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Presentation at the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia, 2010.

Presentation at the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia, 2010.

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  • This paper explores the notion of interplay (i.e., the interactions between and among adaptation strategies) and its implications for adaptation policy.

Adapting to Climate Change at Multiple Governance Levels Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Adapting to Climate Change at Multiple Governance Levels Pedro Fidelman Adapting to Climate Change at Multiple Governance Levels Pedro Fidelman 12 August 2010
  • 2. Outline
    • GBR & Climate Change
    • Climate Change Adaptation
    • Preliminary Results
    • Future Directions
    © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 3. Questions
    • What kind of adaptation is occurring?
    • By whom? At which governance level?
    • Is adaptation planned or spontaneous?
    • What are the triggers to adaptation?
    © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 4. The Great Barrier Reef
    • World’s largest reef system
    • High biodiversity
    • World Heritage Site
    • Goods and services ~ 6 A$ billion/year
      • Tourism, fishing etc.
    • Climate Change, a major threat
    • World’s largest reef system
    • High biodiversity
    • World Heritage Site
    • Goods and services ~ 6 A$ billion/year
      • Tourism, fishing etc.
    • Climate Change, a major threat
    © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 5. Impacts on the GBR © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 6. Adaptation Adjustment by individuals, groups and organisations to any real or perceived climate change that enhances or reduces ability to cope with or adapt to climate change (IPCC, 2001) © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 7.
    • Adaptive Capacity Activities or processes undertaken to encourage or enable adaptation
    • Implementing Adaptation Transforming adaptive capacity into action ( Tompkins et al., 2010)
    Adaptation © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 8.
    • Who makes adaptation decisions?
    • Governments
      • national, state, local
    • Society
      • individuals, organisations, networks
    • Business & Industry
      • fishing, tourism, agriculture etc.
    © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 9. Role of Governments
    • Important capacity building and reform role
    • Providing information for business and communities to adapt
    • Setting the right conditions for business and communities to adapt
    • Government programs and public assets
    • (Australian Government Position Paper, 2010)
    © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 10. Role of Governments in Australia (LGAQ, 2007) © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 11. Adaptation Organisations © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Level Organisation Responsibility Cross-level Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Policies that require cooperative action by multiple levels of government Federal Department of Climate Change & Energy Efficiency Implementation of parts of the National Climate Change Adaptation Framework. State Queensland Office of Climate Change Coordination, implementation and review of Queensland’s climate change strategies Local Local Councils Wide range of land use and planning activities, and services relevant to adaptation
  • 12. Preliminary Results
  • 13. Type of Adaptation © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Adaptation Output Activities Undertaken Example Legislation NRM, sustainability and climate change Acts
    • The Sustainable Planning Act 2009 (Qld) requires consideration of climate change as a matter of environmental protection/ecological sustainability
    • Marine Parks Act 2004 (Qld) include considerations of climate change-related issues (e.g., protection, conservation, restoration of the environment)
    Research Undertook research, gathered information, maps
    • CSIRO and NCARF produced the report card on Marine Climate Change in Australia (2009)
    • ARC/DIISR research support under the Super Science Marine and Climate Change programme (2009)
    Plan Made a plan, policy, strategy
    • GBR Climate Change Action Plan (2007) outlines actions to increase the resilience of the GBR
    • National Climate Change Adaptation Framework (2007) presents a strategy for coordinating actions
  • 14. Type of Adaptation © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Adaptation Output Activities Undertaken Example Training Tools to cope/adapt
    • Adapting to Climate Change A Queensland Local Government Guide (LGAQ, 2007)
    • A Reef Manager’s Guide to Coral Bleaching (2006)
    • Adaptation to climate change in regional NRM plans (guide) (2004)
    Networks Created a committee, forum, network
