Incorporating Complexity and Change into Governance

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  • Complexity can lead to fragmention… and require coordination/collaboration. ANIMATION
  • Complexity can lead to fragmentation… and require coordination/collaboration. Biodiversity: there is no overarching framework to guide and coordinate management actions. Coastal development, lack of integrated planning, resources and enforcement if compromising protection of the GBR. Comprehensive land use planning is not sufficiently focused on water quality protection.
  • Complexity can lead to fragmention… and require coordination/collaboration. ANIMATION
  • Complexity can lead to fragmentation… and require coordination/collaboration. Biodiversity: there is no overarching framework to guide and coordinate management actions. Coastal development, lack of integrated planning, resources and enforcement if compromising protection of the GBR. Comprehensive land use planning is not sufficiently focused on water quality protection.
  • >>Nested institutions: Institutions should be complex, redundant and nested in many layers… as many of the complex contemporary problems are apparent in multiple levels simultaneously (provide physical, technical and institutional infrastructure – encourage adaptation and change).
  • >> Interplay : Most institutions interact with other similar arrangements both horizontally and vertically. Horizontal interactions occur at the same level of social organisation. Vertical interplay occurs across the different levels of social organisation. Interaction between and among organisation may take two forms: Functional interdependence occurs when two or more institutions address problems that are linked in biogeophysical or socio-economic terms. Politics of design when players forge links between issues and institutions intentionally to achieve individual or collective goals (joint funding mechanisms). Use examples GBRMPA, QDPI&F, Community etc. GBRMPA + Defence (Islands)+ Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (Reef Plan) – GBRMPA + DPI&F (Field Management) + QPWS (DERM).
  • Complexity can lead to fragmentation… and require coordination/collaboration. Biodiversity: there is no overarching framework to guide and coordinate management actions. Coastal development, lack of integrated planning, resources and enforcement if compromising protection of the GBR. Comprehensive land use planning is not sufficiently focused on water quality protection.
  • >>There is no optimum governance design : we should expect that governance systems will be operating at less optimum levels given the difficulty to fine-tuning complex multi-layered systems. Plus, the SES are dynamics.
  • This also happened to other resources such as turtles, dugongs, bêche-de-mer etc. i.e., some contemporary problem have roots in the previous (resource exploration and exploitation) period. What are the lessons from the Pearl Shell case? Barriers to change/adaptation, e.g., resistance of powerful players, incentives from external market, preferences, values, beliefs of pearl shellers…
  • Incorporating Complexity and Change into Governance

