2. Vocabulary TermsCONSTRUCTIVISM, ACTIVE LEARNING, PASSIVELEARNING, STUDENT-CENTERED APPROACH
3. Discuss the FollowingQuestion• What components of students’ growth is most important for schools – intellectual/academic or emotional/social growth?
4. Constructivismin the classroom • The knowledge resides within the learners and we cannot teach precise representations of the “truth.” • Students construct learning.
5. Constructivism in the classroom• Active Learners: students are given autonomy of their learning. It includes problem solving, small group work and collaborative learning.• Passive Learners: students are basically receivers of information.
6. Constructivism in the classroom• Complex and challenging environments.• Social negotiations and shared responsibilities.• Multiple representations of content.• Understanding that knowledge is constructed
7. Constructivism in the Classroom• Active involvement• Reflection• Meaningful connections• Respect for rules• Sense of community• Problems solving through negotiations• Cooperation• Higher-order thinking skills• Ownership
8. Constructivism in the classroom• Student-Centered approach: Students construct their own understanding of content, they develop a personal feeling that the knowledge is their own.• Constructivism is grounded on the theory developed by John Dewey.• Prior to him, the American education system was concerned with the acquisition of knowledge. According to Dewey’s theory students should learn by doing.
9. Constructivism in the Classroom• Vygotsky also played a significant role in the development of constructivism. According to his theory, students should participate in social interaction as they work on meaningful interaction tasks.
10. Resources for Cooperative Learning• Individual Evaluation• Possible Seating Arrangements• Cooperative Project Evaluation• Cooperative Learning Checklist• Cooperative Learning Role Cards
11. Discussion• Think back to your experience as a high school student. Did your teachers use cooperative learning?• What did you learn from these experiences?
12. The three phase approach to lesson planning1. Planning: Deciding 2. Implementing: Having what you want your determined a goal and selected students to the most appropriate means to learn, understand and reach that goal, a teacher then appreciate. implements that strategy. Ask:Tip: If you plan carefully How will I help my students and thoroughly your reach these goals? feelings of uncertainty Tip: The success of this phase can be significantly depends on clear goals. reduced before you enter the room. 3. Assessing: The teacher attempts to gather information to determine if and what kind of learning has occurred. The teacher asks: How will I determine the if the students knew, understood and reached their goal?
13. Check your understanding• Label each sentence as planning, implementing phase and assessing phase• a. The teacher observes students working on math problems at their desks.• b. A fourth grade teacher, noting problems on the playground, decides to help her students resolve conflicts through negotiations.• c. The teacher writes a learning goal.• d. The students undertake a 10-item multiple-