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The science of psychology chapter from, Psychology, An Exploration 2nd ed. Authors Ciccarelli & White

The science of psychology chapter from, Psychology, An Exploration 2nd ed. Authors Ciccarelli & White

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  • 1. PSYCHOLOGYPSYCHOLOGY AN EXPLORATIONAN EXPLORATION PSYCHOLOGYPSYCHOLOGY AN EXPLORATIONAN EXPLORATION CHAPTER Second EditionSecond Edition Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White the science of psychology 1
  • 2. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Why study psychology? Psychology not only helps you understand why people (and animals)do the things they do, but it also helps you better understand yourself and your reactions to others. Psychology can help you comprehend how your brain and body are connected, how to improve your learning abilities and memory, and how to deal with the stresses of life, both ordinary and extraordinary. In studying psychology, an understanding of the methods psychologists use is crucial because research can be flawed, and knowing how research should be done can bring those flaws to light. And finally, psychology and its research methods promote critical thinking, which can be used to evaluate not just research but also claims of all kinds, including those of advertisers and politicians.
  • 3. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Learning Objectives • LO 1.1Definition and goals of psychology • LO 1.2 Structuralism and functionalism • LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism • LO 1.4 Modern perspectives Skinner, Maslow and Rogers • LO 1.5 Psychiatrist, psychologist, and other professionals • LO 1.6 Psychology is a science; steps in scientific method • LO 1.7 Naturalistic and laboratory settings • LO 1.8 Case studies and surveys • LO 1.9 Correlational technique • LO 1.10 Experimental approach and terms • LO 1.11Placebo and the experimenter effects • LO 1.12 Elements of a real-world experiments • LO 1.13 Ethical concerns in conducting research • LO 1.14 Principles of critical thinking
  • 4. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White What is Psychology? • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. – Behavior  Overt actions and reactions – Mental processes  Internal, covert activity of the mind – Scientific  Prevent possible biases from leading to faulty observations  Precise and careful measurement LO 1.1 Definition and goals of psychology
  • 5. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Goals of Psychology • Description – What is happening? • Explanation – Why is it happening? – Theory  Explanation of a set of observations or facts LO 1.1 Definition and goals of psychology
  • 6. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Goals of Psychology • Prediction – Will it happen again? • Control – How can it be changed? LO 1.1 Definition and goals of psychology
  • 7. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Structuralism • Structuralism – Focused on structure or basic elements of the mind. LO 1.2 Structuralism and functionalism
  • 8. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Structuralism • Wilhelm Wundt – Established first psychology laboratory  Leipzig, Germany in 18 7 9 – Developed objective introspection  Examine and measure personal thought and mental activities LO 1.2 Structuralism and functionalism
  • 9. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White German physiologist Wilhelm Wundt participates in an experiment in his laboratory as students look on. Courtesy of General Information Center
  • 10. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Structuralism • Edward Titchener – Wundt’s student – Brought structuralism to America. • Margaret Washburn – Titchener’s student – First woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology. • Structuralism died out in early 19 0 0 s. LO 1.2 Structuralism and functionalism
  • 11. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Functionalism • Functions in the real world • How people to adapt, live, work, and play • Proposed by William James • Influenced modern fields: – Educational psychology – Evolutionary psychology – Industrial/organizational psychology LO 1.2 Structuralism and functionalism
  • 12. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Gestalt Psychology • Max Wertheimer – Perception can only be understood as a complete event. – Understanding patterns, whole figures • Gestalt – German translated as “organized whole” LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism
  • 13. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Gestalt Psychology • Ideas are now part of modern cognitive psychology – Field focuses on perception, learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism
  • 14. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 1.1 A Gestalt Perception The eye tends to “fill in” the blanks hereand sees both of these figures as circles rather than as a series of dots or a broken line.
