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Marine Ecosystems

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Presentation for The Waldorf School of the Peninsula

Presentation for The Waldorf School of the Peninsula

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Marine Ecosystems Marine Ecosystems Presentation Transcript

    • Rocky Intertidal
    • Estuary
    • Coral Reef
    • Open Ocean
    • Deep Sea
    • Hydrothermal Vent
    Marine Ecosystems
    • Located in warm, clear shallow water
    • Very abundant life
    • Many brightly colored organisms
    • Multiple phyla represented (sponges, cnidarians, molluscs, arthropods, echinoderms, vertebrates – fish)
    Coral Reef Ecosystem
  • Coral reef organisms
    • Same phylum as anemones and jellyfish
    • Deposit calcium carbonate skeleton
    • Colonies of clones
    • Contain photosynthetic algae - zooxanthellae
    What IS Coral?
  • What IS coral?
    • Unicellular photosynthetic organisms live inside corals
    • Photosynthesis provides sugar for coral
    • Photosynthetic pigments give corals their color
    Zooxanthellae
    • Zooxanthellae abandon corals when temperatures get too high… even only 1 °
    Coral Bleaching
  • Marine Ecology show Coral Seas
    • Very deep photic zone – not much sediment suspended in water, not much plankton
    • Average depth 3800m
    • Largest ecosystem on the planet!
    • Dominated by fish, sharks and whales
    Open Ocean
  • Open Ocean Organisms
  • Marine Ecology show Open Ocean
    • Below the photic zone (1000m in open ocean)
    • Constant darkness
    • Cold (usually around 1-2 °C)
    • Very high pressure! (see cups)
    • Organisms are few and far between
    Deep Ocean
    • Red, black or clear bodies
    • Bioluminescence to see in the darkness or attract prey
    • Huge mouths to eat food in any available form
    • Permanent mating arrangements…
    Deep Ocean Adaptations
  • Deep Ocean Organisms Show Blue Planet: “The Deep” chapters 1-10
  • Marine Ecology show The Deep
    • Deep ocean “springs” associated with cracks in Earth’s crust
    • Whole communities based on sulfides, not sunlight
    • Discovered in 1977
    Hydrothermal vents
  • How Do Hydrothermal Vents Work?
    • Hot, mineral-rich water steams out of Earth’s crust
    • Special chemosynthetic bacteria metabolize hydrogen sulfide into sugars the same way photosynthetic organisms use sunlight
    • Vent tube worms have these chemosynthetic bacteria living inside them (like zooxanthellae in coral)
    How life works at hydrothermal vents
  • Hydrothermal vent organisms Show chapters 11-12 of Blue Planet: “The Deep”