    • NCCARF established in 2009 Adaptation Research Networks to facilitate collaborative climate change adaptation research, exchange of information and resources sharing
    • The Coasts and Climate Change Council was established in 2009 to engage with stakeholders and advise the Federal government
  • 15. Purposefulness [1] Climate change is broadly referred to in matters of environmental protection and ecological sustainability. © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Planned Spontaneous
    • Implications of Climate Change for Australia's World Heritage Properties: A Preliminary Assessment
    • Australia’s Biodiversity and Climate Change: A strategic assessment of the vulnerability (2009)
    • Coral Bleaching Response Plan 2009-2010
    • GBR Climate Change Action Plan (2007)
    • ClimateSmart Adaptation (2007)
    • Local Adaptation Pathways Program (2008)
    • Caring for our Country Programme
    • GBR Outlook Report 2009
    • Coastal Protection & Management Act 1995
    • GBR Marine Park Zoning Plan (2003)
    • Q2 Coasts and Country Programme
    • Sustainable Planning Act 2009, Queensland [1]
    • Reef Water Quality Protection Plan for Catchments Adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef Heritage Area (Queensland, 2003)
  • 16. Purposefulness “… there is a range of other risks faced by the Reef, including climate change… Separate processes are underway to address these issues and as such they are not included in the scope of this Plan.” (Reef Plan, 2003: 4) “ By improving water quality, governments along with rural industry groups and landholders can help the Reef become more resilient and better able to withstand the impacts of climate change.” (Reef Plan, 2009: 8) © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 17. Adaptation by Tier of Government © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Tier Example Federal
    • National Climate Change Adaptation Programme (2004)
    • National Climate Change Adaptation Framework (2007)
    • National Adaptation Research Plans (2010)
    • Climate Change and the GBR: A Vulnerability Assessment (2007)
    • Climate Change Adaptation Actions for Local Governments (2007)
    State
    • ClimateQ: toward a greener Queensland (2009)
    • ClimateSmart Adaptation 2007-2012
    • ClimateSmart 2050 (2007)
    • Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence
    • Premier's Council on Climate Change
    Local
    • Risk Identification and Prioritisation for Climate Change Adaptation in Townsville City Council's Operation Activities (Local Adaptation Pathways Program, 2008)
    • Mackay Beach Plans (e.g., Shoal Point, Haliday Bay, Ball Bay)
    • Positive Change - Climate Change Risks and Opportunities for the Cairns Region (Climate Change Adaptation Action Plan, 2009)
    • Cairns Regional Council Corporate Sustainability Policy 2009
  • 18. Adaptation Organisations © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Level Organisations Federal
    • Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency
    • Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts
    • Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
    • The Department of Innovation, Industry, Science & Research
    • Australian Research Council
    • National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility
    • Australian Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council
    • Council of Australian Governments
    State
    • Office of Climate Change
    • Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence
    • Premier's Council on Climate Change
    • Department of Infrastructure and Planning
    • Department of Environment and Resource Management
    • Department of Premier and Cabinet
    • Reef Plan Secretariat
    • Department of Primary Industries
    Local
    • 42 local councils (in the GBR catchment)
  • 19. Triggers of Adaptation © Pedro Fidelman 2010 Triggers Example
    • Legislation
    • Statutory requirements, sustainable development principles
    • The Sustainable Planning Act 2009 requires the a regional plan is made for a designated region, e.g., Far North Queensland
    • The 2006 review of the GBR Marine Park Act 1975 recommends the preparation of an outlook report every five years
    • Impacts of climate change
    • Experienced or perceived climate induced impacts (e.g., coral bleaching)
    • GBR Coral Bleaching Response Plan (2009-2010)
    • GBR Climate Change Action Plan (2007)
    • Conservation
    • Biodiversity conservation
    • Integrating biodiversity planning into regional NRM plans (guide) (2004)
    • Planning & management
    • Coastal erosion, protection, regional planning
    • Queensland Coastal Management Plan (2002)
    • Water quality
    • Impacts of catchment runoff on the GBR
    • Reef Rescue programme (2008)
  • 20. Adaptation & the GBR
    • A large number of adaptation strategies applies to the GBR