  • 15. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Psychoanalysis • Developed by Sigmund Freud – Trained as a physician – Worked with patients with nervous disorders LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism
  • 16. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud walks with his daughter Anna, also a psychoanalyst. © Hulton Archive/Getty Images
  • 17. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Psychoanalysis • Main Ideas – Unconscious (unaware) mind  Where threatening impulses and desires are repressed – Repressed urges create nervous disorders LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism
  • 18. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Psychoanalysis • Freud’s concepts – Stressed importance of early childhood experiences – Formed the basis for modern therapy LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism
  • 19. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Behaviorism • Ivan Pavlov – Russian physiologist – Studied digestive processes – Reflex can occur with new and unrelated stimulus – Conditioned dogs to salivate to metronome LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism
  • 20. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Physiologist Ivan Pavlov uses a dog to demonstrate the conditioned reflex to students at the Russian Military Medical Academy. © Bettmann/Corbis
  • 21. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Behaviorism • John B. Watson – Developed the “science of behavior” – Psychology should focus on observable behavior  Must be directly seen and measured  Ignore notion of unconscious – Believed phobias were learned through conditioning.  Case of “Little Albert” –Child conditioned to fear a white rat LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism
  • 22. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White American psychologist John Watson is known as the father of behaviorism. Behaviorism focuses only on observable behavior. Courtesy of Underwood & Underwood/Bettmann/Corbis
  • 23. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Modern Perspectives • Psychodynamic perspective – Modern version of psychoanalysis – Focus on development of a sense of self – Discover motivations behind behavior  No emphasis on sexual motivations LO 1.4 Modern perspectives Skinner, Maslow, and Rogers
  • 24. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Modern Perspectives • Behavioral perspective – B. F. Skinner  Developed theory of how voluntary behavior is learned  Introduced concept or reinforcement – Perspective was major force in the twentieth century LO 1.4 Modern perspectives Skinner, Maslow, and Rogers
  • 25. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Behaviorist B. F. Skinner puts a rat through its paces. What challenges might arise from applying information gained from studies with animals to human behavior? Courtesy of Nina Leen/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images
  • 26. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Modern Perspectives • Humanistic perspective – People have free will to choose destiny – Early contributors:  Abraham Maslow  Carl Rogers – Self-actualization  Achieving one’s full potential or actual self LO 1.4 Modern perspectives Skinner, Maslow, and Rogers
  • 27. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Modern Perspectives • Humanistic perspective – Modern Humanism  Used in psychotherapy  Assists in self-understanding LO 1.4 Modern perspectives Skinner, Maslow, and Rogers
  • 28. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Modern Perspectives • Cognitive perspective – Major force emerging in 1960’s – Focus on memory, intelligence, perception, problem-solving, and learning. – Cognitive neuroscience  Physical workings of brain and nervous system  Use imaging techniques –MRI, PET LO 1.4 Modern perspectives Skinner, Maslow, and Rogers
  • 29. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White These scans show loss of gray matter in the brains of individuals with very early-onset, adolescent schizophrenia over a five-year period, highlighting one focus of the biological perspective. Courtesy of The University of California, Los Angeles
  • 30. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Modern Perspectives • Sociocultural perspective – Examines relationship between social behavior and culture LO 1.4 Modern perspectives Skinner, Maslow, and Rogers
  • 31. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Modern Perspectives • Biopsychological perspective – Behavior is a result of biological events in the body  Genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system LO 1.4 Modern perspectives Skinner, Maslow, and Rogers
  • 32. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Modern Perspectives • Evolutionary perspective – Examines biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share  Seeks to explain mental strategies and traits  Mind is seen as set of information- processing machines LO 1.4 Modern perspectives Skinner, Maslow, and Rogers
  • 33. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Psychologists with an evolutionary perspective would be interested in how this couple selected each other as partners. Photo credit: Bill Aron/PhotoEdit
  • 34. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Types of Psychological Professionals • Psychiatrist – Medical doctor (M.D.) – Specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. • Psychoanalyst – Psychiatrist or a psychologist – Special training in Freudian theory and psychoanalysis. LO 1.5 Psychiatrist, psychologist, and other professionals
  • 35. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Types of Psychological Professionals • Psychiatric social worker – Social worker trained in therapy methods – Focus on the environmental conditions impacting mental disorders  Poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse. LO 1.5 Psychiatrist, psychologist, and other professionals
  • 36. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Types of Psychological Professionals • Psychologist – Academic degree and specialized training in psychology – Work in counseling, teaching, and research – Specialization can include clinical, counseling, developmental, social, personality theory LO 1.5 Psychiatrist, psychologist, and other professionals