    1. 1. Incorporating Complexity & Change into Governance Pedro Fidelman Incorporating Complexity & Change into Governance Pedro Fidelman
    2. 2. <ul><li>Outline: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource use & governance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coping with complexity & change </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Concepts <ul><li>Governance: </li></ul><ul><li>“… the establishment, reaffirmation or change of institutions to resolve conflicts over environmental resources.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Paavola, 2007) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Concepts <ul><li>Institutions: </li></ul><ul><li>“… sets of rules that people develop to guide the use and management of natural resources (e.g., legislation, policies, informal and customary norms).” </li></ul>
    5. 5. Concepts <ul><li>Institutions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who has access to a resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what can be harvested from or dumped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>who enforces the rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>who participates in decisions about these issues </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The Great Barrier Reef
    7. 7. The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance <ul><li>Pre-European period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea level stabilises, near shore environments develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting, fishing, gathering and trading by Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of customary norms to manage the environment and its resources </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance <ul><li>Exploration & exploitation period (1800s-1960s): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queensland is a new colony (1859) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture, grazing and mining industries established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial pearl shell, bêche-de-mer, trochus, dugong and turtle fisheries explored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial “resource raiding” strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depletion of marine resources </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Pearl Shell (mother-of-pearl) Fishery Pearl shell fishery, Northern Queensland.
    10. 10. Pearl Shell Fishery Pearl Shell Buttons
    11. 11. The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance <ul><li>Management for conservation period (1960s-present): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of the GBRMP and GBRMPA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management for multiple objectives (e.g., biodiversity, conservation, heritage etc.) and multiple uses (e.g., fisheries, recreation, tourism, research etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large number and diversity of players (e.g., government agencies, NGOs, industries, community etc.) </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance Period Characteristics Pre-European <ul><li>Use of customary norms to use and management the environment and its resources </li></ul>Exploration and exploitation (1880s-1950s) <ul><li>Institutions designed for “resource raiding” </li></ul>Management for conservation (1960s-present) <ul><li>Institutions expected to resolve/minimise environmental and natural resource use conflicts </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Multiple issues and objectives: </li></ul>The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance <ul><li>Commercial & recreational fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional uses of marine resources </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Ports & shipping </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific research </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal development </li></ul><ul><li>Defence </li></ul><ul><li>Water quality </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaculture </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Complex problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Large and multiple scale challenges (local, regional, national, global) </li></ul><ul><li>Internal and external drivers and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Problems can be symptoms of another problem </li></ul>The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance
    15. 15. <ul><li>Complex problems: </li></ul>Walker et al., in press
    16. 16. <ul><li>Complex problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Large and multiple scale challenges (local, regional, national, global) </li></ul><ul><li>Internal and external drivers and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Problems can be symptoms of another problem </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple levels of social organisation (local, state, federal, international) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislation, Regulations, Int’l Conventions, Policies, Programs and Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large number and diversity of players </li></ul></ul>The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance
    17. 17. <ul><li>Coping with complexity and change: </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge complexity and change </li></ul><ul><li>Employ mixtures of institutional types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markets </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>3. Design redundant and nested gover-nance systems </li></ul>Ostrom, 2005 International National State Local
    19. 19. <ul><li>4. Identify and foster institutional interplay </li></ul>After Young, 2002 International National State Local Vertical Interplay Horizontal Interplay A A A A C C C C B B B B
    20. 20. <ul><li>Coping with complexity and change: </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge complexity and change </li></ul><ul><li>Employ mixtures of institutional types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design redundant and nested governance systems </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and foster institutional interplay </li></ul><ul><li>Promote informed dialog between players </li></ul>
    21. 21. ! WARNING THERE IS NO END GAME !
    22. 24. Pearl Shell Fishery (1800s-1960s) <ul><li>Institutions as cause of resource depletion: </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional designed for maximum exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Institution misfit, i.e., rules did not match the characteristics of the resource </li></ul><ul><li>Complacency from government </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive nature of institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in enforcing conservation rules </li></ul><ul><li>Values, preferences and beliefs of resource users </li></ul><ul><li>Industry resistance to change </li></ul><ul><li>Political power of pearl shellers </li></ul><ul><li>Profitable export industry </li></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li>Players: </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Barrier Marine Park Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Climate Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australian Customs Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australian Maritime Safety Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australian Quarantine Inspection Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Defence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Resources, Energy and tourism </li></ul></ul>The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance
    24. 26. <ul><li>Players: </li></ul><ul><li>Queensland Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queensland Environmental Protection Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queensland Boating and Fisheries patrol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of the Premier and Cabinet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Tourism, Regional Development and Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Natural Resources and Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Infrastructure and Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Local Government, Sport and Recreation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maritime Safety Queensland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queensland Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Queensland Water Police </li></ul></ul>The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance
    25. 27. <ul><li>Players: </li></ul><ul><li>Other Players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Resource Management Bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul></ul>The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance
    26. 28. <ul><li>Legislation: </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (Environmental Management Charge-Excise) Act 1993 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Regulations 1983 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Barrier Reef Region (Prohibition of Mining) Regulations 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (Aquaculture) Regulations 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Zoning Plan 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment Protection (Sea Dumping) Act 1981 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Title Act 1993 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of the Sea legislation (Prevention of Pollution from Ships) Act 1983 </li></ul></ul>The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance
    27. 29. <ul><li>Legislation: </li></ul><ul><li>Queensland Government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal Protection and Management Act 1995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Protection Act 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fisheries Act 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Planning Act 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine Parks Act 1982 and Marine Parks Act 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native Title (Queensland) Act 1993 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature Conservation Act 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport Operations (Marine Pollution) Act 1995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport Operations (Marine Safety) Act 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace Health and Safety Act 1995 </li></ul></ul>The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance
    28. 30. <ul><li>International Conventions: </li></ul><ul><li>Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 1972 (the World Heritage Convention) </li></ul><ul><li>Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992 (the Biodiversity Convention) </li></ul><ul><li>Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1973 (CITES) </li></ul><ul><li>Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 1979 (the Bonn Convention) </li></ul><ul><li>Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitats, 1971 (the Ramsar Convention) </li></ul><ul><li>International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 (the MARPOL Convention) </li></ul><ul><li>UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 (the Law of the Sea Convention or UNCLOS) </li></ul><ul><li>UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1992 (the FCCC) </li></ul>The Great Barrier Reef: Resource use & governance

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