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Marine Ecosystems

Marine Ecosystems



Presentation for The Waldorf School of the Peninsula

Presentation for The Waldorf School of the Peninsula



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    Marine Ecosystems Marine Ecosystems Presentation Transcript

      • Rocky Intertidal
      • Estuary
      • Coral Reef
      • Open Ocean
      • Deep Sea
      • Hydrothermal Vent
      Marine Ecosystems
      • Located in warm, clear shallow water
      • Very abundant life
      • Many brightly colored organisms
      • Multiple phyla represented (sponges, cnidarians, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms, vertebrates – fish)
      Coral Reef Ecosystem
    • Coral reef organisms
      • Same phylum as anemones and jellyfish
      • Deposit calcium carbonate skeleton
      • Colonies of clones
      • Contain photosynthetic algae - zooxanthellae
      What IS Coral?
    • What IS coral?
      • Unicellular photosynthetic organisms live inside corals
      • Photosynthesis provides sugar for coral
      • Photosynthetic pigments give corals their color
      • Zooxanthellae abandon corals when temperatures get too high… even only 1 °
      Coral Bleaching
    • Marine Ecology show Coral Seas
      • Very deep photic zone – not much sediment suspended in water, not much plankton
      • Average depth 3800m
      • Largest ecosystem on the planet!
      • Dominated by fish, sharks and whales
      Open Ocean
    • Open Ocean Organisms
    • Marine Ecology show Open Ocean
      • Below the photic zone (1000m in open ocean)
      • Constant darkness
      • Cold (usually around 1-2 °C)
      • Very high pressure! (see cups)
      • Organisms are few and far between
      Deep Ocean
      • Red, black or clear bodies
      • Bioluminescence to see in the darkness or attract prey
      • Huge mouths to eat food in any available form
      • Permanent mating arrangements…
      Deep Ocean Adaptations
    • Deep Ocean Organisms Show Blue Planet: “The Deep” chapters 1-10
    • Marine Ecology show The Deep
      • Deep ocean “springs” associated with cracks in Earth’s crust
      • Whole communities based on sulfides, not sunlight
      • Discovered in 1977
      Hydrothermal vents
    • How Do Hydrothermal Vents Work?
      • Hot, mineral-rich water steams out of Earth’s crust
      • Special chemosynthetic bacteria metabolize hydrogen sulfide into sugars the same way photosynthetic organisms use sunlight
      • Vent tube worms have these chemosynthetic bacteria living inside them (like zooxanthellae in coral)
      How life works at hydrothermal vents
    • Hydrothermal vent organisms Show chapters 11-12 of Blue Planet: “The Deep”