2011 03-10 alayyar fisser voogt measuring tpack site
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2011 03-10 alayyar fisser voogt measuring tpack site

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The TPACK framework has been used to prepare prospective science teachers at the Public Authority of Applied Education and Training (PAAET) in Kuwait for technology integration in education. ...

The TPACK framework has been used to prepare prospective science teachers at the Public Authority of Applied Education and Training (PAAET) in Kuwait for technology integration in education. Prospective science teachers worked in teams to design a technological solution for a pedagogical problem that teachers usually face. Prospective science teachers were separated in two groups. The first group was coached by technology, pedagogy, and content experts (human support condition). The second group (blended support condition) was supported by using a blended approach, by which they had access to an online portal with different tutorials and examples and they also had the opportunity to meet with the technology, pedagogy and content experts whenever needed. From the literature there is strong evidence that a positive teacher attitude towards technology plays a critical role in the success of the technology integration process, but only a positive attitude to use technology in education is pointless if it is not supported with the necessary skills to use technology (Christensen & Knezek, 2008). In a pre-test post test design data were collected of prospective science teachers’ attitude toward ICT, their ICT skills, and their TPACK. The study showed that the attitude towards ICT, Technological Knowledge (TK) and technological skills were increased. This implies that the prospective teachers became more competent and confident in using technology. It was also found that there was significant growth in TPACK. However, it was found that the blended support condition had a higher increase in their Technological Knowledge (TK) and Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and their attitude toward computer as a tool for productivity and enjoyment compared to the human support condition. This indicates that the blended approach for supporting design teams could be a suitable method to enhance the development of TPACK.

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2011 03-10 alayyar fisser voogt measuring tpack site 2011 03-10 alayyar fisser voogt measuring tpack site Presentation Transcript