  • 37. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 1.2 Work Settings and Subfields of Psychology (a) There are many different work settings for psychologists. Although not obvious from the chart,many psychologists work in more than one setting. For example, a clinical psychologist may work in a hospital setting and teach at a university or college. (Tsapogas et al., 2006) (b) This pie chart shows the specialty areas of psychologists who recently received their doctorates. (Hoffer et al., 2007)
  • 38. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Scientific Methodology • Scientific Method – System of gathering data – Bias and error in measurement are reduced LO 1.6 Psychology is a science; steps in scientific method
  • 39. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Scientific Methodology • Steps in the Scientific Method: 1. Perceive the question 2. Form hypothesis –Tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observations 1. Test the hypothesis 2. Draw conclusions 3. Report results –Allows for replication • Demonstrate reliability of results LO 1.6 Psychology is a science; steps in scientific method
  • 40. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White The Scientific Method LO 1.6 Psychology is a science; steps in scientific method
  • 41. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Descriptive Methods • Naturalistic Observation – Watch animals or humans behave in their normal environment – Advantage:  Realistic picture of behavior LO 1.7 Naturalistic and laboratory settings
  • 42. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Descriptive Methods • Naturalistic Observation – Disadvantages:  Observer effect –People or animals behave differently when they know they are being observed –May reduce observer effect through participant observation LO 1.7 Naturalistic and laboratory settings
  • 43. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Descriptive Methods • Naturalistic Observation – Disadvantages:  Observer bias –Observers see what they expect to see –May reduce observer bias through use of blind observers  Each naturalistic setting is unique –Observations may not hold LO 1.7 Naturalistic and laboratory settings
  • 44. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White This researcher is studying the behavior of a group of lemurs. Is this naturalistic observation? Why or why not? Photo credit: Cyril Ruoso/Photolibrary
  • 45. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Descriptive Methods • Laboratory Observation – Watching animals or humans in a laboratory setting • Advantages: – Control over environment – Allows use of specialized equipment – Can lead to the development of hypotheses LO 1.7 Naturalistic and laboratory settings
  • 46. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Descriptive Methods • Disadvantage: – Artificial situation that may result in artificial behavior LO 1.7 Naturalistic and laboratory settings
  • 47. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White The researcher in the foreground is watching the children through a one-way mirror to get a description of their behavior. Observations such as these are just one of many ways that psychologists have of investigating behavior. Why is it important for the researcher to be behind a one-way mirror? Photo credit Jeff Greenberg/The Image Works
  • 48. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Descriptive Methods • Case study – Study of one individual in great detail – Advantages:  Tremendous amount of detail  Good for studying rare conditions – Disadvantages:  Cannot apply results easily to similar individuals  Vulnerable to bias of researcher LO 1.8 Case studies and surveys
  • 49. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White After a gunpowder explosion, Phineas Gage ended up with a steel rod in his head. A model of Gage's head is shown next to his actual skull. Visible above the left side of his mouth is the entry point of the steel rod, and the exit point is at the top of the skull. Courtesy of The Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
  • 50. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Descriptive Methods • Survey – Researcher asks a series of questions about the topic under study  Given to a representative sample  Population – Randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger group LO 1.8 Case studies and surveys
  • 51. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Descriptive Methods • Survey – Advantages:  Data from large numbers of people  Study covert behaviors – Disadvantages:  Have to ensure representative sample (or results not meaningful).  People not always accurate (courtesy bias) LO 1.8 Case studies and surveys
  • 52. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Finding Relationships • Correlation – Measure of the relationship between two variables – Variable  Anything that can change or vary LO 1.9 Correlational technique
  • 53. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Finding Relationships • Correlation – Correlation coefficient (r)  Mathematical calculation  Measures –Direction of the relationship –Strength of the relationship – Knowing the value of one variable allows prediction of the value of the other variable LO 1.9 Correlational technique
  • 54. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Finding Relationships • Correlation coefficient ranges from – 1.00 to +1.00. • Closer to 1.00 or -1.00, the stronger the relationship – No correlation = 0.0. – Perfect correlation = -1.00 OR +1.00. LO 1.9 Correlational technique
  • 55. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Finding Relationships • Positive correlation – Variables are related in the same direction.  As one increases, the other increases  As one decreases, the other decreases LO 1.9 Correlational technique
  • 56. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White © The New Yorker Collection 1994 Leo Cullum from cartoonbank.com. All Rights Reserved.
