2010-03-06 Fisser Voogt Taaltreffers IFIP


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Taaltreffers (“Word Score”) is an online serious game intended to increase the vocabulary of pupils in primary schools in the 10-12 age range. The game and the additional materials are designed with the model of Verhallen and Verhallen, in which words are presented in four stages: activating previous knowledge, explaining new words, consolidating new words and testing if the words are part of the daily vocabulary. The game has been piloted at ten schools and the evaluation shows that the vocabulary of the students has increased significantly after playing the game.

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2010-03-06 Fisser Voogt Taaltreffers IFIP

  1. 1. Serious gaming: a serious attempt to increase children’s vocabulary ! <ul><ul><li>Petra Fisser & Joke Voogt IFIP Workshop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nashville, 6 March 2011 </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Taaltreffers <ul><li>Taaltreffers  Word Score </li></ul><ul><li>Online serious game with supporting educational materials </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to increase the vocabulary of pupils in primary schools in grades 4-6 (age 9/10-12) in a playful way </li></ul><ul><li>The students encounter about 400 words, all related to soccer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Journalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health & safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For the entire game with the 400 words and the accompanying lessons teachers and students need about 15 hours </li></ul>
  3. 3. Taaltreffers, the game “ Can you help Twente to win the championship?” >> Play Word Score
  4. 4. Taaltreffers, the game
  5. 5. Taaltreffers, the game crowd
  6. 6. Taaltreffers, the game <ul><li>“ Crowd” means </li></ul><ul><li>Many people together </li></ul><ul><li>Separating home and out supporters </li></ul><ul><li>Notification that tickets are sold out </li></ul>Video or picture related to the word Words that you already have Words that have to be found
  7. 7. Taaltreffers, the game
  8. 8. Taaltreffers, the game Very famous FC Twente player!! (talking about a meeting that will take place in room 459)
  9. 9. Taaltreffers & FC Twente <ul><li>Development of Taaltreffers initiated by the Foundation “FC Twente, Scoring in the Community” </li></ul><ul><li>FC Twente is one of the Dutch professional soccer clubs, has its home in the city of Enschede and became the national soccer champion in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Scoring in the Community: a belief that FC Twente should be engaged in society, especially in the direct surroundings of the stadium to enhance solidarity between all “neighbors” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taaltreffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to vocabulary deficiencies in some of the areas around the stadium where people with a lower socio-economic status live </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. FC Twente & University of Twente <ul><li>The foundation invited the University of Twente to determine the educational value of the game and to study the implementation issues that are related to using the game in practice </li></ul>
  11. 11. Serious game <ul><li>Taaltreffers is a serious game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a clearly identifiable learning outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but also essential: the game-element </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research shows that the motivational effect is very important </li></ul><ul><li>The extent to which a serious game motivates students to learn is determined by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attractive context and interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sufficient interaction and competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a certain level of control over learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>immediate visual feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the “fun factor </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Serious game <ul><li>This implies that students should be able to make their own decisions in the game and their actions should affect the final results </li></ul><ul><li>But even though the motivational part of gaming might be a reason to introduce serious games in education… … studies in relation to the learning effects of serous games are limited! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Design of the game <ul><li>To ensure an effect, the design of the game should be well-founded </li></ul><ul><li>Taaltreffers and the additional materials are designed with an educational model for learning new vocabulary (Verhallen & Verhallen, 1994) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>activating previous knowledge (in class) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>giving meaning to new words (in class) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consolidating the new words (in game) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>testing if the new words have become part of the daily vocabulary (in game) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The game itself is build by a professional company (IJsfontein) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Taaltreffers, a first study <ul><li>A first pilot of the game for children in grades 4-6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: small-scale test of the use of Taaltreffers in the classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 schools in Twente </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 teachers, 77 students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews with the teachers and observations in the classroom to study the implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaire to measure the attitude of the children (partly based on the YCCI, Knezek et al., 1996) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Taaltreffers, a first study <ul><li>Results pre-pilot: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers positive about Taaltreffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and skills teachers “Verhallen” not sufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children can play the game without help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children are enthusiastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys especially motivated by the context (FC Twente and soccer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls like the games and finding new words </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Taaltreffers, the second study <ul><li>A larger study of the game for children in grades 4-6 </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: extended test of the use of Taaltreffers in the classroom and measuring learning effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 schools in Twente, 13 classes, 14 teachers, 263 students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What effect does Taaltreffers have on the development of vocabulary of the students? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What effect does Taaltreffers have on the attitude towards language, school and computers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the attitude of students towards Taaltreffers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the experiences of the teachers with Taaltreffers? