Contemporary media literacy competences

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Presentation given at the "Media Literacy for all" European Conference organized by the Belgian CSEM at the European Parliament, Brussels, December 3rd, 2010 (theme of the session: What media skills are necessary for active citizenship?)

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Contemporary media literacy competences

  1. 1. Contemporary media literacy competences Pierre Fastrez GReMS Groupe de Recherche en Médiation des Savoirs RECOM Centre de Recherche en Communication IL&C Institut Langage & Communication UCL Université catholique de Louvain (Belgique)
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Media literacy today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An attempt at mapping the competences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domains of competence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions of literacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not media types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To define is to choose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What media literacy competences support active citizenship? </li></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  3. 3. Domains of competences Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels Reading Writing Navigating Organizing
  4. 4. Reading the media <ul><li>Decode, understand and evaluate media documents </li></ul><ul><li>E. g.: Comparing two media documents regarding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what they refer to, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the representations / languages they use, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their shape / format, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their technical context of production, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their institutional context of production, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their intentions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their intended audience, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their effects, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their utility… </li></ul></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  5. 5. Writing media <ul><li>Create and diffuse one’s own media productions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using the appropriate languages and technologies, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and getting the relevant qualified people involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Intelligence — the ability to pool knowledge and compare notes with others toward a common goal (Jenkins 2006) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adapt a media document for its usage by another audience </li></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  6. 6. Navigating (with) the media <ul><li>Competences strongly required in a context of over-abundance of information, technologies and opportunities for contact </li></ul><ul><li>Searching: </li></ul><ul><li>Already covered by schools in a specific context: information retrieval to document a subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>An old theme of media education: assessing the credibility and reliability of information sources (especially for the news media) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A deficit of critical thinking competences, beyond the technical competences (Hargittai 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An aspect of this competence gaining importance: uncertainty management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judgment — the ability to evaluate the reliability and credibility of different information sources (Jenkins 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Networking — the ability to search for, synthesize, and disseminate information (Jenkins 2006) </li></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  7. 7. Navigating (with) the media <ul><li>Exploring: </li></ul><ul><li>Active and critical exploration of media landscapes, opening the individual to diversified forms of expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening (availability, curiosity) and shutting oneself (selective attention) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An essential competence in a context where one is constantly brought back to “what was design for them” and “what their peers already like” : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological integration of digital and audiovisual media (e.g. GoogleTV) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing number of “niche” media and on-demand consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media uses of the youth defined by their interaction between peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologies of content recommendation based on collaborative filtering (“people who bought this also bought…”) </li></ul></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  8. 8. Organizing the media <ul><li>The ability to conceptually structure and use the relevant technical tools to organize… </li></ul><ul><li>Media documents (available, accumulated, produced, shared…) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure to re-find: categorize, sort, annotate, tag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep, manage access, synchronize </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediatized relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… as a receiver: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to situate oneself with respect to different ways of “reading” a media document </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… as an interactant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual identity management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiated access (Hollan & Stornetta 2000) to one’s time, representations of self, media productions </li></ul></ul></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  9. 9. Media literacy dimensions Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  10. 10. Informational competences <ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do the media say, show, refer to? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semiotics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do they signify? How do they function as representational system? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are there formal properties? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A growing variety of expression forms to read, write, navigate and organize </li></ul><ul><li>Competences stimulated by the new media: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation — the ability to interpret and construct dynamic models of real-world processes (Jenkins 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriation — the ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content (Jenkins 2006) </li></ul></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  11. 11. Technical competences <ul><li>The core of digital literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Using and understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures learned from peers, tips and tricks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding and ability to explain the function, the functioning, the stakes, the alternatives… </li></ul></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  12. 