Bulgarian kaval by Nikolay Doktorov

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This presentation will give you an overview of the Bulgarian end-blown flute, called Kaval. It is given by Nikolay Doktorov, a renowned Kaval performer and teacher.

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Bulgarian kaval by Nikolay Doktorov

  1. 1. Bulgarian Kaval FIRST WORLD FLUTES FESTIVAL MENDOZA, ARGENTINA 2009 Presented by Nikolay Doktorov Kaval player, conductor and teacher
  2. 2. The Kaval <ul><li>T raditional musical instrument in Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>One of the oldest national folklore instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Made of wood and bone </li></ul>NIKOLAY DOKTOROV BULGARIAN KAVAL MENDOZA,ARGENTINA 2009
  3. 3. The Republic of Bulgaria EUROPE Bulgaria <ul><li>European country </li></ul><ul><li>On the Balkans </li></ul><ul><li>South-eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>On the Black sea </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Area </li></ul><ul><li>≈ 111,000 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>≈ 7.5 million </li></ul><ul><li>Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Sofia </li></ul>The Republic of Bulgaria
  5. 5. History of Kaval KAVAL (Turkey) KAVAL (Macedonia) DZAMARA (Greece) CAVAL (Romania) KAVALL (Albania) BLUR (Armenia) NEY (Arab countries) <ul><li>Exact origins – unknown (scarce data) </li></ul><ul><li>Predecessors – probably Egyptian, Syrian, later Greek wind instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Etymology - Long wooden shepherd’s wistle (from Turkish). Also called dzamara, blur and ney </li></ul><ul><li>Development – melodies passed on through generations by ear at folklore competitions, gatherings, festivals in Bulgaria and around the world </li></ul>
  6. 6. Structure of Kaval <ul><li>Wooden cylindrical tube </li></ul><ul><li>Two open ends </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of three parts </li></ul>Upper “first” part without holes Middle “second” part with 8 holes Third part with 4 holes. Also known as “dushnitzi” or “devil holes”. Not used by the performer Thumb hole
  7. 7. Producing sound <ul><li>Held with both hands, at an angle of approx. 45 o </li></ul><ul><li>Circular open end goes under lower lip and above upper lip on the right side of the mouth (lips are pursed in the form of a circle) </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows directly from the throat into the kaval at an angle </li></ul><ul><li>Air hits the inside walls of the kaval and thus sound is produced </li></ul><ul><li>Change of air pressure produces change of pitch </li></ul>
  8. 8. Finger Positioning
  9. 9. Registers and Timbre <ul><li>Registers – kaval has 3 registers which determine its range, 2 octaves and 6 tones: </li></ul>Low register Middle register High register Small octave (+ first octave played simultaneously) II (second) octave 6 tones <ul><li>Timbre – kaval has many different timbers; some examples are: </li></ul>kaba pp clarinet incomplete low register: from D (I octave) to B (I octave) between kaba and timber of the middle register; very mild, light tone low register flute middle register
  10. 10. Technical Characteristics <ul><li>D-kaval – the most widely spread kaval in Bulgaria (length = 64cm) </li></ul><ul><li>Playing technique – depending on the difficulty of the musical composition might include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vibrato, staccato, triller, mordent, forschlag, ligatures, glissando </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hlopki, different dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>for longer and more complex phrases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tongue technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>circular breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the high number of registers allows jumps in upward and downward direction </li></ul>
  11. 11. Kaval Types and Their Characteristics Different size and usage: A B H C# C D E <ul><li>have beautiful mat tone </li></ul><ul><li>used for solo playing or accompaniment of singers </li></ul><ul><li>old kaval masters used to play with these kavals </li></ul><ul><li>most widely spread kavals today </li></ul><ul><li>used mainly for education of younger children </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bulgarian Kaval Performers and Teachers <ul><li>Nikola Ganchev </li></ul><ul><li>Dragan Karapchanski </li></ul><ul><li>Matiu Dobrev </li></ul><ul><li>Penko Georgiev </li></ul><ul><li>Teodosii Spasov </li></ul><ul><li>Dancho Radulov </li></ul><ul><li>Nedyalko Nedyalkov </li></ul><ul><li>Stoyan Chobanov </li></ul><ul><li>Aleksandar Donev </li></ul><ul><li>Tzvyatko Blagoev </li></ul><ul><li>Gospodin Stanev </li></ul><ul><li>Ivan Bogoev </li></ul><ul><li>Stoyan Velichkov </li></ul><ul><li>Kostadin Genchev </li></ul><ul><li>Krastyu Dimov </li></ul><ul><li>Stoyan Aleksandrov </li></ul><ul><li>Nikolay Georgiev </li></ul><ul><li>Dosiu Milkov </li></ul>
  13. 13. Anil Payakovya NN <ul><li>Georgi Ivanov </li></ul><ul><li>Stanil Payakov </li></ul><ul><li>Ivan Antonov </li></ul><ul><li>prof. Milcho Vasilev </li></ul><ul><li>Neicho Georgiev </li></ul><ul><li>prof. d-r Lyuben Dossev </li></ul><ul><li>Dimo Jelev </li></ul><ul><li>Georgi Georgiev </li></ul><ul><li>Shtiliyan Tihov </li></ul><ul><li>Dimitar Dimitrov </li></ul><ul><li>Georgi Penev </li></ul><ul><li>Hristo Stefanov </li></ul><ul><li>Mehmed Saliev </li></ul><ul><li>Tzvyatko Denkov </li></ul><ul><li>Venelin Mutafchiev </li></ul><ul><li>Rumen Mutafchiev </li></ul><ul><li>Stoyan Stoilov </li></ul>Bulgarian Kaval Performers and Teachers
  14. 14. f Makers of Bulgarian folk instruments <ul><li>Today, very few people make Bulgarian folk instruments consistent with the requirements for quality and sound correctness </li></ul><ul><li>one of the best materials for kaval is cornel wood; kavals can also be made of plum, boxwood, and other types of wood </li></ul>Encho Pashov Apostol Apostolov Zhecho Marinov Dimitar Genchev Slavi Ivanov Petar Borisov Tzvyatko Damyanov Ivan Parushev Veselin Hasabaliev
  15. 15. Place of the Kaval in the Folklore Life of Bulgaria
  16. 16. The Folk Music Music – one of the universal international languages. Folk music – the most precious national treasure for every nation. Let’s love, preserve and develop our national folk music.

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