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Fundamental aspects for obtaining Ph D in Management

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  1. 1. Workshop on ‘Research Methodology in Management ’ Research Fundamentals and Terminology
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Research may be defined as documented, organized analysis of the subject based on borrowed material with suitable acknowledgement and consultation in the main body of the paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Research in Management comes within the purview of social sciences study which is different from physical science because we study here the society based on certain trends. </li></ul><ul><li>Research in Management is difficult and complicated because it is an integration of different approaches borrowing suitably from different disciplines. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions of certain important concepts in Research <ul><li>Variable: Variable is a quantity which varies in the course of research in which we are interested. In other words , variable is a factor whose change or difference we study e.g. rate of interest which is called as dependant variable. Independent variable is a variable whose effect upon the dependant variable we try to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Universe: We can define as total population covered in research. It may be particular group or sample. These groups can be based on age, income, education. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample: It is a selection of the population on the basis of certain factors. In selecting samples, we use sampling techniques. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definitions of certain important concepts in Research <ul><li>Empirical: Empirical means the observations and propositions which are primarily based on some sense experiments or derived from experience by methods of inductive logic . In simple words , empirical research is that type of research where we try to deduce some logic and principles based on our survey reports. We analyze the survey report and use the mathematical and statistical tools and deduce logic to authenticate. It is a journey from induction to deduction. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definitions of certain important concepts in Research <ul><li>Attitude and Opinion: Attitude is the psychic change which cannot be either demonstrated publicly or observed directly. This is psychological variable which is dormant or latent. It can never be measured unless most sophisticated tools are used. </li></ul><ul><li>Different schools have defined attitude differently and their measurement is also very difficult and different. </li></ul><ul><li>What is an Opinion ? Opinion and attitudes are different. Opinion is the verbal statement of a person only either for responding or answering particular question. </li></ul><ul><li>It has not got any object or aim. It is superficial. </li></ul><ul><li>While attitude is defined as a state of mind therefore for correct response to the questionnaire , researcher should rely on attitude than opinion. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definitions of certain important concepts in Research <ul><li>Through attitude survey we can study the inner mind , inner psychology or perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Through Opinion survey, we get superficial response which does not serve the purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Management research establishes the relationship between two variables such as work environment and worker’s productivity. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Functional Areas in Management <ul><li>Marketing, H R M, Production, F & A , Information Technology, Purchasing, Advertising, Sales Promotion, Material Planning and Production Control, Social Functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing: Marketing management research concerned with marketing policy, marketing survey, advertising services, product research, channels of distributions and pricing policy. </li></ul><ul><li>HRM research: Research in HRM is concerned with the corporate planning and development of human resource policies and strategies for which in-depth understanding of HRM is highly essential. Human resources management research sets HR objectives. It provides a suitable framework to ensure organizations people needs are satisfactorily met. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Definitions <ul><li>Research also changes the strategies and this change is financial driven to ensure corporate survival. It involves re-designing the organization structure, behavioral transformation, outsourcing non-core activities, cost cutting mechanism, innovative products and services and understanding business issues holistically. </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of right individual of right job on the basis of competency which is measurable and observable. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses : Is an assumption on which we base our research premises and which we all test in the light of our findings. Hypotheses need to be conceptually clear, empirically testable, closest to the observable specific in nature and related to the body of theory. Simple and brief. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing of hypotheses involves application of both qualitative and </li></ul>
  9. 9. Definitions <ul><li>Quantitative data , statistical tools. </li></ul><ul><li>RM is already covered by other speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Researcher concludes his research by re-stating his objectives with due mention whether it is accepted or rejected. Conclusions and observations need to be in respect to the objective of study. Conclusion should focus or suggest scope of further research in that area. Possible implications of the study for building new theory or modifying present one and contribution to the knowledge of particular discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>After designing the steps, the researcher should chalk out chapter planning from historical perspective. Because present is built on past and past enables us to the present and present enables us to go the future. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Definitions <ul><li>Selection of Research topic: Topic is narrowing down the most potential one out of different alternatives. It is the first task of the researcher. It should be independent, have current implications, have scope and amenities to carry out, should contribute to the knowledge and should be fully supported by the research guide. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Problem: While defining research problem, researcher should review the existing literature with any inter-disciplinary perspective. It should have link with the past work. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation: On the basis of conclusion, the researcher should be in a position to recommend certain new strategies and formulate new policies. He should also improve the present one to make it suitable to the future global requirements. His recommendations concerned with formulation of the policies, redesigning and restructuring the organizations and improving functional activities in the present perspective. Recommendation should focus light on future problems and various measures to be adopted to solve them. </li></ul>