12. Social competences <ul><li>Media practices of the youth from a social standpoint: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly: continuous contact between close peers (« friendship-driven practices », Ito et al. 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For some: the new media as a venue for the development of an expertise on a given topic (« interest-driven networks », Ito et al. 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities to diffuse their productions towards online audiences, and to develop their visibility and their reputation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the development of self-directed learning and peer learning skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Adult-like” forms of sociability, different from those experienced in their off-line life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adults seen as experimented peers (not as authorities) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Competences supported by the new media: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation — the ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping and following alternative norms (Jenkins 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance — the ability to adopt alternative identities for the purpose of improvisation and discovery (Jenkins 2006) </li></ul></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  13. 13. Social competences <ul><li>Challenges for media education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring the youth to diversify their mediatized social conducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From friendship-driven practices to interest-driven networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate “meta” competences (learning to learn) and autonomy (self-directed learning) in a world where new media formats emerge every month </li></ul></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  14. 14. Mapping the competences… Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME Informational Technical Social <ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Competences for active citizenship <ul><li>Who is the media-literate active citizen? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a receiver (traditional media model): an autonomous thinker, who actively looks for, confronts and synthesizes multiple perspectives on information delivered by the media, develops critical opinions and attitudes, and exerts their citizen rights accordingly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As an interactant (new media model): an individual committed to diversified forms of responsible social engagement through interactive media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hobbs 2010: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Reflect on one’s own conduct and communication behavior by applying social responsibility and ethical principles” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Take social action by working individually and collaboratively to share knowledge and solve problems in the family, workplace and community, and by participating as a member of a community” </li></ul></ul></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  16. 16. Competences for active citizenship <ul><li>An autonomous thinker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading [informational and social reading] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the media’s intentions, target audiences, context of production… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Put different reception postures into perspective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching: judgment (reliability and credibility assessment) [informational and social navigation] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploring: curiosity and selective attention (being open to multiple perspectives) [informational and social navigation] </li></ul></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  17. 17. Competences for active citizenship <ul><li>A committed participant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective intelligence: coordination and collaboration [social writing] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking: find and diffuse information [informational and social navigation] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation: navigate through diverse social spaces and appropriate local norms and modes of interaction [social navigation and organization] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of mediatized relationships [social organization] </li></ul></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  18. 18. Competences for active citizenship <ul><li>Technical skills? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know-hows: a prerequisite for access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical understanding of technical stakes and options: choosing media technology responsibly [socio-technical navigation] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. for sustainable development, to support the local economy… </li></ul></ul></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  19. 19. Mapping the competences… Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME ME AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC ME AC ME AC ME AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC AC Informational Technical Social <ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Thank you for your attention Pierre Fastrez [email_address]
  21. 21. References <ul><li>Hargittai, E. (2002). Second-level digital divide: Differences in People's Online Skills. First Monday , 7 (4). Available at http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/942/864   </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbs, R. (2010). Digital and Media Literacy: A Plan of Action . Communications and Society Program (p. 67). Washington D.C., U.S.A.: The Aspen Institute. Available at http://www.knightcomm.org/digital-and-media-literacy-a-plan-of-action/ </li></ul><ul><li>Ito, M., Horst, H. A., Bittanti, M., boyd, D., Herr-Stephenson, B., Lange, P. G., Pascoe, C., et al. (2008). Living and Learning with New Media: Summary of Findings from the Digital Youth Project . The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning. MacArthur Foundation. Available at http://digitalyouth.ischool.berkeley.edu/files/report/digitalyouth-TwoPageSummary.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Clinton, K., Weigel, M., & Robison, A. J. (2006). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century (White paper). The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. Available at http://digitallearning.macfound.org/atf/cf/%7B7E45C7E0-A3E0-4B89-AC9C-E807E1B0AE4E%7D/JENKINS_WHITE_PAPER.PDF </li></ul>Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels
  22. 22. Mapping the competences… Pierre Fastrez – CSEM EU Conference Dec. 12th, 2010 – Brussels Information Literacy Information Literacy Information Literacy Digital skills Informationnelles Techniques Sociales <ul><ul><li>Lire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecrire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naviguer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organiser </li></ul></ul>

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