  • 57. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Finding Relationships • Negative correlation – Variables are related in opposite directions – As one increases, the other decreases • Correlation does not prove causation LO 1.9 Correlational technique
  • 58. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Figure 1.3 These scatterplots show direction and strength of correlation. It should be noted that perfect correlations, whether positive or negative, rarely occur in the real world.
  • 59. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White The Experiment • Allows researchers to determine cause and effect • Deliberate manipulation of variables • Holding constant other variables LO 1.10 Experimental approach and terms
  • 60. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White The act of hitting each other with toy swords could be part of an operational definition of aggressive behavior. Photo credit Bill Aron/PhotoEdit
  • 61. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Features of the Experiment • Operational definition – Specifies steps or procedures used to control or measure the experimental variables • Independent variable (IV) – Variable manipulated by experimenter • Dependent Variable (DV) – Represents measured response of the experimental manipulation LO 1.10 Experimental approach and terms
  • 62. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Features of the Experiment • Experimental Group – Receives the manipulation • Control Group – Not subjected to the independent variable – Controls for other factors (confounds) that may affect the outcome LO 1.10 Experimental approach and terms
  • 63. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Features of the Experiment • Random Assignment – Participants are assigned randomly to control or experimental group – Each participant has equal chance of assignment to experimental or control groups LO 1.10 Experimental approach and terms
  • 64. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Placebo and Experimenter Effects • Placebo effect – Expectations of the participants can influence their behavior – Classic control-give placebo to control group • Experimenter effect – Experimenter’s expectations unintentionally influence study LO 1.11 Placebo and the experimenter effects
  • 65. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Placebo and Experimenter Effects • Single-blind study – Subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or the control group – Reduces placebo effect • Double-blind study – Neither experimenter or participants know if in experimental or control group – Reduces placebo and experimenter effects LO 1.11 Placebo and the experimenter effects
  • 66. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Experimental Example • Stereotypes, athletes and college test performance – High stereotype threat question asked before intellectual assessment (experimental group) – High stereotype threat question asked after intellectual assessment – Before test group scored lower on intellectual assessment than after group LO 1.12 Elements of a real world experiment
  • 67. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Experimental Example • Stereotypes, athletes and college test performance – Questions to consider:  What extraneous variables might be affecting the students’ test performance?  What might educators do to try to prevent the effect of the “dumb jock” negative stereotype on college athletes? LO 1.12 Elements of a real world experiment
  • 68. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Ethics in Psychological Research • Institutional review board – Professional group that reviews the safety, consideration of participants LO 1.13 Ethical concerns in conducting research
  • 69. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Ethics in Psychological Research • Common ethical guidelines: 1. Rights and well-being of participants must be weighed against the study’s value to science. 2. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation. 3. Deception must be justified. 4. Participants may withdraw from the study at any time. LO 1.13 Ethical concerns in conducting research
  • 70. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Ethics in Psychological Research • Common ethical guidelines: 5. Participants must be protected from risks or told explicitly of risks. 6. Investigator must debrief participants, telling the true nature of the study and expectations of results. 7. Data must remain confidential. LO 1.13 Ethical concerns in conducting research
  • 71. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Ethics in Psychological Research • Animal research – Attempt to answer questions not obtainable with human research – Avoid exposure to unnecessary pain or suffering – Animals are used in approximately 7% of psychological studies LO 1.13 Ethical concerns in conducting research
  • 72. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Critical Thinking • Is making reasoned judgments about claims. LO 1.14 Principles of critical thinking
  • 73. Psychology: An Exploration, Second Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli • J. Noland White Critical Thinking • Four Basic Criteria: 1. There are very few “truths” that do not need to be subjected to testing. 2. All evidence is not equal in quality. 3. Just because someone is considered to be an authority or to have a lot of expertise does not make everything that person claims automatically true. 4. Critical thinking requires an open mind. LO 1.14 Principles of critical thinking