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Emeritus Professor of Computer Science [email_address]   Beyond Open Source Arthur Sale
Free Open Source <ul><li>Free open source software is software written ( hard work ) by people ( relatively few ) for no p...
Thought Experiment <ul><li>Imagine this industry: </li></ul><ul><li>A few people pay a lot of other workers to do some wor...
Obvious conclusion <ul><li>This industry is clearly producing a product in the public interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The work...
WRONG!!@$#%! <ul><li>The industry is  research . </li></ul><ul><li>The few funders are governments, universities and resea...
Problem? <ul><li>Publishers get in the way, courtesy of obsolete ideas of printed journals and postal costs. </li></ul><ul...
Open Access <ul><li>Now you see the purpose of the Open Access (OA) movement. </li></ul><ul><li>It is that all research pa...
So why not? <ul><li>Mostly apathy and ignorance by the researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Added to unnecessary fear of copyrigh...
It’s not difficult <ul><li>In a very few fields, it has already happened. The oldest example is  Theoretical Physics , and...
Institutional Repositories <ul><li>The preferred solution is a distributed one: </li></ul><ul><li>Each research institutio...
Example <ul><li>Queensland University of Technology (QUT) </li></ul><ul><li>http://eprints.qut.edu.au/   </li></ul><ul><li...
Example 2 <ul><li>University of Tasmania </li></ul><ul><li>http://eprints.utas.edu.au/ </li></ul><ul><li>No mandate yet be...
Mandates <ul><li>Only way to get academics to change their work habits in a reasonable time. </li></ul><ul><li>Universitie...
Australia <ul><li>Almost every Australian university has an IR. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all are practically empty because...
Worldwide <ul><li>The USA’s National Institute of Health mandates OA </li></ul><ul><li>Several US universities, including ...
Aggregator Services <ul><li>Google Scholar  http://scholar.google.com.au/schhp?hl=en&tab=ws </li></ul><ul><li>ARROW Discov...
Summary <ul><li>Leading edge of a revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregating harvesters will develop once the content is hig...
The Gold Road <ul><li>What has been described is the  Green Road  to OA </li></ul><ul><li>The Gold Road is longer term, an...
OA Journals <ul><li>Obtain funds from the people who want to be publish or want to support research, rather than those who...
Slow…. <ul><li>The publishing industry is VERY slow to adapt to change, especially change that disadvantages it. </li></ul...
Questions MUQ 2-3
The End MUQ 2-3
© Copyright 2009 Arthur Sale <ul><li>All rights reserved </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur Sale asserts the right to be recognized ...
Beyond Open Source
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Beyond Open Source - Arthur Sale

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AUTHOR:ARTHUR SALE

The Open Source movement, of which Linux is a shining example, is a showcase of how accessibility makes for excellence. A parallel thrust is currently being conducted in the research institutions and the publishing industries of the world to create Open Access to the world’s publicly funded research. Arthur Sale will trace the origin of the movement, its economics and the forces holding it back, and where we are now, particularly in Australia. Open Access, or OA, has very many more active participants than Open Source, and many more nay-sayers, cautious Scrooges, and ignorant people. The struggle is titanic – the benefits equally large!

http://freeasinfreedom.modernthings.org/d/doku.php?id=arthur_sale

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  • Transcript of "Beyond Open Source - Arthur Sale"