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Taaltreffers, the second study <ul><li>Instruments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary test for 249 students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on the words in Taaltreffers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designed by language and test experts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tested by children from the first study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-test reliability Cronbach’s α = 0.87 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>partly based on Knezek, Miyashita & Sakomoto (1996) and additional items developed during the pilot study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>questions about the attitude toward language, school and computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>post-test reliabilities Cronbach’s α = 0,66; 0,73 and 0,82 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Taaltreffers, the second study <ul><li>Instruments (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaire focused on the attitude toward Taaltreffers (post test reliability Cronbach’s α = 0.64) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The vocabulary test and the attitude questionnaires were integrated into an online questionnaire that the students could take independently </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, participating teachers (n = 14) were interviewed about their views on and experiences with Taaltreffers </li></ul>
  19. 19. Taaltreffers, the second study <ul><li>Results pilot: the students </li></ul><ul><li>Paired t-test to analyze the differences between pre- and post test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the vocabulary of the students has increased! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difference between the pre-and post-test is significant (F=16,355; df=248; p=0.0001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No difference between boys and girls </li></ul></ul>7,4 32.37 Post test 0.77 7,6 26.63 Pre-test Effect size SD M
  20. 20. Taaltreffers, the second study <ul><li>In one of the schools it was possible to apply a quasi-experimental design to determine the impact of Taaltreffers on student vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Two groups of grade 5 students: one group had used Taaltreffers (experimental group) and the other group not (control group) </li></ul><ul><li>Covariance analysis with post test scores as dependent variable and group (experimental vs control) as independent variable, and the pre-test scores as a covariate showed a significant difference ( F (2, 40) = 14. 290, p < .05, η2 = 0.49) </li></ul>5.282 5.30 22 Experimental group 0.45 4.756 3.04 20 Control group Effect size SD gain N
  21. 21. Taaltreffers, the second study <ul><li>Results pilot: the students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No significant differences between the attitudes of students in pre and post-test scores on language, school and the computer as a learning tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from a four-point Likert scale show that students agreed that it was fun to use Taaltreffers for learning vocabulary (M = 3.14, SD = 0.44). </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Taaltreffers, the second study <ul><li>Results pilot: the teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Game & additional materials: level and usability good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support from the project team good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes bandwidth lacking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taaltreffers connects with the educational vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning words in a context </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting with the perception of children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning by playing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More attention to vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independent studying </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Taaltreffers, the second study <ul><li>Results pilot: the teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons: 25 minutes/week, working in the game: 35 minutes/week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opinions about playing at home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: involvement parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Con: students differ too much in progress; educational materials (lesson plans) do not fit anymore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The game fits in other language-related activities, but is still an addition to existing methods, not a replacement (words only related to soccer) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wish: the words of Taaltreffers should be more related to the official language methods and the national language test </li></ul>
  24. 24. First conclusions <ul><li>Taaltreffers has a positive effect on the vocabulary of the students </li></ul><ul><li>Students and the teachers are enthusiastic about the game </li></ul><ul><li>It is not only fun to work with, but it also fits the educational language goals </li></ul><ul><li>But.. because the game is very attractive to play it seems that some teachers pass over the first two stages and go directly with their students to the game </li></ul><ul><li>Expectation: with a more elaborated training for the teachers on the model of Verhallen and Verhallen (1994) an even better results for the students </li></ul>
  25. 25. Taaltreffers, a continuing story <ul><li>Based on the results: decision to elaborate and improve Taaltreffers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elaborating the number of words in the game (from 400 words in total to 1800 words -> 600 words in 10 different themes per grade level) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implementing the game at 50 different schools in the region of FC Twente </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>find four other Dutch professional soccer clubs who are willing to adopt the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement of parents </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Taaltreffers, a continuing story <ul><li>To ensure a success in the next version of Taaltreffers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the teachers should get a more elaborated training on the instructional model of Verhallen and Verhallen (1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the teachers should also be able to monitor the progress of their students better in order to see which students need extra attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The schools that were involved in the first version of Taaltreffers are eager to be involved again in the next version </li></ul>
  27. 27. Taaltreffers, a continuing story <ul><li>The schools indicated that they would be even more interested if the game was more related to the language methods (and words) that they are using at the schools </li></ul><ul><li>This request is taken very seriously and added to the requirement list of Taaltreffers 2: for an educational innovation to be successful, it should meet the demands of the end user! </li></ul>
  28. 28. Taaltreffers, a continuing research story <ul><li>Learning outcomes (outcomes) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher diagnostic support (log files) </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of parents </li></ul><ul><li>The community function of soccer clubs </li></ul>
  29. 29. Taaltreffers, more information? <ul><ul><li>Please contact us! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Petra Fisser, [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Joke Voogt, [email_address] </li></ul>