  • Measuring TPACK the necessity to add teachers' attitudes and skills Ghaida Alayyar Petra Fisser & Joke Voogt University of Twente Department of Curriculum Design and Educational Innovation SITE Conference, Nashville, 10 March 2011
  • A TPACK study in Kuwait
    • Kuwait ->
    • Ghaida at last year’s
    • SITE Conference
  • Public Authority of Applied Education & Training
    • Established in December 1982
    • Objective: developing and upgrading manpower to meet the challenge of shortfall in technical manpower created by industrial and economic development of the country
    • PAAET currently runs the following colleges and institutes
      • College of Basic Education
      • College of Business Studies
      • College of Health Sciences
      • College of Technological Studies
      • Electricity and Water Institute
      • Telecommunication and Navigation
      • Industrial Training Institute
      • Nursing Institute
      • Constructional Training Institute
      • Vocational Training Institute
  • Teacher education program in Kuwait
    • Four-year program, 130 credits to graduate
      • 122 credits for general, specialized and practical studies
      • 8 credits for in-school field training
    • The students spend three and a half years (i.e. seven semesters) in the college learning theoretical knowledge while the last semester is devoted to the field training in schools
    • The program is mainly dependent on the teacher-centred approach / lecture-based instruction
    • Gender separation, male and female students are in different buildings
  • The integration of ICT in education at PAAET
    • Traditional teaching methods with a teacher-centered approach
    • Limited or no ICT integration
    • Standalone technology courses
    • Assumption at PAAET: providing pre-service teachers with technological skills will automatically lead to effective integration of technology in their future classrooms
  • TK CK PK PCK PAAET Context
  • Changing the PAAET context
    • Pre-service science teachers work in Teacher Design Teams
    • to design technology-based activities and
    • integrate these activities in their lesson plan
    • Conclusions last year:
      • Does working with design teams produce a TPACK-competent prospective science teacher?
        • Yes: better ICT skills
        • Yes: positive attitude toward ICT & teamwork
        • Yes: better understanding of the different TPACK domains
  • The importance of attitude
    • The main aim of any TPACK-related intervention is to prepare teachers to integrate technology in their daily practice (and become technology integrating teachers)
    • But: among the factors that affect the successful use of computers in the classroom are teachers’ attitudes toward computers
    • A positive teacher attitude toward computers/ICT is critical for effective ICT integration into the school curriculum
  • The importance of attitude
    • What do we know about attitude?
      • Attitude: a predisposition to behave in a particular way (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1972; Eagley & Chaiken, 1998)
      • A strong relationship between attitude and behaviour (Armitage & Christian, 2003)
      • Attitude helps in predicting human behaviour (Ajzen, Fishbein & Heilbroner, 1980)
      • Changing individuals’ behaviour is possible once their attitudes have been identified (Zimbardo, Ebbesen & Maslach, 1977)
      • Changing people’s attitudes leads to changing behaviour (Zimbardo, Ebbesen & Maslach, 1977)
  • Teacher attitude toward ICT
    • Needed to assess teacher’s attitude toward technology?
    • May provide useful insights into technology integration, acceptance and usage of technology in teaching and learning
    • Could be a good predictor for their future use of ICT
    • May… could… is assessing attitudes enough? No..
  • Teacher ICT skills
    • “ The will (attitude) to use technology is pointless, if it is not supported with necessary skills to use technology, and access to technology” (Knezek & Christensen, 2008)
    • Skills and competencies in the use of technology are prerequisite to successful employment of technology in education
    • And: research suggests that teachers’ attitude toward ICT is also related to their skills and competency to use ICT
  • Conclusion: measuring attitude & skills
    • It is important to measure
      • the attitude of pre-service teachers toward technology and
      • the technology skills level
    • at the beginning and at the end of the intervention (professional development)
    • This will provide insight about the intervention to
      • understand technology acceptance and usage and
      • use it as a predictor for future use of technology
      • plan reinforcement training if needed
  • But… how is TPACK measured?
    • Most common used instrument
      • TPACK Survey (Schmidt et al, 2010)
      • Valid, reliable
      • measures the different domains related to TPACK
    • Examples of statements in the survey in relation to TK
      • I can learn technology easily
      • I keep up with important technology
      • I have technical skills I need to use technology
    • The items
      • focus only on knowledge (not skills)
      • are self-reporting items
  • Is this how we want to measure TPACK?
    • Our problem:
      • TPACK is a special kind of knowledge that enables teachers to integrate technology effectively in their practices
      • This is skill-related
      • Gaining or developing TPACK will lead to a growth in skills
      • Skills and attitude are related
    • Important to measure not only the growth in knowledge, but also in relation to skills and attitude
  • How do we want to measure TPACK? Attainment measure Technology skill AQA website ICT skill test Assessing the pre-service teachers ICT skills level before the innovation to : Understand the technological support needed during the intervention Assessing the pre-service teachers change in ICT skills level to Measure progress of technological skill after the innovation Design a follow up or support for the pre-service teachers with low ICT skills Help in evaluating the innovation process Self-Efficacy technology skills The national survey on information technology in teacher education by the Milken Exchange on Educational Technology (1999) and the Technology Proficiency Self Assessment (TPSA) by Ropp, (1999). Technology Skill Questionnaire Assessing the change in the attitude of pre-service teachers to Help in predicting the future use Avoiding teachers’ resistance to computer use (Watson, 1998) Determine if a follow up training is needed Give a general overview of the intervention Self reported TAC (Christensen & Knezek, 1998). Attitude toward Technology Questionnaire Assessing the development of different constructs related to TPACK Self reported Schmidt et al (2010). TPACK survey Purpose/ Rational Data source Example of instrument / Source Instrument
  • The study in 2009-2010
    • 79 pre-service science teachers worked in Design Teams (DTs)
    • Spring semester of 2009/2010, 12 weeks, two hours per week
    • The participants were supported by two different conditions during the design process:
      • 22 students experienced a human support (HS) condition
      • 56 students experienced a blended support (BS) condition
    • HS: 3 experts (technological, pedagogical and content) supported the pre-service teachers through face-to-face meetings during class time or during office hours
    • BS: the three experts were not attending the class, unless there was a need from DTs & the BS groups were having access to an online support environment
  • Results of pre-post measurement
    • TPACK survey
      • BS gained more than HS for all factors except PCK. However, only two factors were significant: TK and TPK (p=.013 and p=.024 resp.) with a medium effect size (d=.736 and d=.732 resp.)
    • Attitude toward Technology Questionnaire
      • A significant change in productivity and enjoyment (p=.001) with a very large effect size (d=1.2) for the BS group
    • ICT skill test
      • BS group gained significant, but there was no significant difference between BS and HS
  • What do we know now?
    • Blended support for pre-service teachers seems a promising approach to develop TPACK:
      • Development of almost all domains related to TPACK, with TK and TPK significant
      • Increase of their technological skills
      • Increase of their attitude toward technology
  • What do we know now?
    • Why did we see an increase in TPACK, attitude and skills?
      • They were using technology while they were learning about technology (TK)
      • They experienced themselves how technology can be used to deliver a part of the course, which gives ideas about the potential (TPK)
      • Through exposure to and experience with technology
        • their attitude toward technology as a productivity tool for teaching increased
        • their enjoyment toward learning and teaching with technology increased
        • and this in turn increased their confidence
  • Recommendations
    • To provide a better insight about which intervention is needed to understand technology acceptance, usage and future use we recommend
      • Keep measuring TPACK
      • Add items to measure practical skills related to technology
      • Add items to measure attitude toward technology in education
    • in order to be able to measure competence in practical skills and not knowledge alone
  • To finalize
    • From literature we know that the development of PCK (Shulman, 1987) is mainly influenced by real teaching experiences
    • This would mean that for the development of TPACK a real teaching experience with technology is also needed
    • While experiencing you build up knowledge, skills, confidence and a certain attitude toward technology in education
    • Building TPACK is a long way that goes beyond the formal setting of pre-service education (Fishman & Davis, 2006)
    • Teacher training should prepare teachers for this by providing pre-service teachers with skills, knowledge and attitude needed for technology integration in their future practice
  • More information?
    • About the instruments?
    • About the results?
    • About TPACK in Kuwait?
    • About…
    • Please contact us!
    • Ghaida Alayyar: [email_address]
    • Petra Fisser: [email_address]
    • Joke Voogt: [email_address]
    • And for the Dutch people  htpp://www.tpack.nl 