Marine Ecosystems

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Presentation for The Waldorf School of the Peninsula

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Marine Ecosystems

  1. 1. <ul><li>Rocky Intertidal </li></ul><ul><li>Estuary </li></ul><ul><li>Coral Reef </li></ul><ul><li>Open Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Deep Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrothermal Vent </li></ul>Marine Ecosystems
  2. 2. <ul><li>Located in warm, clear shallow water </li></ul><ul><li>Very abundant life </li></ul><ul><li>Many brightly colored organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple phyla represented (sponges, cnidarians, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms, vertebrates – fish) </li></ul>Coral Reef Ecosystem
  3. 3. Coral reef organisms
  4. 4. <ul><li>Same phylum as anemones and jellyfish </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit calcium carbonate skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies of clones </li></ul><ul><li>Contain photosynthetic algae - zooxanthellae </li></ul>What IS Coral?
  5. 5. What IS coral?
  6. 6. <ul><li>Unicellular photosynthetic organisms live inside corals </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis provides sugar for coral </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic pigments give corals their color </li></ul>Zooxanthellae
  7. 7. <ul><li>Zooxanthellae abandon corals when temperatures get too high… even only 1 ° </li></ul>Coral Bleaching
  8. 8. Marine Ecology show Coral Seas
  9. 9. <ul><li>Very deep photic zone – not much sediment suspended in water, not much plankton </li></ul><ul><li>Average depth 3800m </li></ul><ul><li>Largest ecosystem on the planet! </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by fish, sharks and whales </li></ul>Open Ocean
  10. 10. Open Ocean Organisms
  11. 11. Marine Ecology show Open Ocean
  12. 12. <ul><li>Below the photic zone (1000m in open ocean) </li></ul><ul><li>Constant darkness </li></ul><ul><li>Cold (usually around 1-2 °C) </li></ul><ul><li>Very high pressure! (see cups) </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms are few and far between </li></ul>Deep Ocean
  13. 13. <ul><li>Red, black or clear bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Bioluminescence to see in the darkness or attract prey </li></ul><ul><li>Huge mouths to eat food in any available form </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent mating arrangements… </li></ul>Deep Ocean Adaptations
  14. 14. Deep Ocean Organisms Show Blue Planet: “The Deep” chapters 1-10
  15. 15. Marine Ecology show The Deep
  16. 16. <ul><li>Deep ocean “springs” associated with cracks in Earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><li>Whole communities based on sulfides, not sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered in 1977 </li></ul>Hydrothermal vents
  17. 17. How Do Hydrothermal Vents Work?
  18. 18. <ul><li>Hot, mineral-rich water steams out of Earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><li>Special chemosynthetic bacteria metabolize hydrogen sulfide into sugars the same way photosynthetic organisms use sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Vent tube worms have these chemosynthetic bacteria living inside them (like zooxanthellae in coral) </li></ul>How life works at hydrothermal vents
  19. 19. Hydrothermal vent organisms Show chapters 11-12 of Blue Planet: “The Deep”

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