2011 03-10 fisser voogt ormel velthuis tondeur tpack-stebi

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Teachers’ beliefs, practices and attitudes are important for understanding and improving educational processes, because they are closely linked to teachers’ challenges in their daily professional …

Teachers’ beliefs, practices and attitudes are important for understanding and improving educational processes, because they are closely linked to teachers’ challenges in their daily professional life. Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977) seems to play a major role in this. In this study we look at teachers' self-efficacy towards the domain of science education and towards technology integration in this domain. Since most students who enter pre-service elementary school training in the Netherlands graduated from secondary school without science-related courses, many lack any foundational science knowledge. This contributes to their (absence of) confidence to teach science, and it also delimits their science-teaching related PCK. In a recent study Fisser, Ormel and Velthuis (submitted) measured teachers' beliefs, attitudes and self-efficacy in relation to science education in primary education, based on a Dutch version of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI) (Riggs & Enochs, 1990). The results for the pre-service teachers showed that the more pre-service teachers have the opportunity to experience actual teaching in the science domain, the higher the sense of self-efficacy is. Combining science education with technology integration offers even more challenges for teachers. Measuring teachers’ self-efficacy towards technology integration will be done by using a Dutch version of the TPACK survey (Schmidt et al., 2009). This survey will be complimented with the STEBI survey and, because the TPACK survey does not take into account teachers’ beliefs and attitudes towards technology, questions related to the attitude of teachers towards using technology in education will be added. The combined TPACK-STEBI survey will be distributed to Dutch pre-service primary education students and the results will be presented at the SITE symposium.

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  • 1. Prospective teachers’ self-efficacy of TPACK in the science domain Petra Fisser, Joke Voogt, Bart Ormel, Chantal Velthuis & Jo Tondeur University of Twente Department of Curriculum Design and Educational Innovation SITE Conference, Nashville, 10 March 2011
  • 2. In this presentation..
    • Teachers and their beliefs
    • Self-efficacy
      • Use of technology in education
      • Science education
    • Measuring self-efficacy
      • TPACK
      • STEBI
    • First results
  • 3. Teachers and their beliefs
    • Teachers’ beliefs, practices and attitudes are important
    • for understanding and improving educational processes,
    • because they are closely linked to teachers’
    • challenges in their daily professional life
    • relation with
    • self-efficacy?
  • 4. Self-efficacy
    • Self-efficacy: one’s perceived ability to perform an action that will lead successfully toward a specific goal (Bandura, 1977)
    • Teachers’ sense of self-efficacy is a powerful predictor of their behavior in the classroom and student outcomes
    • Teachers with a high sense of self-efficacy will set higher goals, be less afraid of failure, and find new strategies when old ones fail
    • If the sense of self-efficacy is low, teachers will avoid the task or give up easily (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001)
    • If teachers feel more confident to teach a specific domain, they teach the subject in a different way than less confident teachers
  • 5. The context of our study
    • The Netherlands
    • Pre-service teacher training
    • Use of technology in the science domain… …combining two problems!
