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Governing Large-Scale Marine Commons

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Presentation at the workshop on social and institutional dimensions of the Coral Triangle, Cairns, Australia, 2010.

Presentation at the workshop on social and institutional dimensions of the Coral Triangle, Cairns, Australia, 2010.

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  • Insert photos of coral reefs fisheries etc.
  • A common-pool resource a large no. of people have access to… Overuse results in resource degradation… The CPR can be sustained if users refrain themselves. The Dilemma: the CPR collapses if you limit use and your neighbours don’t… and you have lost the short-term benefits.
  • Government: lack of resources, capacity etc Private: does not ensure sustainability. Here will always remains the temptation to exhaustively harvest a resource and bank the money obtained, particularly if the money grows faster than the resource. see De Young http://www-personal.umich.edu/~rdeyoung/tragedy.html
  • Complexity can lead to fragmention… and require coordination/collaboration. ANIMATION
  • >>Nested institutions: Institutions should be complex, redundant and nested in many layers… as many of the complex contemporary problems are apparent in multiple levels simultaneously (provide physical, technical and institutional infrastructure – encourage adaptation and change).
  • >> Interplay : Most institutions interact with other similar arrangements both horizontally and vertically. Horizontal interactions occur at the same level of social organisation. Vertical interplay occurs across the different levels of social organisation. Interaction between and among organisation may take two forms: Functional interdependence occurs when two or more institutions address problems that are linked in biogeophysical or socio-economic terms. Politics of design when players forge links between issues and institutions intentionally to achieve individual or collective goals (joint funding mechanisms). Use examples GBRMPA, QDPI&F, Community etc. GBRMPA + Defence (Islands)+ Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (Reef Plan) – GBRMPA + DPI&F (Field Management) + QPWS (DERM).
  • Complexity can and lead to fragmentation… and require coordination/collaboration.
  • >>There is no optimum governance design : we should expect that governance systems will be operating at less optimum levels given the difficulty to fine-tuning complex multi-layered systems. Plus, the SES are dynamics.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 14 September 2010 Governing Large-Scale Marine Commons Pedro Fidelman Governing Large-Scale Marine Commons Pedro Fidelman
    • 2.
      • Commons, or Common-Pool Resources:
        • Natural resources featuring joint ownership or access
        • Defining Characteristics:
          • Rival consumption/subtractability
          • Difficulty of exclusion
      © Pedro Fidelman 2010
    • 3. © Pedro Fidelman 2010
    • 4. “ The Tragedy of The Commons”
    • 5.
      • Averting the “Tragedy of the Commons”
        • Control by a centralised government agency
        • Privatisation of the commons
        • Self-governance:
          • Communication
          • Social capital
          • Ability to build agreements & rules
      © Pedro Fidelman 2010
    • 6. © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Attributes Commons Local Complex Spatial Scale Small Large Nature of CPR Single Multiple and interlinked Rule-making Local Multiple level Nature of rules Informal norms Formal rules & informal norms Property rights Common-pool Multiple Management Single use Multiple uses Political actors Local community/few users Multiple actors and users Role of context Internal relationships Complex internal and external relationships
    • 7. Walker et al., Science (2009).
    • 8. The Coral Triangle
    • 9.
      • The Context
    • 10.
      • Area: 5.7 million km 2
      • Boundaries: > 500 sp of corals
      • Coastline: 153,000 km
      • Biodiversity:
        • 76% of the world’s coral species (605 sp)
        • 37% of the world’s reef fishes
        • 51 of the world’s 70 species of mangroves
        • 23 of the 50 seagrass species
        • 6 of the 7 sea turtles
      • Spawning & nursery grounds for species of economic importance.
      The Coral Triangle © Pedro Fidelman 2010
    • 11.
