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Chapter 9.2
 

Chapter 9.2

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    Chapter 9.2 Chapter 9.2 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9MEETING STANDARDS THROUGH LEARNER- CENTERED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
    • Characteristics of learner-centered instruction Students are at the center of the learning process  Teachers encourage them to be responsible for their own learning. Teachers guide student learning and intervene only when necessary, so that they do not develop misconceptions. Teachers emphasize a deep understanding of both the content and the processes involved.  Understanding involves explaining, finding evidence, justifying thinking, providing additional examples.
    • Strategies to use with the Student-Centered Approach Cooperative Learning: A general term to designate a collection of teaching strategies that foster interaction among students.  In this type of strategy, there are no “winners or losers,” instead, students are encouraged to work as a team and help each other learn a common goal.  Group goals, individual accountability and development of social skills. Group work Think-pair-share Jigsaw
    • Helpful interactions during Cooperative Learning Listening and questioning.  Encouraging other students to verbalize their understanding and listening to others. Checking for understanding.  Asking for elaboration when answers are incomplete. Staying on task.  Making sure the discussions remain focused and time limits are met. Emotional support.  Offering supportive comments for incorrect answers. (e.g. That is ok, why don’t you try again. )
    • Classroom Discussions Classroom discussions are instructional strategies that use teacher-centered and student-centered interactions as the primary vehicle for higher-level learning goals. Characterized by a high interaction among students.
    • Goals for classroom discussions To understand the connections and relationships between ideas. To become an active listener. To develop leadership skills. To summarize group opinions. To develop self-directed learning skills. To develop analysis, synthesis, and evaluative skills. To arrive at a consensus. To handle controversy and different opinions.
    • Planning for a class discussion It is critical that teachers organize their thoughts before this activity. Many teachers allow the discussion to disintegrate into chaos.  Consider a goal. What do you want your students to understand as a result of this discussion?  Should this activity be implemented in large group or in a small-group setting? To make this decision consider your goals.  Consider background and experience of students.  The discussion should elicit a product: list, summary, series of conclusions, or something concrete can be shared with the class.  Consider the time allotted for the activity.
    • Implementing Example on p. 272 In your groups, practice organizing classroom discussions. Pick a topic from the following list and consider the time frame, concrete outcomes of the discussion and lesson goal. Global warming Weapons of mass destruction Privacy issues Renewable energy Juvenile crime Capital punishment
    • Problem-Based Instruction Problem-based, as its name implies, uses a problem as a focal point for student investigation and inquiry.  Lessons begin with a problem or a question.  Students assume primary responsibility for investigating problems, and pursuing questions.  Teacher’s role in this process is primarily facilitative. Problem-based instruction has three major goals:  To develop students’ ability to systematically investigate a question or a problem.  To develop self-directed learning.  To understand the content.
    • Problem-Based instruction Much of the content students learn in problem-based is implicit and incidental in the sense that the teacher does not know exactly when the investigation will proceed. Because of this, problem-based strategies can be less effective for teaching content than more teacher- centered strategies. However, there is evidence that information learned in this way is retained longer and transfers better.
    • Inquiry Learning Inquiry is the process for answering questions and solving problems based on the logical examination of facts and observations. Example on p. 275-278. While you read, try to identify the following:  Identification of the problem.  Form of hypothesis  Gathering of data  Analyzing data for conclusion
    • Implementation of problem solving Select the strategyIndentify the Represent the problem problem Inquiry Learning Topic Hypothesis Classroom Discussion Carry out the strategy Evaluate Results Collect data Conclusions Analyze data