2013-03-26 Learning vocabulary through a serious game
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2013-03-26 Learning vocabulary through a serious game

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This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of K4-6 students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the serious game ‘Word Score 2’ during vocabulary ...

This study explored the effect of a serious game on the vocabulary of K4-6 students in primary education. 206 students and 10 teachers used the serious game ‘Word Score 2’ during vocabulary lessons in three different conditions: (a) online game and vocabulary instruction, (b) online game only, and (c) paper game and vocabulary instruction. In every condition students’ vocabulary was tested before, directly after and four weeks after the lessons took place. Additionally a student questionnaire and teacher interview regarding their experiences has been employed. Results show a significant learning effect for conditions in which teachers used vocabulary instruction additional to the game (both paper and digital). Comparison between the three conditions showed the highest learning effect on both the post- and retention test was achieved by students that played the online game and received the corresponding instruction. Teachers were excited about students’ performance and enthusiasm. All teachers thought Word Score 2 fit their usual program and would be willing to replace the conventional vocabulary method.

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    2013-03-26 Learning vocabulary through a serious game 2013-03-26 Learning vocabulary through a serious game Presentation Transcript

    • SITE 2013LEARNING VOCABULARY THROUGH A SERIOUS GAME IN PRIMARY EDUCATION Maaike Heitink Petra Fisser Joke Voogt Educational Sciences University of Twente The Netherlands
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion CONTENTS2  Introduction  Why this study  Theoretical underpinnings  Serious games and vocabulary  The serious game and supporting materials  Research question  Method  Results  Conclusions & Discussion Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion WHY THIS STUDY?3  ‘FC Twente – Scoring in the Community‟  “Noaberschap”  One of the projects is Word Score, which includes a serious vocabulary game.  Response to vocabulary deficiencies in the areas around the soccer stadium, where people with lower economic status live. Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion WHY THIS STUDY?4  Vocabulary has impact on many educational subjects and thus plays an important role in students‟ school performances.  Serious games can have positive effect on students‟ performance  Fits with what students experience in their „own world‟. (e.g. Cöp, 2009; Boyan & Sherry, 2011; Leemkuil, 2011) Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion SERIOUS GAMES IN VOCABULARY EDUCATION5  Important motivational factors for effective serious games:  Attractive context and interface  Interaction and competition  Immediate visual feedback  The fun factor  A certain level of control over own learning  Effectiveness of ICT applications in education mostly depends on the way teachers integrate ICT applications in teaching and learning. (e.g. Peterson, 2010; Smit, M., Coppes, W., Fisser, P., & Voogt, J. (2009). Hermans et al., 2008; Hofer & Swan, 2008) Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion WORD SCORE6  Online serious game and corresponding educational materials  600 words divided in 10 themes (e.g. Halloween, health, school, wild life, the weather, etc.).  Intended for K5. K6-7 are being implemented now.  Every theme takes playing the game 30 minutes a week for four weeks Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion WORD SCORE7 Educational model for learning new vocabulary (Verhallen & Verhallen, 1994) 1. Activating prior knowledge 2. Explaining new words (give meaning) In class 3. Consolidating new words 4. Testing In game Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion WORD SCORE8 LESSON PLANS Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion WORD SCORE9 ONLINE SERIOUS GAME Motivational element Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion WORD SCORE10 ONLINE SERIOUS GAME Learning element (vocabulary test) Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion WORD SCORE11 ONLINE SERIOUS GAME Motivational element Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion WORD SCORE12 ONLINE SERIOUS GAME Learning element Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion WORD SCORE13 TEACHER ENVIRONMENT Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion RESEARCH QUESTION14  Studies in relation to learning effects of serious games are limited What are the learning effects of the serious game ‘Word Score’ on the vocabulary of students? Immediate effects Retention effects Teacher and student experiences. Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion METHOD15 DESIGN – QUASI EXPERIMENTAL Three conditions: A. Instruction + serious game  B. Serious game C. Instruction + paper game Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion WORD SCORE16 PAPER VERSION  Paper games that match the digital version as much as possible. Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion METHOD17 RESPONDENTS Teachers K4-6 students (9 schools) Digital game + 5 101 instruction Digital game 3 55  Paper game + 2 50 instruction Total 10 206 Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion METHOD18 PROCEDURES AND INSTRUMENTS  Vocabulary pre-test  Student questionnaire Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion METHOD19 PROCEDURES AND INSTRUMENTS  Vocabulary pre-test  Student questionnaire  Word Score in three conditions:  4 weeks A. Instruction + B. Serious game C. Instruction + serious game paper game  60 words matching the theme Halloween Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion METHOD20 PROCEDURES AND INSTRUMENTS  Vocabulary pre-test  Student questionnaire  Word Score in three conditions:  4 weeks A. Instruction + B. Serious game C. Instruction + serious game paper game  60 words matching the theme Halloween  Vocabulary post-test  Student questionnaire & teacher interview Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion METHOD21 PROCEDURES AND INSTRUMENTS  Vocabulary pre-test  Student questionnaire  Word Score in three conditions:  4 weeks A. Instruction + B. Serious game C. Instruction + serious game paper game  60 words matching the theme Halloween  Vocabulary post-test  Student questionnaire & teacher interview 4 weeks  Vocabulary retention-test (same as post-test) Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion RESULTS22 LEARNING RESULTS WITHIN CONDITIONS Immediate effects (post vs pre)  Significant learning effects for conditions: Retention effects (retention vs pre)  Significant learning effects in all conditions:  Retention effects (retention vs post)  Significant learning effects for conditions:   No significant change for condition: No significant differences between sexes Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion RESULTS23 LEARNING RESULTS BETWEEN CONDITIONS  ANCOVA showed significant differences between conditions for both post- test and retention-test values corrected for pretest results.  Posthoc analysis showed significant differences on…. − Post-test, between A & B (p<0.0001) and B & C (p<0.0001) − Retention-test, between A & B (p<0.0001) and A & C (p= 0.034) Effect sizes between dcorr post-test dcorr retention-test A - B  0.86 0.46 A - C 0.25 0.96 B - C  (-)0.39 0.39 Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion RESULTS24 LEARNING RESULTS BETWEEN CONDITIONS  ANCOVA showed significant differences between conditions for both post- test and retention-test values that were corrected for pretest results.  Posthoc analysis showed significant differences on…. − Posttest, between A & B (p<0.0001) and B & C (p<0.0001) − Retention-test, between A &B (p<0.0001) and A & C (p= 0.034) Effect sizes between dcorr post-test dcorr retention-test A - B  0.86 0.46 A - C 0.25 0.96 B - C  (-)0.39 0.39 Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion EXPERIENCES25 STUDENTS We learned from Word Score Word Score is Difficulty was fun! just right Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion EXPERIENCES26 TEACHERS (N=8) Willing to replace conventional vocabulary method (N=7) Fits my vision Word score on education expands vocabulary (N=8) of my students (N=8) Positive about usability for game Time needed as and instruction exacted (N=8) (N=8) Motivation increased (N=2) Motivation constant (but high) (N=3) Motivation decreased (N=2) Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion CONCLUSION & DISCUSSION27 Significant immediate learning effects for conditions that integrated instruction and (paper or digital) game. Significant long term learning effects in all conditions Continued learning effects for conditions that played the (digital) serious game Largest learning effect for the condition where teachers gave instruction and students played the digital version of the game. Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion CONCLUSION & DISCUSSION28 Significant immediate learning effects for conditions that integrated instruction and (paper or digital) game. Significant long term learning effects in all conditions Continued learning effects for conditions that played the (digital) serious game Largest learning effect for the condition where teachers gave instruction and students played the digital version of the game. Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion CONCLUSION & DISCUSSION29 Students agreed that Word Score is instructive and fun, especially the students in the conditions that played the digital version of the game Teachers were excited about students‟ enthusiasm and performance. Teachers thought it fit their usual program and were willing to replace the conventional vocabulary method. Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • Introduction Theory Game Research Question Method Results Conclusion CONCLUSION & DISCUSSION30  The serious game Word Score can improve vocabulary, especially in combination with teacher instruction. Future:  Scaling up to the Dutch national team and/or more soccer clubs  Exploration of Word Score for other target audiences (ESL, etc.) Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • m.c.heitink@utwente.nl31 Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013
    • EXAMPLES OF TEACHER USE32 Learning Vocabulary Through a serious game in Primary Education March – 2013