      • > 120 million people rely on marine resources for income, employment, livelihood & food security
      • Coral reefs:
        • US$ 23,100 - 270,000 per km 2 per year
        • US$ 1.6 billion per year in Indonesia
      • Fisheries sector is an important contributor to the CT6 economies (e.g., US$ 5.47 billion to Indonesia’s GDP)
      • Live reef food fish & reef aquarium fish trade (~ US$ 1 billion)
      The Coral Triangle © Pedro Fidelman 2010
    • 12. The Coral Triangle – Population & Culture © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Timor Leste PNG Solomon Islands Colonisation Dutch British Spanish, American Portuguese German, British, Australian British Population (million) 240.3 25.7 97.9 1.1 6.1 0.6 Growth (% pa) 1.1 1.7 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.4 Main ethnic groups Javanese, Sundanese, several small groups Malay, Chinese, Indian Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano Austronesia (Malayo-Polynesian), Papuan Melanesian: several thousand communities Melanesian Language Bahasa Indonesia, local dialects (e.g., Javanese) Bahasa Malaysia Filipino; eight major dialects Tetum, Portuguese, Indonesian Tok Pisin, English, and Hiri Motu; some 860 indigenous languages Melanesian pidgin; English; 120 indigenous languages. Literacy* (%) 90.4 88.7 92.6 58.6 57.3 - Predominant Religion Muslim Muslim Roman Catholic Roman Catholic Christian Christian
    • 13. © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Social context
      • Large population
      • Heterogeneous ethnic groups
      • Diverse culture across the CT & within countries
      Challenges
      • Establishing effective communication
      • Building and up scaling social-capital
      • Resolving conflicts
      • Reconciling, perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, preferences
    • 14. The Coral Triangle - Economy © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Timor Leste PNG Solomon Islands GDP ppp ($ billion) 932.1 385.2 327.2 2.8 13.4 1.1 GDP per capita ppp 3,900 15,700 3,400 2,500 2,300 1,900 Growth rate (% pa) 5.9 5.1 4.6 12.8 6.3 7.3 GDP per sector (%): Agriculture 13.5 9.7 14.7 32.2 32.8 42 Industry 45.6 44.6 31.6 12.8 36.5 11 Services 40.8 45.7 53.7 55 30.6 47
    • 15. © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Economic environment
      • Different stages of economic development
      • > 120 million people rely on marine resources for income & employment
      • CPRs contribute to the economy
      • Markets affect resource exploitation dynamics
      Challenges
      • Leveraging financial resources
      • Understanding of market dynamics by CPR users
      • Realizing alternative sources of income
      • Averting perverse incentives
    • 16. The Coral Triangle - Governance © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Timor Leste PNG Solomon Islands Legal System Roman-Dutch law English common law, and Islamic law (a) Spanish and Anglo-American law Indonesian law; TBR by Portuguese law English common law English common law Political System Republic, presidential Parliamentary democracy, constitutional monarchy Republic, presidential Democratic republic, premier-presidential Parliamentary democracy, constitutional monarchy (b) Parliamentary democracy, constitutional monarchy (b) , commonwealth Legislature Upper and lower houses Bicameral parliament; States have hereditary rulers (sultans) Bicameral congress Unicameral national parliament Unicameral national parliament Unicameral national parliament Judiciary Supreme court, without power of judicial review Supreme court Supreme court, court of appeals, Sandigan-bayan (corruption cases) Supreme court of justice Supreme, national, and local and village courts Court of appeal
    • 17. The Coral Triangle - Governance © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Level Arrangements Countries Global
      • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
      All
      • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
      IDN, MLY, PNG, PHL, SLN
      • Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
      IDN, MLY, PNG, PHL, SLN
      • World Trade Organization (WTO)
      IDN, MLY, PNG, PHL, SLN Regional
      • The Tri-national Agreements on the Sulu-Sulawesi Seas Marine Ecoregion (SSME)
      IDN, MLY, PHL
      • The Tri-national Agreements on the Bismark Solomon Seas Marine Ecoregion (BSSME)
      IDN, PNG, SLN
      • Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)
      PNG, PHL, SLN, IDN*
      • Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN)
      IND, MLY, PHL
      • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
      IND, MLY, PNG, PHL IDN=Indonesia, MLY=Malaysia, PHL=Philippines, TLE=Timor Leste PNG=Papua New Guinea, SLN=Solomon Islands; * Cooperating non-member
    • 18. The Coral Triangle - Governance © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Timor Leste PNG Solomon Islands NRM Governance Decentralised Centralised Decentralised Centralised Customary Customary Administra-tive divisions 33 provinces, regencies, cities, sub-districts, village groupings 13 states, districts and mukims 17 regions, 80 provinces, 120 cities, municipalities, barangays 13 districts, subdistrict, sucos and towns, villages and hamlets 20 provinces, districts, local area govern-ments 9 provinces, 1 capital territory
    • 19. © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Governance context
      • Multiple political actors, jurisdictions, mandates
      • Diverse legal and political environment
      • Plethora of institutions
      • Complex & conflicting legislation
      Challenges
      • Reconciling different goals, agendas, interests
      • Authorising resource users to take part in rule/decision-making
      • Dealing with power inequalities
      • Strengthening and changing institutions
      • Linking institutions at various levels
    • 20. capacity to formulate & implement policies
    • 21.