    • Most adaptation strategies reflect the building of adaptive capacity
    • Policy reform/change being implemented
    • Many adaptation strategies not trigged by climate change per se
    • Most adaptation occurring at the Federal & State levels
    © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 21. Adaptation & the GBR
    • Limits to Adaptation at the Local Level
    • “ There needs to be much greater federal funding provided to all councils to develop climate change adaptation strategies…” (ALGA, 2009)
    • “ There is a general lack of resource support from Australian and State government to invest in capacity building [at the local level]…” (ALGQ,2008)
    • “ Whilst the LGAQ has run a number of introductory workshops [on adaptation to climate change]… it does not have the resource capacity to effectively support all Queensland councils...” (ALGQ,2008)
    © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 22. Future Directions
  • 23. Interplay
    • Interplay refers to the interactions between and among adaptation strategies:
      • Horizontal interplay (i.e., at the same jurisdictional level)
      • Vertical interplay (i.e., across jurisdictional levels)
    © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 24. Link between strategy and responsible organisation Nat’l CC Adaptation Framework Dept. of Environ., Water, Heritage & Arts GBR Marine Park Authority GBR CC Action Plan Plans & Programs Caring for Our Country Dept. of Environment & Resource Mgt Dept. of Infrastructure & Planning Regional Plans Dept. of the Premier & Cabinet Reef Secretariat Reef Plan Natural Resource Management Bodies Natural Resource Mgt Programs & Plans Local Councils Local Gov Strategies INT’L FEDERAL STATE REGIONAL LOCAL Organisations and Adaptation Strategies Organisation Strategy (e.g., policy, measure) Nat’l Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility Reef Rescue Dept. of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry CC Vulnerability Assessment UN Framework Climate Change Convention United Nations Nat’l CC Adaptation Program Office of Climate Change CSIRO IPCC Climate Change Adaptation Guide Local Government Association of QLD Council of Australian Governments Dept. of Climate Change & Energy Efficiency Australia Local Gov Association Policies ClimateSmart Adaptation Assessments Research State and Reg’l Coastal Mgt Plans Governance Level © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 25. Link between strategy and responsible organisation Nat’l CC Adaptation Framework Dept. of Environ., Water, Heritage & Arts GBR Marine Park Authority GBR CC Action Plan Plans & Programs Caring for Our Country Dept. of Environment & Resource Mgt Dept. of Infrastructure & Planning Regional Plans Dept. of the Premier & Cabinet Reef Secretariat Reef Plan Natural Resource Management Bodies Natural Resource Mgt Programs & Plans Local Councils Local Gov Strategies INT’L FEDERAL STATE REGIONAL LOCAL Institutional Interplay Vertical Institutional Interplay (actual or potential) Organisation Strategy (e.g., policy, measure) Horizontal Nat’l Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility Reef Rescue Dept. of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry CC Vulnerability Assessment UN Framework Climate Change Convention United Nations Nat’l CC Adaptation Program Office of Climate Change CSIRO IPCC Climate Change Adaptation Guide Local Government Association of QLD Council of Australian Governments Dept. of Climate Change & Energy Efficiency Australia Local Gov Association Policies ClimateSmart Adaptation Assessments Research State and Reg’l Coastal Mgt Plans © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 26. Interplay & Adaptation
    • Adaptation, a complex process:
    • Interplay is pervasive
    • Interplay involves multiple scales and levels of governance (i.e., horizontal & vertical interplay)
    • Interplay can involve several policy systems and sub-systems (e.g., environment, regional planning, economy)
    • Interplay can either foster or constrain adaptation
    • Adaptation is governed by interplay
    © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 27.
    • Policy design, implementation & assessment:
    • Consider complexities of multi-level governance
    • Consider broader governance regimes (e.g., multi-sector governance)
    • Develop understanding of how strategies reinforce or constrain other strategies
    • Coordinate strategies to promote synergies and “ spillover ” effects
    Implications © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 28. Patterns of Interplay (Young, 2006) © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 29. Analysis of Overlap (Ekstrom et al., 2009) Marine mammal (US federal law) © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 30. Analysis of Functional Fit (Ekstrom & Young, 2009) © Pedro Fidelman 2010
  • 31.
    • Comments & Questions ?
    • [email_address]
    © Pedro Fidelman 2010