  • 6. Problem 1 (Science)
    • TIMSS, comparative study in more than 40 different countries on trends in mathematics and science education
    • The results:
      • Dutch children don’t belong to the top 10 of best achieving countries in the domain of science anymore
      • Dutch teachers spend 30-45 minutes per week in average for science education (this is less than all other TIMSS-countries)
      • 85 percent biology, only 15 percent physics and chemistry
      • The children have a low achievement and attitude in those areas
  • 7. Possible reasons for Problem 1 (Science)
    • Reading, writing and math are largely emphasized in the Dutch educational system at the cost of other domains like science
    • TIMSS study: physics and chemistry are the subjects in which Dutch teachers do not feel very confident
    • Literature: teachers who do feel confident in their ability to teach science allocate more time to this subject in their teaching than teachers without confidence
    • Our research: focus on raising teachers’ confidence in science teaching, framed from the perspective of Bandura’s notion of self-efficacy
  • 8. Problem 2 (Technology)
    • Well…
    • There are computers
    • There is a good internet connectivity
    • There are interactive whiteboards
    • There is software
    • There are games
    • But… well… you know…
  • 9. Possible reasons for Problem 1 (Technology)
    • No time
    • No money
    • No ideas
    • No TPACK
    • No self-efficacy
    • Our research: focus on raising teachers’ confidence in using technology while teaching, framed from the perspective of a) TPACK and b) Bandura’s notion of self-efficacy
  • 10. Before you can increase you have to measure
    • Two instruments combined into one
      • TPACK Survey (Schmidt et al., 2009)
      • STEBI (Riggs & Enochs, 1990)
  • 11. TPACK & STEBI
    • TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge), measures
      • pre-service teachers’ self-assessment of their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) and
      • related knowledge domains included in the framework
    • STEBI (Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument), measures
      • Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (assessment of own teacher competence)
      • Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy (teachers' expectations that teaching can influence student learning)
  • 12. The general data
    • TPACK & STEBI were translated in Dutch and distributed among pre-service primary school teachers (students)
      • 168 students
      • age 16-24
      • 25% male, 75% female
      • distributed over 3 years of study
    • Some science-domain-related data
      • 115 out of 168 never chose to do something with science voluntary
      • 109 did some biology-related lessons during field training
      • 42 did some physics/chemistry-related lessons during field training
  • 13. Results: TPACK questionnaire
    • Reliability all TPACK-items together: Cronbach’s α = 0.91
    • Factor analysis: 7 factors
    .803 TPACK Leadership TPCK7 TPCK8 7 .548 Pedagogical Organizational Knowledge PK5 PK6 PK7 6 .705 Pedagogical Student Knowledge PK1 PK2 PK3 PK4 5 .667 Reflective Educated use of ICT TPK3 TPK4 TPK5 TPCK3 4 .798 Pedagogical Science Content Knowledge CK1 CK2 CK3 PCK2 PCK1 3 .824 Science TPACK (?) TPK1 TPK2 TCK3 TCK4 2 .915 Technological Knowledge TK4 TK2 TK5 TK3 TK1 TK6 TK7 1 Reliability Cronbach’s α Name factor Items in factor Factor
  • 14. Results: STEBI questionnaire
    • Reliability all STEBI-items together: Cronbach’s α = 0.85
    • Factor analysis:
      • Personal Science Teaching Efficacy
      • Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy
    • both with all the original items
    • Reliability
      • PSTE .91
      • STOE .66
  • 15. Results: TPACK and general data
    • Gender correlates with
      • TPACK Factor 1 (Technological Knowledge) TPACK Factor 3 (Pedagogical Science Content Knowledge) TPACK Factor 7 (TPACK Leadership)
      • In all cases the men scored higher on the different factors
    • Preliminary conclusion 1: Men are more confident in their Technological Knowledge, their Pedagogical Science Content Knowledge and they see themselves more as leaders who help others to develop TPACK
  • 16. Results: TPACK and general data
    • Preliminary conclusion 2: There is a positive correlation between study year and
      • TPACK Factor 5 (Pedagogical Student Knowledge): significant difference between year 1 and 3
      • TPACK Factor 6 (Pedagogical Organizational Knowledge): significant difference between year 1 and 2 and between year 1 and 3
      • TPACK Factor 7 (TPACK Leadership): significant difference between year 1 and 3 and between year 2 and 3
    • Expectation: Students who are more advanced in their studies are more confident in relation to Pedagogical Student and Organizational Knowledge and they see themselves more as leaders who help others to develop TPACK. The third year of the study seems to be very important.
  • 17. Results: STEBI and general data
    • Preliminary conclusion 3: There is a positive relation between Personal Science Teaching Efficacy and the “profile” during secondary school and the perceived knowledge about biology, physics, chemistry and technical systems
    • Expectation: Students who were already interested (confident?) in science in secondary education and students who perceive their science knowledge as sufficient or more will assess their own science teaching competence higher
    • (No significant differences between men/women or between study years)
  • 18. Results: combining TPACK and STEBI
    • Correlations of the 2 STEBI factors with the 7 TPACK factors:
      • STOE has a significant positive correlation with TPACK 1, 2, 3, 4
      • PSTE has a significant positive correlation with TPACK 1, 2, 3, 6, 7
    • What does (could) this mean?