      • Conditions for Effective Governance
    • 22. Condition 1 Well defined boundaries © Pedro Fidelman 2010 CT Commons
      • Large Distribution
      • Resource mobility
      • Spatial and temporal distribution of migrating species
      Challenges
      • Monitoring resource stock, withdrawal & compliance
      • Understanding resource dynamics
      • Regulating access of users
    • 23. Condition 2: Congruence between institutions & local conditions © Pedro Fidelman 2010 CT Commons
      • Institutional diversity
      • Multiple levels/scale of governance
      Challenges
      • Taking into account the more specific attributes of the resource system at national & regional levels
    • 24. Condition 3: Collective choice arrangements © Pedro Fidelman 2010 CT Commons
      • NRM Governance:
      • Decentralised
      • Customary
      • Centralised
      Challenges
      • Engaging and authorising users and stakeholders to take part in at national and regional rule/decision-making
    • 25. Conditions 4 & 5: Monitoring and sanctioning © Pedro Fidelman 2010 CT Commons
      • Ineffective control, monitoring and surveillance systems
      Challenges
      • Large area of the CT
      • Conflicting policies
      • Unclear roles, lack of coordination and cooperation between agencies
      • Lack of capacity
      • Tensions between local and central legislation
      • Personalised politics and corruption
    • 26. Condition 6: Conflict resolution mechanisms © Pedro Fidelman 2010 CT Commons
      • Conflicts between:
      • Countries
      • Nat’l & sub-nat’l governments
      • Agencies/departments
      • User/stakeholder groups
      • Mechanisms:
      • Formal judiciary instruments
      • Customary arrangements
      Challenges
      • Improving mechanisms for conflict resolution
    • 27. Condition 7: Recognition of rights to organise © Pedro Fidelman 2010 CT Commons
      • Recognition of locally crafted rules varies
      Challenges
      • Clarifying the status of traditional community rights, informal rules and social norms
    • 28. Condition 8: Nested institutions © Pedro Fidelman 2010 CT Commons
      • Institutional arrangements from local to regional/international
      Challenges
      • Linking policy, programs, rules across multiple levels of organisation
    • 29. Can the “Tragedy of the Commons” be averted? ? Can the “Tragedy of the Commons” be averted?
    • 30.
      • Coping with complexity:
      • Acknowledge complexity and change
      • Employ mixtures of institutional types
        • Government
        • Markets
        • Networks
      © Pedro Fidelman 2010
    • 31.
      • 3. Multi-level governance
      Ostrom (2005) © Pedro Fidelman 2010 International National State Local
    • 32.
      • 4. Identify and foster institutional interplay
      After Young ( 2002) International National State Local Vertical Interplay Horizontal Interplay A A A A C C C C B B B B © Pedro Fidelman 2010
    • 33.
      • Coping with complexity and change:
      • Acknowledge complexity and change
      • Employ mixtures of institutional types
        • Government
        • Community
        • Markets
      • Design redundant and nested governance systems (multi-level governance)
      • Identify and foster institutional interplay
      • Promote informed dialog between players
      © Pedro Fidelman 2010
    • 34. © Pedro Fidelman 2010 ! WARNING THERE IS NO END GAME !

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