preoperational stage spans ages 2 to 7 years Children use symbols but there are many errors in thinking Egocentrism Centration Confuse appearance and reality
3. Stages of Cognitive Development Concrete operational stage spans ages 7 to 11 years Thinking based on mental operations (strategies and rules that make thinking more systematic and powerful) Operations can be reversed Focus on the real and concrete, not the abstract
Concrete Operations Gain a better understanding of mentaloperations, think logically about concreteevents, difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. Fairly good atusing inductive logic but difficulty using deductive logic.
4. Stages of Cognitive Development Formal operational stage spans from roughly age 11 to adulthood Adolescents can think hypothetically Use deductive reasoning to draw appropriate conclusions from facts
Formal operational stage Logic: Abstract ProblemDeductive logic becomes Thought: solving: Tend to think very important, concretely, ability The ability to involves to think about systematically solve a hypothetical abstract problem in a logicalsituations and is concepts, intend to and methodical way.often required in relying on previous Cognitive Science & experiences & development are often begin to consider able to quickly plan an Mathematics. possible outcomes organized approach to and consequences of actions. solving a problem.
Areas to improve individual processing capabilities.We will focus on three broad areasand concentrate on: •Mental Workload. •Training. •Managing errors.
Strategies to maximize cognitive function in daily lifeStrategy 1: Respect the Complexity of everydayTask.Recognize and respect the cognitive demands ofthe cognitive task. Everyday tasks can makemany complicated cognitive demands , and haveto recognize and respect the demands before youcan begin to look at the effects of cognitivesymptoms accurately , and begin to compensatefor them.
Strategies to maximize cognitive function in daily lifeStrategy 2: Stay Conscious of CognitiveFunctioning (well or poor).If one can learn to assess cognitive abilities, maybe able to recognize when they will start to fadeand must do something to restore them to aneffective level. This will allow to keep negativeeffects to a minimum. Its possible to developtechniques to enhance cognitive abilities whichcan be effective during cognitive symptoms.
Strategies to maximize cognitive function in daily lifeStrategy 3: Make the most of good period.There are lot of things to deal with cognitivesymptoms and to enhance cognitive functioning.Managing symptoms presents a number ofintense intellectual challenges so need to do moreof the work during the period when cognitiveabilities are at their best. Analyzingexperiences, developing and rehearsing strategieshas to take place during period of peak