  • 19. Results: combining TPACK and STEBI
    • STOE measures the outcome expectancy of science education
    • PSTE measures science teaching efficacy
    • TPACK 1 measures Technological Knowledge
    • TPACK 2 measures Science TPACK
    • TPACK 3 measures Pedagogical Science Content Knowledge
    • Preliminary conclusion 4 : There is a positive relation between outcome expectancy and teaching efficacy with Technological Knowledge, Science TPACK and Pedagogical Science Content Knowledge
    • Expectation : the more outcome expectancy and teaching efficacy, the more Technological Knowlegde, Science TPACK and Pedagogical Science Content Knowlegde (but more (regression) analysis is needed)
  • 20. Results: combining TPACK and STEBI
    • Additional results (1)
    • STOE measures the outcome expectancy of science education
    • STOE has a positive correlation with TPACK 4, Reflective Educated use of ICT
    • Preliminary conclusion 5 : There is a positive relation between STOE and Reflective Educated use of ICT
    • Expectation : if a teacher expects something positive from science education, he/she will reflectively think about the added value of technology in his/her education, while referring to what he/she learned during training
  • 21. Results: combining TPACK and STEBI
    • Additional results (2)
    • PSTE measures science teaching efficacy
    • PSTE has a positive correlation with TPACK 6 and 7, Pedagogical Organisational Knowledge and TPACK Leadership
    • Preliminary conclusion 6 : There is a positive relation between PSTE and Pedagogical Organisational Knowledge and TPACK Leadership
    • Expectation : if a teachers feels confident to teach science, he/she will have good class management and is able to help/guide/lead his/her colleagues in using technology in science education
  • 22. First ideas about further analysis
    • Instead of factor analysis: cluster and multidimensional analysis
    • Needs more time and respondents, but first results:
    • Multidimensional scaling: seems similar and if… than… 96% of variance explained
    .809 TPACK Leadership TPCK7 TPCK8 5 .783 Pedagogical Content Knowledge PCK2 CK1 CK2 CK3 4 Reliability Cronbach’s α Name of cluster Items in cluster .849 Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge TPK1 TPK2 TPK3 TPK4 TPK5 TPCK1 TPCK2 TPCK3 TPCK5 TCK3 TCK4 3 .713 Pedagogical Knowledge PK2 PK3 PK4 PK5 PK7 PK1 2 .915 Technological Knowledge TK4 TK5 TK3 TK6 TK7 TK1 TK2 1
  • 23. Why were we combining TPACK & STEBI?
    • TPACK stresses the importance of the interactions between Technology, Pedagogy and Content, but in the TPACK Survey there is only a limited number of Science-related items
    • The TPACK Survey measures knowledge (and skills?), but ignores the importance of attitude (self-efficacy). Or… is self-reported measurement actually measuring self-efficacy?
    • Combining knowledge, skills and attitudes is probably the answer.. And this combination contributes to somenone’s self-efficacy
    • The higher the self-efficacy, the more likely someone will use technology in science teaching
  • 24. Future research related to TPACK & STEBI
    • More research in the combination of TPACK & STEBI
    • We added extra items related to science. Not reported here, but it seems to give a broader and better view, especially when related to STEBI  needs more research
    • We added extra items about beliefs related to ict in education, preliminary results seem interesting  needs more research
    • Necessary to add items about beliefs related to education in general?
  • 25. Future research related to TPACK & STEBI
    • The factor “TPACK leadership” seems very interesting
    • We believe that this particular factor will make the difference between an ict-integrating teacher and a non-ict-integrating teacher
    • We will report on this next year!
  • 26. More information?
    • Please contact us!
    • Petra Fisser: [email_address]
    • Joke Voogt: [email_address]
    • Bart Ormel, [email_address]
    • Chantal Velthuis, [email_address]
    • Jo Tondeur, [email_address]
    • And for the Dutch people  htpp://www.tpack.nl 