    1. 1. Emeritus Professor of Computer Science [email_address] Beyond Open Source Arthur Sale
    2. 2. Free Open Source <ul><li>Free open source software is software written ( hard work ) by people ( relatively few ) for no pay, and given away for free ( in an industry where similar products are sold for money ). </li></ul><ul><li>FOSS grows out of knowledge that software has an extremely low replication cost, and a conviction that its free dissemination is a public good. </li></ul>MUQ 2-3
    3. 3. Thought Experiment <ul><li>Imagine this industry: </li></ul><ul><li>A few people pay a lot of other workers to do some work, but they don’t actually want the results themselves. Instead they want the world to use the results. </li></ul><ul><li>The huge number of workers then universally give the results of their work away for free. </li></ul>MUQ 2-3
    4. 4. Obvious conclusion <ul><li>This industry is clearly producing a product in the public interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The workers would be putting the results of their work on the Internet, for anyone to access at peanuts cost. </li></ul><ul><li>The very minor cost of making this work available (on the Internet) would be absorbed by the workers’ employers. </li></ul>MUQ 2-3
    5. 5. WRONG!!@$#%! <ul><li>The industry is research . </li></ul><ul><li>The few funders are governments, universities and research labs </li></ul><ul><li>The workers are researchers </li></ul><ul><li>The products are research papers </li></ul><ul><li>They are all given away for free </li></ul><ul><li>But you have to pay $k to read them! </li></ul>MUQ 2-3
    6. 6. Problem? <ul><li>Publishers get in the way, courtesy of obsolete ideas of printed journals and postal costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers give their papers to publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers add some value to the papers and publish them in journals. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential readers must pay large subscription prices to read the research. </li></ul>MUQ 2-3
    7. 7. Open Access <ul><li>Now you see the purpose of the Open Access (OA) movement. </li></ul><ul><li>It is that all research papers produced in the world should be available on the Internet, accessible to anyone to read who has an Internet connection, for no cost. </li></ul>MUQ 2-3
    8. 8. So why not? <ul><li>Mostly apathy and ignorance by the researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Added to unnecessary fear of copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Plus resistance by publishers drawing excessive rents and facing the prospect of change </li></ul>MUQ 2-3
    9. 9. It’s not difficult <ul><li>In a very few fields, it has already happened. The oldest example is Theoretical Physics , and the arxiv website </li></ul><ul><li>http://arxiv.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Arxiv has almost 100% of the available research in the world, for reading for free. But its model does not scale to other disciplines. </li></ul>MUQ 2-3
    10. 10. Institutional Repositories <ul><li>The preferred solution is a distributed one: </li></ul><ul><li>Each research institution establishes an IR </li></ul><ul><li>Every researcher deposits a copy of their paper in the employer’s IR immediately on it being accepted by a journal </li></ul><ul><li>The access is set ‘open’ if possible, otherwise ‘restricted’ </li></ul><ul><li>This is the ID/OA mandate </li></ul>Beyond Open Source
    11. 11. Example <ul><li>Queensland University of Technology (QUT) </li></ul><ul><li>http://eprints.qut.edu.au/ </li></ul><ul><li>Since 2004, has had such a requirement, and captures at least 80% of its research for public access. </li></ul><ul><li>(Inaccessible at time of writing) </li></ul>Beyond Open Source
    12. 12. Example 2 <ul><li>University of Tasmania </li></ul><ul><li>http://eprints.utas.edu.au/ </li></ul><ul><li>No mandate yet because of senior management foolishness, captures perhaps 20% of all research (but the most important 20%), and 100% of the research theses. </li></ul>Beyond Open Source
    13. 13. Mandates <ul><li>Only way to get academics to change their work habits in a reasonable time. </li></ul><ul><li>Universities can mandate their employees and some do. </li></ul><ul><li>Grant-funding bodies can mandate their recipients, and some do. </li></ul><ul><li>Nobody else can mandate a researcher to do anything (well maybe governments) </li></ul>Beyond Open Source
    14. 14. Australia <ul><li>Almost every Australian university has an IR. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all are practically empty because of no mandates. </li></ul><ul><li>The ARC and NH&MRC strongly recommend deposit in a repository, and grantees have to explain why not in their reports (just short of a mandate). </li></ul><ul><li>http://leven.comp.utas.edu.au/AuseAccess/ </li></ul>Beyond Open Source
    15. 15. Worldwide <ul><li>The USA’s National Institute of Health mandates OA </li></ul><ul><li>Several US universities, including Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>All but one of the UK’s research council mandate deposit </li></ul><ul><li>The Wellcome Trust mandates deposit </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/ </li></ul>Beyond Open Source
    16. 16. Aggregator Services <ul><li>Google Scholar http://scholar.google.com.au/schhp?hl=en&tab=ws </li></ul><ul><li>ARROW Discovery Service http://search.arrow.edu.au/ </li></ul><ul><li>Australasian Digital Theses Program http://adt.caul.edu.au/ </li></ul><ul><li>Publish or Perish http://www.harzing.com/pop.htm </li></ul>Beyond Open Source
    17. 17. Summary <ul><li>Leading edge of a revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregating harvesters will develop once the content is high enough </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly supported by developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>Developed countries require activists to induce change from obsolete practices </li></ul>Beyond Open Source
    18. 18. The Gold Road <ul><li>What has been described is the Green Road to OA </li></ul><ul><li>The Gold Road is longer term, and will come after Green OA has been achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Gold = Journals that are Open Access intrinsically, and have eschewed print and subscriptions entirely </li></ul>Beyond Open Source
    19. 19. OA Journals <ul><li>Obtain funds from the people who want to be publish or want to support research, rather than those who want to use it </li></ul><ul><li>Currently ~20% of world’s 20,000 research journals, but growing </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.plos.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://firstmonday.org/ </li></ul>Beyond Open Source
    20. 20. Slow…. <ul><li>The publishing industry is VERY slow to adapt to change, especially change that disadvantages it. </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers and research managers are ignorant and indifferent to the possibilities that are open to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudinal change required! </li></ul>Beyond Open Source
    21. 21. Questions MUQ 2-3
    22. 22. The End MUQ 2-3
    23. 23. © Copyright 2009 Arthur Sale <ul><li>All rights reserved </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur Sale asserts the right to be recognized as author of this work </li></ul><ul><li>Contact: [email_address] </li></ul>MUQ 2-3
    24. 24. Beyond Open Source
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